List of astronomers

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The following are list of astronomers, astrophysicists and other notable people who have made contributions to the field of astronomy. They may have won major prizes or awards, developed or invented widely used techniques or technologies within astronomy, or are directors of major observatories or heads of space-based telescope projects.

The following is a list of notable astronomers.

Name Country Born Died
Aryabhata India 476 550
Marc Aaronson USA 1950 1987
Paul G. Abel UK 1979
Marcelo Gleiser Brazil 1959
Paulo R. Holvorcem Brazil 1967
Luís Cruls Brazil 1848 1908
George Ogden Abell USA 1927 1983
Hiroshi Abe Japan 1958
Antonio Abetti Italy 1846 1928
Giorgio Abetti Italy 1882 1982
Charles Greeley Abbot USA 1872 1973
Charles Hitchcock Adams USA 1868 1951
John Couch Adams UK 1819 1892
Walter Sydney Adams USA 1876 1956
Saul Adelman USA 1944
Petrus Alphonsi Spain 1062 1110
Agrippa Greece unknown ca. 92
Paul Oswald Ahnert Germany 1897 1989
Eva Ahnert-Rohlfs Germany 1912 1954
George Biddell Airy UK 1801 1892
Robert Aitken (USA 1864 1951
Makio Akiyama Japan 1950
Al Battani Iraq 850 929
Albategnius (see Al-Batani)
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Albitzky Russia 1891 1952
Albumasar Persia 787 886
George Alcock UK 1913 2000
Harold Alden USA 1890 1964
Hannes Alfvén Sweden 1908 1995
Lawrence H. Aller USA 1913 2003
Abd Al-Rahman Al Sufi Persia 903 986
Viktor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian (Armenia 1912 1996
John August Anderson USA 1876 1959
Wilhelm Anderson Estonia 1880 1940
Marie Henri Andoyer France 1862 1929
Andronicus of Cyrrhus Greece unknown ca. 100 BC
Anders Jonas Ångström Sweden 1814 1874
Eugène Michel Antoniadi Greece France 1870 1944
Masakatsu Aoki Japan 1957
Petrus Apianus Germany 1495 1557
François Arago France 1786 1853
Masaru Arai Japan 1952
Hiroshi Araki Japan
Sylvain Arend Belgium 1902 1992
Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander Germany 1799 1875
Aristarchus of Samos Greece circa 310 BC circa 230 BC
Christoph Arnold Germany 1650 1695
Halton Christian Arp USA 1927 2013
Svante Arrhenius Sweden 1859 1927
Arzachel Spain 1028 1087
Asada Goryu Japan 1734 1799
Atsuo Asami Japan
Giuseppe Asclepi Italy 1706 1776
Joseph Ashbrook USA 1918 1980
Arthur Auwers Germany 1838 1915
Adrien Auzout France 1622 1691
David Axon England 1951 2012
Brahmagupta India 598 668 CE
Bhaskara I India 629 CE
Bhaskara II India 1114 1185
Walter Baade Germany 1893 1960
Harold D. Babcock USA 1882 1968
Horace W. Babcock USA 1912 2003
Oskar Backlund Sweden 1846 1916
John N. Bahcall USA 1934 2005
Yoshiaki Banno Japan 1952 1991
Benjamin Baillaud France 1848 1934
Jules Baillaud France 1876 1960
Jean-Baptiste Baille France 1841 1918
Jean Sylvain Bailly France 1736 1793
Francis Baily UK 1774 1844
John Bainbridge UK 1582 1643
John E. Baldwin UK 1934
Sallie Baliunas USA 1953
Zoltán Balog Hungary/USA 1972
Benjamin Banneker USA 1731 1806
