Astrotheology

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Astrotheology, astral mysticism, astral religion, astral or stellar theology (also referred to as astral or star worship) is the worship of the stars (individually or together as the night sky), the planets, and other heavenly bodies as deities, or the association of deities with heavenly bodies. In anthropological literature these systems of practice may be referred to as astral cults.

The most common instances of this are sun gods and moon gods in polytheistic systems worldwide. Also notable is the association of the planets with deities in Babylonian, and hence in Greco-Roman religion, viz. Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Gods, goddesses, and demons may also be considered personifications of astronomical phenomena such as lunar eclipses, planetary alignments, and apparent interactions of planetary bodies with stars. The Sabaeans were known for their astrotheology ('the astral cult'), for which reason the practice is also known as Sabaism or Sabaeanism.

The term astro-theology was first used in the context of 18th- to 19th-century scholarship aiming at the discovery of the original religion, particularly primitive monotheism. Astro-theology is any "religious system founded upon the observation of the heavens,"[1] and in particular may be monotheistic. More recently, the term astrotheology is used by Jan Irvin, Jordan Maxwell and Andrew Rutajit (2006) in reference to "the earliest known forms of religion and nature worship,"[2] advocating the entheogen theory of the origin of religion.

The related term astrolatry usually implies polytheism. Some Abrahamic religions prohibit astrolatry as idolatrous. Pole star worship was also banned by imperial decree in Heian period Japan.

Etymology[edit]

Astrotheology (or astro-theology) comes from Greek ἄστρον astron, which means "star," and the word theologia (θεολογία), a combination of theos (Θεός, 'god') and logia (λογία, 'utterances, sayings, oracles')—the latter word relating to Greek logos (λόγος, 'word, discourse, account, reasoning'),[a][b] thus "the study of God."

Astrolatry has the suffix -λάτρης, itself related to λάτρις latris, "worshipper" or λατρεύειν latreuein, "to worship" from λάτρον latron, "payment".

History[edit]

Ancient Near East[edit]

Egypt[edit]

Sirius (bottom) and Orion (right). Together, the three brightest stars of the northern winter sky—Sirius, Betelgeuse (top right), and Procyon (top left)—can also be understood as forming the Winter Triangle.

Sopdet is the ancient Egyptian name of the star Sirius and its personification as an Egyptian goddess. Known to the Greeks as Sothis, she was conflated with Isis as a goddess and Anubis as a god.

Sopdet is the consort of Sah, the personified constellation of Orion near Sirius. Their child Venus[3] was the hawk god Sopdu,[4] "Lord of the East".[5] As the "bringer of the New Year and the Nile flood", she was associated with Osiris from an early date[4] and by the Ptolemaic period Sah and Sopdet almost solely appeared in forms conflated with Osiris[6] and Isis.[7]

Mesopotamia[edit]

Babylonian astronomy from early times associates stars with deities, but the heavens as the residence of an anthropomorphic pantheon, and later of monotheistic God and his retinue of angels, is a later development, gradually replacing the notion of the pantheon residing or convening on the summit of high mountains. Archibald Sayce (1913) argues a parallelism of the "stellar theology" of Babylon and Egypt, both countries absorbing popular star-worship into the official pantheon of their respective state religions by identification of gods with stars or planets.[8]

The Chaldeans, who came to be seen as the prototypical astrologers and star-worshippers by the Greeks, migrated into Mesopotamia c. 940–860 BCE.[9] Astrotheology does not appear to have been common in the Levant prior to the Iron Age, but becomes popular under Assyrian influence around the 7th-century BCE.[10] The Chaldeans gained ascendancy, ruling Babylonia from 608–557 BCE.[11] The Hebrew Bible was substantially composed during this period (roughly corresponding to the period of the Babylonian captivity).

Sabeans[edit]

The Sabaeans in South Arabia were also known for their astrotheology, which they borrowed from the Chaldeans,[12] for which reason the practice is also known as "Sabaism" or "Sabaeanism."

