Astra Linux

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Astra Linux
Astra Linux logo
Astra Linux SE.png
Special Edition "Smolensk"
OS familyUnix-like
Working stateCurrent
Available inRussian, English
Update methodAPT
Package managerdpkg
Platformsx86-64, ARM, S390
Kernel typeMonolithic
Default user interfacefly, twm

Astra Linux is a Russian Linux-based computer operating system developed to meet the needs of the Russian army, other armed forces and intelligence agencies.[1] It provides data protection up to the level of "top secret" in Russian classified information grade. It has been officially certified by Russian Defense Ministry, Federal Service for Technical and Export Control[2] and Federal Security Service.[3]


The creator of the OS is the Scientific/Manufacturing Enterprise RusBitTech which is applying solutions according to Russian Government decree №2299-р of 17/10/2010 that orders federal authorities and budget institutions to implement Free Software usage.[4]

The OS releases are named after Hero Cities in Russia and CIS. There is one release for "general purpose" code named "Oryol" aimed at "achieving small and mid-business goals".[5] Other releases are marked "special purpose" — the "Smolensk" for x86-64 PCs, "Tula" for networking hardware, "Novorossiysk" for ARM mobile devices and "Murmansk" for IBM System z mainframes.

RusBitTech also manufactures a "soft/hardware trusted boot control module" MAKSIM-M1 ("М643М1") with PCI bus. It prevents unauthorized access and offers some other raised digital security features. The module, besides Astra Linux, also supports OSes with Linux kernel 2.6.x and 3.x.x, as well as several Microsoft Windows OSes.[6]

It is declared the Astra Linux licenses correspond with Russian and international laws and "don't contradict with the spirit and demands of GPL license".[7] The system uses .deb packages.[8]

Astra Linux Special Edition is being used in the Russian National Center for Defence Control


The Special Edition version (paid) is used in many Russian state-related organizations. Particularly, it is used in the Russian National Center for Defence Control.[9]

There are talks to deploy mass usage of Astra Linux in numerous state institutions of the Republic of Crimea — legitimate usage of other popular OSes is questionable because of international sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis.[10]

Also there are plans on cooperation of RusBitTech and Huawei.[11][12]

In January 2018, it was announced that Astra Linux was going to be deployed to all Russian Army computers, and Microsoft Windows will be dropped.[13]

In February 2018 Rusbitech announced it has ported Astra Linux to Russian-made Elbrus microprocessors.[14]

Intellectual Property[edit]

JSC "NPO RusBITEch" complies with all the requirements of the GPL license.[citation needed] All patches are published on the main resource for Debian derivatives

Version history[edit]

Versions of Astra Linux Special Edition (Smolensk)
Version Release date Linux kernel
1.2 28 October, 2011 2.6.34
1.3 26 April, 2013 3.2.0[15]
1.4[16] 19 December, 2014 3.16.0
1.5[17] 8 April, 2016 4.2.0
Versions of Astra Linux Common Edition (Oryol)
Version Release date Linux kernel
1.5 ending of 2009 2.6.31
1.6 23 November, 2010 N/A
1.7[18] 3 February, 2012 2.6.34
1.9 12 February, 2013 3.2.0
1.10[19] 14 November, 2014 3.16.0
1.11[20] 17 March, 2016 4.2.0


  1. ^ Звезда по имени Linux: почему "военные" ОС прочнее (in Russian)
  2. ^ (in Russian)
  3. ^ (in Russian)
  4. ^ (in Russian)
  5. ^ (in Russian)
  6. ^ (in Russian) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2014-07-06.
  7. ^ (in Russian) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2014-07-06.
  8. ^ (in Russian) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2014-07-06.
  9. ^ (in Russian)
  10. ^ (in Russian) n:ru:Власти Крыма планируют переход на Linux из-за санкцийRussian Wikinews, 22.07.2015
  11. ^ "Huawei, RusBITex to design information protection systems".
  12. ^ (in Russian)
  13. ^ Sputnik. "Russian Defense Ministry May Transfer All Computers to Russian Software". Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  14. ^ (in Russian)
  15. ^ Основные компоненты (in Russian)
  16. ^ Операционная система "Astra Linux Special Edition" релиз "Смоленск" (версия 1.4) (in Russian)
  17. ^ Завершен инспекционный контроль версии 1.5 релиза "Смоленск" операционной системы специального назначения "Astra Linux Special Edition" (in Russian)
  18. ^ Вышла версия 1.7 релиза Astra Linux Common Edition (Orel) (in Russian)
  19. ^ Вышла новая версия "Astra Linux Common Edition" 1.10 - релиз "Орёл" (in Russian)
  20. ^ Вышла фиксированная версия 1.11 релиза "Орёл"