Pietro Baracchi Italy Australia 1851 1926
Beatriz Barbuy Brazil 1950
Edward Emerson Barnard USA 1857 1923
Stefi Baum USA
Julius Bauschinger Germany 1860 1934
Johann Bayer Germany 1572 1625
Antonín Bečvář Slovakia 1901 1965
Wilhelm Beer Germany 1797 1850
Sergei Ivanovich Belyavsky Russia 1883 1953
Charles L. Bennett USA 1956
Jocelyn Bell Burnell UK 1943
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel Germany 1784 1846
Somnath Bharadwaj India
Wilhelm Freiherr von Biela Austria 1782 1856
Ludwig Biermann Germany 1907 1986
Wolf Bickel Germany
Guillaume Bigourdan France 1851 1932
James Binney UK 1950
Al-Biruni Khwarezm/Persia 973 1048
Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan Russia 1941
Adriaan Blaauw Netherlands 1914 2010
Nathaniel Bliss UK 1700 1764
Johann Elert Bode Germany 1747 1826
Alfred Bohrmann Germany 1904 2000
Bart Bok Netherlands 1906 1983
Charles Thomas Bolton USA 1943
John Gatenby Bolton UK/Australia 1922 1993
William Cranch Bond USA 1789 1859
Alphonse Borrelly France 1842 1926
Rudjer Boscovich Dalmatia 1711 1787
Lewis Boss USA 1846 1912
Alexis Bouvard France 1767 1843
Rychard Bouwens USA 1972
Edward L. G. Bowell USA 1943
Ira Sprague Bowen USA 1898 1973
Louis Boyer France 1901 1999
Brian J. Boyle Scotland and Australia 1960
Ronald N. Bracewell Australia USA 1921 2007
James Bradley UK 1693 1762
William A. Bradfield New Zealand Australia 1927 2014
Tycho Brahe Denmark 1546 1601
John Alfred Brashear USA 1840 1920
William Robert Brooks USA 1844 1922
Theodor Brorsen Denmark 1819 1895
Dirk Brouwer NetherlandsUSA 1902 1966
Ernest William Brown UK 1866 1938
Michael (Mike) E. Brown USA 1965
Hermann Alexander Brück Germany 1905 2000
Ismael Bullialdus France 1605 1694
Margaret Burbidge UK 1919
Robert Burnham Jr. USA 1931 1993
Rosaly Lopes BR 1957
Sherburne Wesley Burnham USA 1838 1921
Schelte J. Bus USA 1956
Bimla Buti India 1933
Alastair G. W. Cameron Canada 1925 2005
William Wallace Campbell USA 1862 1938
Annie Jump Cannon USA 1863 1941
Luigi Carnera Italy 1875 1962
Edwin Francis Carpenter USA 1898 1963
James Carpenter UK 1840 1899
Richard Christopher Carrington UK 1826 1875
Sir John Carroll UK 1899 1974
César-François Cassini de Thury France 1714 1784
Dominique, comte de Cassini France 1748 1845
Giovanni Domenico Cassini France 1625 1712
Jacques Cassini France 1677 1756
Bonaventura Cavalieri Italy 1598 1647
Anders Celsius Sweden 1701 1744
Vincenzo Cerulli Italy 1859 1927
Jean Chacornac France 1823 1873
James Challis UK 1803 1882
Radha Gobinda Chandra Bangladesh India 1878 1975
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar India USA 1910 1995
Carl Charlier Sweden 1862 1934
Auguste Charlois France 1864 1910
Lyudmila Ivanovna Chernykh Russia/Ukraine
Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh Russia/Ukraine 1931
James Christy USA 1938
Edwin Foster Coddington USA 1870 1950
Jérôme Eugène Coggia France 1849 1919
Josep Comas i Solà Spain 1868 1937
Andrew Ainslie Common UK 1841 1903