Judaism[edit]

The Hebrew Bible contains repeated reference to astrolatry. Deuteronomy 4:19, 17:3 contains a stern warning against worshiping the sun, moon, stars or any of the heavenly host. Relapse into worshiping the host of heaven, i.e. the stars, is said to have been the cause of the fall of the kingdom of Judah in II Kings 17:16. King Josiah in 621 BC is recorded as having abolished all kinds of idolatry in Judah, but astrolatry was continued in private (Zeph. 1:5; Jer. 8:2, 19:13). Ezekiel (8:16) describes sun-worship practiced in the court of the temple of Jerusalem, and Jeremiah (44:17) says that even after the destruction of the temple, women in particular insisted on continuing their worship of the 'queen of heaven.'[13]

Christianity[edit]

Augustine of Hippo criticized sun- and star-worship in De Vera Religione (37.68) and De civitate Dei (5.1–8). Pope Leo the Great also denounced astrolatry and the cult of Sol Invictus, which he contrasted with the Christian nativity.[citation needed]

Islam[edit]

The Qur'an contains strong prohibitions against astrolatry. Strong prohibition of astrolatry is mentioned in the Quran through Prophet Abrahim observation of celestial bodies whose worship was common in Babylonian religion of that time (Al-Quran, Surah Anaam, chapter 6, verses 75–80).[non-primary source needed]

Asia[edit]

China[edit]

The Sanxing (Three Stars Gods) at a Chinese temple in Mongkok, Hong Kong

Star worship was widespread in Asia, especially in Mongolia[14] and northern China, and also spread to Korea.[15] According to Edward Schafer, star worship was already established during the Han dynasty (202 BCE–220 CE), with the Nine Imperial Gods becoming star lords.[16] This star worship, along with indigenous shamanism and medical practice, formed one of the original bases of Taoism.[17] The Heavenly Sovereign was identified with the Big Dipper and the North Star.[18]

The Sanxing (Chinese: 三星; lit. 'Three Stars') are the gods of the three stars or constellations considered essential in Chinese astrology and mythology: Jupiter, Ursa Major, and Sirius. Fu, Lu, and Shou (traditional Chinese: 祿; simplified Chinese: 寿; pinyin: Fú Lù Shòu; Cantonese Yale: Fūk Luhk Sauh), or Cai, Zi and Shou (財子壽) are also the embodiments of Fortune (Fu), presiding over planet Jupiter, Prosperity (Lu), presiding over Ursa Major, and Longevity (Shou), presiding over Sirius.[19]

During the Tang dynasty, Chinese Buddhism adopted Taoist Big Dipper worship, borrowing various texts and rituals which were then modified to conform with Buddhist practices and doctrines. The cult of the Big Dipper was eventually absorbed into the cults of various Buddhist divinities, Myōken being one of these.[20]

Japan[edit]

Star worship was also practiced in Japan.[21][22][23] Japanese star worship is largely based on Chinese cosmology.[24] According to Bernard Faure, "the cosmotheistic nature of esoteric Buddhism provided an easy bridge for cultural translation between Indian and Chinese cosmologies, on the one hand, and between Indian astrology and local Japanese folk beliefs about the stars, on the other."[24]

Chiba Shrine in Chiba City, Chiba Prefecture
Originally an 11th-century Buddhist temple dedicated to Myōken, converted into a Shinto shrine during the Meiji period

The cult of Myōken is thought to have been brought into Japan during the 7th century by immigrants (toraijin) from Goguryeo and Baekje. During the reign of Emperor Tenji (661–672), the toraijin were resettled in the easternmost parts of the country; as a result, Myōken worship spread throughout the eastern provinces.[25]

By the Heian period, pole star worship had become widespread enough that imperial decrees banned it for the reason that it involved "mingling of men and women," and thus caused ritual impurity. Pole star worship was also forbidden among the inhabitants of the capital and nearby areas when the imperial princess (saiō) made her way to Ise to begin her service at the shrines. Nevertheless, the cult of the pole star left its mark on imperial rituals such as the emperor's enthronement and the worship of the imperial clan deity at Ise Shrine.[26] Worship of the pole star was also practiced in Onmyōdō, where it was deified as Chintaku Reifujin (鎮宅霊符神).[27]

Myōken worship was particularly prevalent among clans based in eastern Japan (the modern Kantō and Tōhoku regions), with the Kanmu Taira clan (Kanmu Heishi) and their offshoots such as the Chiba and the Sōma clans being among the deity's notable devotees. One legend claims that Taira no Masakado was a devotee of Myōken, who aided him in his military exploits. When Masakado grew proud and arrogant, the deity withdrew his favor and instead aided Masakado's uncle Yoshifumi, the ancestor of the Chiba clan.[28] Owing to his status as the Chiba clan's ujigami (guardian deity), temples and shrines dedicated to Myōken are particularly numerous in former Chiba territories.[29] Myōken worship is also prevalent in many Nichiren-shū Buddhist temples due to the clan's connections with the school's Nakayama lineage.[30]

The Americas[edit]

In North America, star worship was practiced by the Lakota people[31][32][33] and the Wichita people.[34]

In South America, the Incas engaged in star worship.[35]

Modern views[edit]

18th century[edit]

