Astrocaryum aculeatum

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Astrocaryum aculeatum
Astrocaryum aculeatum 008134.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae
Genus: Astrocaryum
Species: A. aculeatum
Binomial name
Astrocaryum aculeatum
G.Mey.
Synonyms

Astrocaryum tucuma Mart.
Astrocaryum aureum Griseb. & H.Wendl. in Griseb.
Astrocaryum candescens Barb.Rodr.
Astrocaryum princeps Barb.Rodr.
Astrocaryum jucuma Linden
Astrocaryum princeps var. aurantiacum Barb.Rodr.
Astrocaryum princeps var. flavum Barb.Rodr.
Astrocaryum princeps var. sulphureum Barb.Rodr.
Astrocaryum princeps var. vitellinum Barb.Rodr.
Astrocaryum manaoense Barb.Rodr.
Astrocaryum macrocarpum Huber
[1]

Astrocaryum aculeatum palm

Astrocaryum aculeatum (Tucumã, acaiúra, acuiuru, coco-tucumã, tucum, tucumã-açu, tucumã-macaw, tucum-açu,tucumaí-da-terra-firme, tucumãí-uaçu, tucumã-Piririca,tucumã-Purupuru or Tucumã- do-mato[citation needed]) is a palm native to tropical South America and Trinidad.[1] It grows up to 15 m (49 ft) tall and is usually solitary. It has ascending leaves, erect inflorescence, and yellow fruit.

Etymology[edit]

"Tucuman" derives from tuku'mã Tupi.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

Astrocaryum aculeatum was first described by German botanist Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Meyer in 1818 based on a specimen from the Essequibo River in Guyana.[3]

Distribution[edit]

Astrocaryum aculeatum is found in and around the Amazon Basin, from Trinidad and Tobago in the north, through Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, the Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima and south through the Bolivian departments of Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz.[4]

Uses[edit]

This plant has edible fruit which may be used for making a kind of wine and for the production of biodiesel.[citation needed] It is also used to make a symbolic ring called a tucum ring.[5]

From the leaves are extracted tucum fiber for making hammocks and ropes that resist salt water.[2]

Oil[edit]

Tucuma oil and fruit

The fruit of tucumã is composed of a woody core almost black color, containing a white almond paste, an oilseed, and covered with a yellow-orange pulp. Two types of oils are produced from this fruit: the oil of the external pulp and almond oil.[6]

The oil extracted from the pulp contains 25.6% saturated fatty acids and 74.4% unsaturated fatty acids composed of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. It is also used as an emollient. The value of beta-carotene (which is 180 to 330 milligrams/100g oil) is more concentrated in the oil than in the pulp.[7]

Fatty acid composition of the oil Tucumã (Pulp)
Palmitic 27,7%
Oleic 65,67%
Linoleic 3,65%
Linolenic 4,97%

[8][full citation needed]

Cosmetic industry[edit]

The oil tucuma pulp is used to manufacture soap, body lotions, and hair care products.[7]

'Physico-chemical data'

Index Unity Reference values
Free fatty acids % 1.4562
Refractive Index - 1.4562
Index of Iodine gl2 / 100g 82
Saponification value mg KOH / g 188.4
Materia unsaponifiable  % 1,4
Acidity mgKOH / g 2.58
Index of Peroxide meq / kg 1.72
Density gr / ltr 0.982
Melting °C 27-35
Astrocaryum aculeatum(Tucuma)seed
Astrocaryum aculeatum (Tucuma)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Astrocaryum aculeatum Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.
  2. ^ a b Ferreira, A. B. H. Novo dicionário da língua portuguesa. Segunda edição. Rio de Janeiro. Nova Fronteira. 1986. p. 1 724, 1 725
  3. ^ Bernal, Rodrigo (2008). "(1837) Proposal to conserve the name Astrocaryum aculeatum (Palmae) with a conserved type". Taxon 57 (3): 997–98. no 
  4. ^ Kahn, Francis (2008). "The genus Astrocaryum (Arecaceae)" (PDF). Revista Peruvana de Biología 15 (supl. 1): 31–48. ISSN 1727-9933. no 
  5. ^ Calvacante, P. B.: Frutas Comestíveis da Amazônia, 1996, 6a Ed , Edições Cejup - Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém.
  6. ^ Pesce, Celestino. Oleaginosas da Amazônia. –Belém: Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, 2009.
  7. ^ a b Bora, P. S. et. al.: Characterization of the oil and protein fractions of tucuma (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) fruit. 2001, Ciencia y Technologia Alimentaria, Ourense, Espanha, v. 3, n. 2, p. 111-116.
  8. ^ Morais, L. : Banco de Dados Sobre Espécies Oleaginosas da Amazônia, não-publicado.