Guy Consolmagno USA 1952
Nicolaus Copernicus 1473 1543
Corsono Carsono Spain
Janine Connes France 1934
Pablo Cottenot France
Heather Couper UK 1949
Leopold Courvoisier Switzerland 1873 1955
Arthur Edwin Covington Canada 1914 2001
Philip Herbert Cowell UK 1870 1949
Thomas George Cowling UK 1906 1990
Andrew Claude de la Cherois Crommelin UK 1865 1939
Luíz Cruls Brazil 1848 1908
James Cuffey USA 1911 1999
Heber Doust Curtis USA 1872 1942
Alexander Dalgarno USA 1928
Jacques Eugène d'Allonville France 1671 1732
Andre Louis Danjon France 1890 1967
Heinrich d'Arrest Germany 1822 1875
George Howard Darwin UK 1845 1912
Roger Davies UK 1954
Leonardo da Vinci Italy 1452 1519
William Rutter Dawes UK 1799 1868
Bernhard Dawson Argentina 1890 1960
Leo de Ball Germany Austria 1853 1916
Henri Debehogne Belgium 1928 2007
Annibale de Gasparis Italy 1819 1892
Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre France 1749 1822
Charles-Eugène Delaunay France 1816 1872
Eugène Joseph Delporte Belgium 1882 1955
Audrey C. Delsanti France 1976
William Frederick Denning UK 1848 1931
Alíz Derekas Hungary 1977
Willem de Sitter Netherlands 1872 1934
Henri-Alexandre Deslandres France 1853 1948
Alexander Nikolaevich Deutsch Russia 1900 1986
Gérard de Vaucouleurs France USA 1918 1995
Robert Dicke USA 1916 1997
Terence Dickinson Canada 1943
Thomas Digges UK 1546 1595
Herbert Dingle USA 1890 1978
Andrea Di Paola Italy 1970
Ewine van Dishoeck Netherlands 1955
Giovanni Battista Donati Italy 1826 1873
Frank Drake USA 1930
Henry Draper USA 1837 1882
John Dreyer Ireland 1852 1926
Alexander D. Dubyago Russia 1903 1959
Dmitrij I. Dubyago Russia 1850 1918
Jean C. B. Dufay France 1896 1967
Raymond Smith Dugan USA 1878 1940
James Dunlop Scotland 1793 1848
Petar Đurković Serbia 1908 1981
Frank Watson Dyson UK 1868 1939
Arthur Eddington UK 1882 1944
Frank K. Edmondson USA 1912 2008
Olin J. Eggen USA 1919 1998
Albert Einstein Germany 1879 1955
Eise Eisinga Netherlands 1744 1828
Eric Walter Elst Belgium 1936
Johann Franz Encke Germany 1791 1865
Kin Endate Japan 1960
Eratosthenes Alexandria 276 BC 194 BC
Emil Ernst Germany
Ernest Esclangon France 1876 1954
Fred Espenak USA 1953
Larry W. Esposito USA 1951
Eudoxus Cnidus circa 408 BC circa 355 BC
Robert Evans Australia 1937
David Fabricius Netherlands 1564 1617
Sandra M. Faber USA 1945
Johannes Fabricius Netherlands 1587 1615
Fearon Fallows UK 1789 1831
Hervé Faye France 1814 1902
Charles Fehrenbach France 1914 2008
Farghani Persia 800 870
James Ferguson USA 1797 1867
Alex Filippenko USA 1958
Erwin Finlay-Freundlich Germany 1885 1964
Axel Firsoff UK 1910 1981
Debra Fischer United States
J. Richard Fisher
Camille Flammarion France 1842 1925
Gabrielle Renaudot Flammarion France 1867 1962
John Flamsteed UK 1646 1719
Honoré Flaugergues France 1755 1835
Williamina Fleming USA 1857 1911
Wilhelm Julius Foerster Germany 1832 1921
Alfred Fowler UK 1868 1940
William Alfred Fowler USA 1911 1995
Philip Fox USA 1878 1944
Andrew Fraknoi USA 1948