The term astro-theology first appears in the title of a 1714 work by William Derham, Astro-theology: or, A demonstration of the being and attributes of God, from a survey of the heavens[36] based on the author's observations by means of "Mr. Huygens' Glass." Derham thought that the stars were openings in the firmament through which he thought he saw the Empyrean beyond.[37] The 1783 issue of The New Christian's magazine had an essay entitled Astro-theology which argued the "demonstration of sacred truths" from "a survey of heavenly bodies" in the sense of the watchmaker analogy. Edward Higginson (1855) argues a compatibility of "Jewish Astro-theology" of the Hebrew Bible, which places God and his angelic hosts in the heavens, with a "Scientific Astro-theology" based on observation of the cosmos.[38]

20th century[edit]

Thelema[edit]

Nuit (alternatively Nu, Nut, or Nuith) is a goddess in Thelema, the speaker in the first chapter of The Book of the Law,[39] the sacred text written or received in 1904 by Aleister Crowley.[40] She is based on the Ancient Egyptian sky goddess Nut, who arches over her husband/brother, Geb (Earth god). She is usually depicted as a naked woman covered with stars. She has several titles, including the "Queen of Infinite Space," "Our Lady of the Stars," and "Lady of the Starry Heaven."

21st century[edit]

The term astrotheology is used by Jan Irvin, Jordan Maxwell and Andrew Rutajit (2006) in reference to "the earliest known forms of religion and nature worship,"[2] advocating the entheogen theory of the origin of religion.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The accusative plural of the neuter noun λόγιον; cf. Bauer, Walter, William F. Arndt, F. Wilbur Gingrich, and Frederick W. Danker. 1979. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 476. For examples of λόγια in the New Testament, cf. Acts 7:38; Romans 3:2; 1 Peter 4:11.
  2. ^ Scouteris, Constantine B. [1972] 2016. Ἡ ἔννοια τῶν ὅρων 'Θεολογία', 'Θεολογεῖν', 'Θεολόγος', ἐν τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ τῶν Ἑλλήνων Πατέρων καί Ἐκκλησιαστικῶν συγγραφέων μέχρι καί τῶν Καππαδοκῶν [The Meaning of the Terms 'Theology', 'to Theologize' and 'Theologian' in the Teaching of the Greek Fathers up to and Including the Cappadocians] (in Greek). Athens. pp. 187.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ OED, citing Derham (1714) as the first attestation of the term.
  2. ^ a b Irvin, Maxwell & Rutajit (2006), p. [page needed].
  3. ^ Hill (2016).
  4. ^ a b Wilkinson (2003), p. 167.
  5. ^ Wilkinson (2003), p. 211.
  6. ^ Wilkinson (2003), p. 127.
  7. ^ Wilkinson (2003), p. 168.
  8. ^ Sayce (1913), pp. 237ff.
  9. ^ A. Leo Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia
  10. ^ Cooley (2011), p. 287.
  11. ^ Beaulieu (2018), pp. 4, 12, 178.
  12. ^ Ghareeb & Dougherty (2004), p. 196.
  13. ^ Seligsohn (1906).
  14. ^ Heissig (1980), pp. 82–4.
  15. ^ Yu & Lancaster (1989), p. 58.
  16. ^ Schafer (1977), p. 221.
  17. ^ Gillman (2010), p. 108.
  18. ^ Master of Silent Whistle Studio (2020), p. 211, n.16.
  19. ^ (in Chinese) 福禄寿星 Archived 2006-07-22 at the Wayback Machine. British Taoist Association.
  20. ^ Orzech, Sørensen & Payne (2011), pp. 238–239.
  21. ^ Bocking (2006).
  22. ^ Goto (2020).
  23. ^ Rambelli & Teeuwen (2003).
  24. ^ a b Faure (2015), p. 52.
  25. ^ "妙見菩薩と妙見信仰". 梅松山円泉寺. Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  26. ^ Rambelli & Teeuwen (2003), pp. 35–36, 164–167.
  27. ^ Friday (2017), p. 340.
  28. ^ "千葉神社". 本地垂迹資料便覧 (in Japanese). Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  29. ^ "千葉氏と北辰(妙見)信仰". Chiba City Official Website (in Japanese). Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  30. ^ "妙見菩薩「開運大野妙見大菩薩」". 日蓮宗 法華道場 光胤山 本光寺 (in Japanese). Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  31. ^ Means (2016).
  32. ^ Goodman (2017).
  33. ^ Lockett (2018).
  34. ^ La Vere (1998), p. 7.
  35. ^ Cobo (1990), pp. 25–31.
  36. ^ Derham (1714).
  37. ^ Crowe (1994), p. 67.
  38. ^ Higginson (1855), p. [page needed].
  39. ^ Crowley (2004).
  40. ^ Crowley (1991).