Joseph von Fraunhofer Germany 1787 1826
Herbert Friedman USA 1916 2000
Dirk D. Frimout Belgium 1941
Edwin Brant Frost USA 1866 1935
Shigehisa Fujikawa Japan
Naoshi Fukushima Japan 1925 2003
Kiichirō Furukawa Japan
Toshimasa Furuta Japan
Bryan Gaensler Australia 1973
Gan De China fl. 4th century BC
Galileo Galilei Italy 1564 1642
Julio Garavito Armero Colombia 1865 1920
Gordon J. Garradd Australia 1959
Ben Gascoigne New Zealand Australia 1915 2010
Margaret Geller United States 1947
Gautama Siddha China fl. 8th century AD
Johann Gottfried Galle Germany 1812 1910
George Gamow Russia USA 1904 1968
Carl Friedrich Gauss Germany 1777 1855
Tom Gehrels USA 1957
Robert Gendler USA 1957
Andrea M. Ghez USA 1965
Riccardo Giacconi Italy 1931
Michel Giacobini France 1873 1938
Henry L. Giclas USA 1910 2007
David Gill UK 1843 1914
Ian Glass Ireland/South Africa 1939
Thomas Gold USA 1920 2004
Leo Goldberg USA 1913 1987
Peter Goldreich USA 1939
Hermann Goldschmidt Germany 1802 1866
François Gonnessiat France 1856 1934
John Goodricke UK 1764 1786
Alyssa A. Goodman USA 1962
Abu Sa'id Gorgani Persia 9th century
Paul Götz Germany 1883 1962
Benjamin Apthorp Gould USA 1824 1896
Andrew Graham Ireland 1815 1907
Kathryn Aurora Gray Canada 2000
Charles Green England 1735 1771
Jesse Greenstein USA 1909 2002
John Grunsfeld USA 1956
Jay U. Gunter United States 1911 1994
Alexander A. Gurshtein Russia 1937
Bengt Gustafsson Sweden 1943
Guo Shoujing China 1231 1316
Alan Harvey Guth USA 1947
Yusuke Hagihara Japan 1897 1979
Alan Hale USA 1958
George Ellery Hale USA 1868 1938
Asaph Hall USA 1829 1907
Edmond Halley England 1656 1742
Heidi Hammel USA 1960
Mario Hamuy Chile
Peter Andreas Hansen Denmark 1795 1874
Abulfazl Harawi Persia 10th century
Karl Ludwig Harding Germany 1765 1834
Thomas Hariot UK 1560 1621
Guillermo Haro Mexico 1913 1988
Robert George Harrington USA 1904 1987
Robert Sutton Harrington USA 1942 1993
Edward Robert Harrison UK USA 1917 2007
William Kenneth Hartmann USA 1939
Lisa Harvey-Smith Australia 1979
Takeo Hatanaka Japan 1914 1963
Stephen Hawking UK 1942
Will Hay UK 1888 1949
Chushiro Hayashi Japan 1920 2010
Otto Hermann Leopold Heckmann Germany 1901 1983
Carl Heiles USA 1939
Joseph Helffrich Germany 1872 1971
Eleanor Helin USA 1932 2009
Maximilian Hell Austria-Hungary 1720 1792
Karl Ludwig Hencke Germany 1793 1866
Thomas Henderson Scotland 1798 1844
Paul Henry France 1848 1905
Prosper Henry France 1849 1903
Abraham bar Hiyya Spanish Jewish 1070 1136
George Howard Herbig USA 1920 2013
Carl W. Hergenrother USA 1973
Caroline Herschel UK 1750 1848
John Herschel UK 1792 1871
William Herschel UK Germany 1738 1822
Ejnar Hertzsprung Denmark 1873 1967
Johannes Hevelius Poland 1611 1687
Antony Hewish UK 1924
George William Hill USA 1838 1914
John Russell Hind UK 1823 1895
Hipparchus Nicaea circa 190 BC 120 BC
Masanori Hirasawa Japan
Kiyotsugu Hirayama Japan 1874 1943
Shin Hirayama Japan 1868 1945
Gustave-Adolphe Hirn France 1815 1890
Sebastian von Hoerner Germany 1919 2003
Cuno Hoffmeister Germany 1892 1968
Dorrit Hoffleit USA 1907 2007
Helen Sawyer Hogg Canada 1905 1993
Minoru Honda Japan 1917 1990
Kamil Hornoch Czech Republic 1972
Jeremiah Horrocks UK circa 1619 1641
Cornelis Johannes van Houten Netherlands 1920 2002
Ingrid van Houten-Groeneveld Netherlands 1921 2015
Martin van den Hove Netherlands 1605 1639
Herbert Alonzo Howe United States 1858 1926
Fred Hoyle UK 1915 2001
Edwin Powell Hubble USA 1889 1953
William Huggins UK 1824 1910
Russell Alan Hulse USA 1950
Hendrik Christoffel van de Hulst Netherlands 1918 2000
Milton Lasell Humason USA 1891 1972
Thomas John Hussey England 1792 1854
Christiaan Huygens Netherlands 1629 1695
Yuji Hyakutake Japan 1950 2002
Josef Allen Hynek USA 1910 1986
Christopher Hansteen Norway 1784 1873
Icko Iben Jr. USA 1931
Kaoru Ikeya Japan 1943
Chris Impey UK/USA 1956
Robert Thorburn Ayton Innes Scotland/South Africa 1861 1933
Shigeru Inoda Japan
Jamal Nazrul Islam Bangladesh 1939 2013
Edward Israel USA 1859 1884
Iwahashi Zenbei Japan 1756 1811
Masayuki Iwamoto Japan
Shun-ei Izumikawa Japan
Cyril V. Jackson South Africa 1903 1988
Pierre Jules César Janssen France 1824 1907
James Jeans UK 1877 1946
Benjamin Jekhowsky Russia France Algeria 1881 1953
Louise Freeland Jenkins USA 1888 1970
David C. Jewitt UK 1958
Jiao Bingzhen China 1689 1726
Alfred Harrison Joy USA 1882 1973
Vinod Johri India 1935
Ali Kuşçu Türkiye 1403 1474
Tetsuo Kagawa Japan
Franz Kaiser Germany 1891 1962
Piet van de Kamp Netherlands/USA 1901 1995
Kiyotaka Kanai Japan 1951
Hiroshi Kaneda Japan 1953
Henry Kandrup USA 1955 2003
Jacobus Kapteyn Netherlands 1851 1922
Lyudmila Karachkina Ukraine 1948
Ghiyath al-Kashi Persia 1380 1429
Jeffrey Owen Katz USA 1960
Karlis Kaufmanis Latvia/United States 1910 2003
Kōyō Kawanishi Japan 1959
Nobuhiro Kawasato Japan
James Edward Keeler USA 1857 1900
Paul Kempf Germany 1856 1920
Johannes Kepler Germany 1571 1630
Omar Khayyám Persia 1048 1131
Al-Khujandi Persia 10th century
Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī Persia 780 850
Kidinnu Babylon 4th century BC d. 330 BC?
Hisashi Kimura Japan 1870 1943
Maria Margarethe Kirch Germany 1670 1720
Daniel Kirkwood USA 1814 1895
Robert Kirshner USA 1949
Minoru Kizawa Japan
Ernst Friedrich Wilhelm Klinkerfues Germany 1827 1884
Viktor Knorre Russia 1840 1919
Takao Kobayashi Japan 1961
Toru Kobayashi Japan
Luboš Kohoutek 1935
Masahiro Koishikawa Japan 1952
Nobuhisa Kojima Japan 1933
Takuo Kojima Japan
Yoji Kondo Japan 1933
Zdeněk Kopal Czech Republic UK USA 1914 1993
August Kopff Germany 1882 1960
Korado Korlević Croatia 1958
Hiroki Kosai Japan 1933
Charles T. Kowal USA 1940
Robert Kraft USA 1927
Ľubor Kresák Slovakia 1927 1994
Heinrich Kreutz Germany 1854 1927
Kazuo Kubokawa Japan 1903 1943
Marc Kuchner USA 1972
Gerard Kuiper Netherlands USA 1905 1973
Donald Kurtz 1948
Reiki Kushida Japan
Yoshio Kushida Japan 1957
György Kulin Austria-Hungary 1905 1989
Lagadha India 1st millennium BCE