Works cited[edit]

  • Beaulieu, Paul-Alain (2018). A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1405188999.
  • Bocking, B. (2006). Dolce, Lucia (ed.). "The Worship of Stars in Japanese Religious Practice". Special Double Issue of Culture and Cosmos: A Journal of the History of Astrology and Cultural Astronomy. Bristol: Culture and Cosmos. 10 (1–2). doi:10.1017/S0041977X09000421. ISSN 1368-6534.
  • Casey, Maurice (2014). Jesus: Evidence and Argument or Mythicist Myths?. T&T Clark.
  • Cobo, Father Berrnabe (1990). Hamilton, Roland (ed.). Inca Religion and Customs. Translated by Roland Hamilton. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0292738546.
  • Cooley, J. L. (2011). "Astral Religion in Ugarit and Ancient Israel". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 70 (2): 281–287. doi:10.1086/661037. S2CID 164128277.
  • Crowe, Michael J. (1994). Modern theories of the universe: from Herschel to Hubble. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-27880-3.
  • Crowley, Aleister (1991). The Equinox of the Gods. United States: New Falcon Publications. ISBN 1-56184-028-9.
  • Crowley, Aleister (2004). The Book of the Law: Liber Al Vel Legis. Red Wheel Weiser. ISBN 978-1578633081.
  • Derham, William (1714). Astro-theology: or, A demonstration of the being and attributes of God, from a survey of the heavens. W. and J. Innys.
  • Faure, B. (2015). The Fluid Pantheon: Gods of Medieval Japan. Vol. 1. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0824857028.
  • Friday, Karl F., ed. (2017). Routledge Handbook of Premodern Japanese History. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781351692021.
  • Ghareeb, E. A.; Dougherty, B. (2004). Historical Dictionary of Iraq. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810843301.
  • Gillman, D. (2010). The Idea of Cultural Heritage. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521192552.
  • Goodman, R. (2017). Lakota Star Knowledge: Studies in Lakota Stellar Theology. SGU Publishing. ISBN 978-0998950501.
  • Goto, Akira (2020). Cultural Astronomy of the Japanese Archipelago: Exploring the Japanese Skyscape. United Kingdom: Routledge. ISBN 978-0367407988.
  • Heissig, Walther (1980). The Religions of Mongolia. Translated by Geoffrey Samuel. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520038578.
  • Higginson, Edward (1855). Astro-theology; or, The religion of astronomy: four lectures, in reference to the controversy on the "Plurality of worlds," as lately sustained between Sir David Brewster and an essayist. E.T. Whitfield.
  • Hill, J. (2016). "Sopdet". Ancient Egypt Online. Retrieved 2021-12-06.
  • Irvin, Jan; Maxwell, Jordan; Rutajit, Andrew (2006). Astrotheology and Shamanism. Book Tree. ISBN 978-1-58509-107-2.
  • La Vere, D. (1998). Life Among the Texas Indians: The WPA Narratives. College Station: Texas A & M University Press. ISBN 978-1603445528.
  • Lockett, Chynna (October 3, 2018). "Lakota Star Knowledge-Milky Way Spirit Path". SDPB Radio. South Dallas Public Broadcasting. Retrieved 2021-12-06.
  • Master of Silent Whistle Studio (2020). Further Adventures on the Journey to the West. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0295747736.
  • Means, Binesikwe (September 12, 2016). "For Lakota, Traditional Astronomy is Key to Their Culture's Past and Future". Global Press Journal. Retrieved 2021-12-06.
  • Orzech, Charles; Sørensen, Henrik; Payne, Richard, eds. (2011). Esoteric Buddhism and the Tantras in East Asia. Brill. ISBN 978-9004184916.
  • Rambelli, Fabio; Teeuwen, Mark, eds. (2003). Buddhas and Kami in Japan: Honji Suijaku as a Combinatory Paradigm. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 978-0415297479.
  • Sayce, Archibald Henry (1913). The Religion of Ancient Egypt. Adamant Media Corporation.
  • Schafer, E. H. (1977). Pacing the Void : Tʻang Approaches to the Stars. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520033443.
  • Seligsohn, M. (1906). "Star-worship". Jewish Encyclopedia – via jewishencyclopedia.com.
  • Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003), "Sothis", The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, London: Thames & Hudson, pp. 167–168, ISBN 0-500-05120-8.
  • Yu, Chai-Shin; Lancaster, Lewis R., eds. (1989). Introduction of Buddhism to Korea: New Cultural Patterns. South Korea: Asian Humanities Press. ISBN 978-0895818881.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]