Nicolas Louis de Lacaille France 1713 1762
Elizabeth Lada USA
Claes-Ingvar Lagerkvist Sweden 1944
Joseph-Louis Lagrange France 1736 1813
Jérôme Lalande France 1732 1807
Johann Heinrich Lambert France Germany 1728 1777
David J. Lane Canada 1963
Andrew E. Lange United States 1957 2010
Samuel Pierpont Langley USA 1834 1906
Pierre-Simon Laplace France 1749 1827
William Lassell UK 1799 1880
A. Laurent France
Henrietta Swan Leavitt USA 1868 1921
Typhoon Lee USA Taiwan
Guillaume Le Gentil France 1725 1792
Georges Lemaître Belgium 1894 1966
Pierre Lemonnier France 1715 1799
Frederick C. Leonard USA 1896 1960
Armin Leuschner Germany 1868 1953
Geraint Lewis Australia 1969
Urbain Le Verrier France 1811 1877
Li Fan China fl. 1st century AD
Bertil Lindblad Sweden 1895 1965
Adolph Friedrich Lindemann Germany UK 1846 1927
Chris Lintott UK 1980
Joseph Johann Littrow Austria 1781 1840
Karl L. Littrow Austria 1811 1877
Liu Xin China fl. 1st century AD
Joseph Lockyer UK 1836 1920
Maurice Loewy Austria France 1833 1907
Christian Sørensen Longomontanus Denmark 1562 1647
Percival Lowell USA 1855 1916
Àngel López Spain 1955
Álvaro López-García Spain
John William Lubbock UK 1803 1865
Knut Lundmark Sweden 1889 1958
Robert Luther Germany 1822 1900
Lupitus of Barcelona Spain
Jane Luu South Vietnam USA 1965
Willem Luyten Dutch East Indies Netherlands 1899 1994
Donald Lynden-Bell UK 1935
Andrew Lyne UK 1942
Bernard Lyot France 1897 1952
Mahendra Suri India 14th century CE
Ma Yize China 910 1005
Adriaan van Maanen USA 1884 1946
George Parker 2nd Earl of Macclesfield UK c. 1697 1764
Amy Mainzer USA 1974
Steve Mandel USA
Geoff Marcy USA 1954
Simon Marius Germany 1573 1624
Brian G. Marsden USA 1937 2010
Albert Marth Germany 1828 1897
Nevil Maskelyne UK 1732 1811
Charles Mason UK USA 1730 1787
John C. Mather USA 1946
Janet Akyüz Mattei Turkey USA 1943 2004
Edward Walter Maunder UK 1851 1928
Pierre Louis Maupertuis France 1698 1759
Alain Maury France 1958
Matthew Fontaine Maury USA 1806 1873
Brian May UK 1947
Cornell Mayer United States 1922 2005
Tobias Mayer Germany 1723 1762
Michel Mayor Switzerland 1942
Christopher McKee USA 1942
Robert S. McMillan USA
William H. McCrea UK 1904 1999
Bruce A. McIntosh Canada 1929
Robert H. McNaught Australia
Pierre Méchain France 1744 1804
Thebe Medupe South Africa
Karen Jean Meech USA 1959
Aden Baker Meinel USA 1922 2011
Fulvio Melia USA 1956
Philibert Jacques Melotte UK 1880 1961
Paul Willard Merrill USA 1887 1961
David Merritt USA
Charles Messier France 1730 1817
Joel Hastings Metcalf USA 1866 1925
Andreas Gerasimos Michalitsianos USA 1947 1997
John Michell UK 1724 1793
Elia Millosevich Italy 1848 1919
Edward Arthur Milne UK 1896 1950
Rudolph Minkowski Germany 1895 1976
Marcel Gilles Jozef Minnaert Belgium Netherlands 1893 1970
Maria Mitchell USA 1818 1889
Seidai Miyasaka Japan 1955
Yoshikane Mizuno Japan
August Ferdinand Möbius Germany 1790 1868
Anthony Moffat Canada
Johan Maurits Mohr Netherlands 1716 1775
Samuel Molyneux UK 1689 1728
Geminiano Montanari Italy 1633 1687
Patrick Moore UK 1923 2012
William Wilson Morgan USA 1906 1994
Hiroshi Mori Japan 1958
Amédée Mouchez France 1821 1892
Antonín Mrkos Czech Republic 1918 1996
Jean Mueller USA 1950
Masaru Mukai Japan 1949
Johannes Müller Germany 1436 1476
Harutaro Murakami Japan 1872 1947
Osamu Muramatsu Japan 1949
bin Musa Ahmad Persia 805 873
bin Musa Hasan Persia 810 873
bin Musa Muhammad Persia (800 873
Nils Mustelin Finland 1931 2004
Nilakantha Somayaji India 1444 1544
Valentin Naboth Germany Italy 1523 1593
Naburimannu Babylonia sometime between 6th century BC and 2nd century BC
Takeshi Nagata Japan 1913 1991
Ahmad Nahavandi Persia 7th-8th century
Akimasa Nakamura Japan 1961
Syuichi Nakano Japan 1947
Jayant Narlikar India 1938
Naubakht Persia d. 776
David Naylor Canada
Al-fadl ibn Naubakht Persia 8th century
Otto Neugebauer Germany USA 1899 1990
Grigoriy Nikolaevich Neujmin Russia 1886 1946
Simon Newcomb USA 1835 1909
Isaac Newton UK 1643 1727
Seth Barnes Nicholson USA 1891 1963
Albertus Antonie Nijland Netherlands 1868 1936
Tsuneo Niijima Japan
Peter Nilson Sweden 1937 1998
Hōei Nojiri Japan 1885 1977
Jaime Nomen Spain
Toshiro Nomura Japan 1954
Knut Jørgen Røed Ødegaard Norway 1966
Okuro Oikawa Japan 1896 1970
Tarmo Oja Sweden
Tomimaru Okuni Japan 1931
Nicolaus Olahus Hungarian 1493 1568
Heinrich Wilhelm Matthäus Olbers Germany 1758 1840
Gerard O'Neill USA 1927 1992
Jan Hendrik Oort Netherlands 1900 1992
Pieter Oosterhoff Netherlands 1904 1978
Ernst Öpik Estonia Ireland 1893 1985
José Luis Ortiz Moreno Spain
Yoshiaki Oshima Japan
Donald Edward Osterbrock USA 1924 2007
Liisi Oterma Finland 1915 2001
Satoru Otomo Japan 1957
Jean Abraham Chrétien Oudemans Netherlands 1827 1906
Rafael Pacheco Spain
Bohdan Paczyński Poland 1940 2007
Ľudmila Pajdušáková Slovakia 1916 1979
Johann Palisa Austria 1848 1925
Johann Palitzsch Germany 1723 1788
Anton Pannekoek Netherlands 1873 1960
Eugene Parker USA 1927
George Parker 2nd Earl of Macclesfield UK c. 1697 1764
William Parsons (Lord Rosse) Ireland 1800 1867
André Patry France 1902 1960
Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin UK USA 1900 1979
Ruby Payne-Scott Australia 1912 1981
James Peebles Canada USA 1935
Leslie Copus Peltier USA 1900 1980
Roger Penrose UK 1931
Arno Penzias USA Germany 1933
Saul Perlmutter USA
Charles Dillon Perrine USA Argentina 1867 1951
Henri Joseph Anastase Perrotin France 1845 1904
Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters Germany USA 1813 1890
George Henry Peters USA 1863 1947
Mark M. Phillips USA 1951
Giuseppe Piazzi Italy 1746 1826
Edward Charles Pickering USA 1846 1919
William Henry Pickering USA 1858 1938
Maynard Pittendreigh USA 1954
Phil Plait USA
Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana Italy 1781 1864
Petrus Plancius Netherlands 1552 1622
John Stanley Plaskett Canada 1865 1941
Norman Robert Pogson UK 1829 1891
Christian Pollas France
John Pond England 1767 1836
Jean-Louis Pons France 1761 1831
Carolyn Porco USA 1953
Vladimír Porubčan Slovakia 1940
Charles Pritchard UK 1808 1893
Richard Proctor England 1837 1888
Ptolemy of Alexandria Roman Egypt circa 85 165
Pierre Puiseux France 1855 1928
Georg Purbach Germany 1423 1461
Pythagoras of Samos 580 BC 500 BC
Paris Pişmiş 1911 1999
Adolphe Quetelet Belgium 1796 1874
Ali Qushji Ottoman 1403 1474
M. Shahid Qureshi Pakistan
David Lincoln Rabinowitz USA 1960
Grote Reber USA 1911 2002
Martin Rees UK 1942
Hubert Reeves CA 1932
Johannes Müller Germany 1436 1476
Julius Reichelt Germany 1637 1717
Erasmus Reinhold Prussia Germany 1511 1553
Karl Reinmuth Germany 1892 1979
Pieter Johannes van Rhijn Netherlands 1886 1960
Giovanni Battista Riccioli Italy 1598 1671
Jean Richer France 1630 1696
Adam Riess USA
Fernand Rigaux Belgium
George Willis Ritchey USA 1864 1945
David Rittenhouse USA 1732 1796
Hans-Walter Rix Germany 1964
Arjen Roelofs Netherlands 1754 1824
Elizabeth Roemer USA 1929
Roger of Hereford England c. 1176 1198
Ole Christensen Rømer Denmark 1644 1710
Otto A. Rosenberger Germany 1800 1890
Svein Rosseland Norway 1894 1985
Bruno Rossi Italy 1905 1993
Vera Rubin USA 1928
Henry Chamberlain Russell Australia 1836 1907
Henry Norris Russell USA 1877 1957
Martin Ryle UK 1918 1984
Sir Edward Sabine Ireland 1788 1883
Carl Sagan USA 1934 1996
Megh Nad Saha India 1893 1956
Edwin Ernest Salpeter Austria Australia USA 1924 2008
Allan Rex Sandage USA 1926 2010
Hendricus Gerardus van de Sande Bakhuyzen Netherlands 1838 1923
Wallace Leslie William Sargent UK USA 1935 2012
Anneila Sargent UK USA 1942
Naoto Sato Japan 1953
Alexandre Schaumasse France 1882 1958
Giovanni Schiaparelli Italy 1835 1910
Frank Schlesinger USA 1871 1943
Bernhard Schmidt Estonia Sweden Germany 1879 1935
Brian P. Schmidt USA
Maarten Schmidt Netherlands 1929
Robert Schommer USA 1946 2001
Johann Hieronymus Schröter Germany 1745 1816
Lipót Schulhof Hungary 1847 1921
Heinrich Christian Schumacher Germany 1780 1850
Hans-Emil Schuster Germany 1934
Samuel Heinrich Schwabe Germany 1789 1875
Karl Schwarzschild Germany 1873 1916
Martin Schwarzschild Germany USA 1912 1997
Friedrich Karl Arnold Schwassmann Germany 1870 1964
James Vernon Scotti USA 1960
Frederick Hanley Seares USA 1873 1964
George Mary Searle USA 1839 1918
Angelo Secchi Italy 1818 1878
Sadao Sei Japan
Waltraut Seitter Germany 1930 2007
Tsutomu Seki Japan 1930
Carl Keenan Seyfert USA 1911 1960
Grigory Abramovich Shajn Russia 1892 1956
Pelageya Fedorovna Shajn Russia 1894 1956
Harlow Shapley USA 1885 1972
Richard Sheepshanks UK 1794 1855
Shen Kuo China 1031 1035
Shi Shen China fl. 4th century BC
Shibukawa Shunkai Japan 1639 1715
Yoshisada Shimizu Japan
Shinzo Shinjo Japan 1873 1938
Qutb eddin Shirazi Persia 1236 1311
Iosif Samuilovich Shklovsky Russia 1916 1985
Carolyn Jean Spellmann Shoemaker USA 1929
Eugene Merle Shoemaker USA 1928 1997
Willem de Sitter Netherlands 1872 1934
Charlotte Moore Sitterly USA 1898 1990
Brian A. Skiff USA
John Francis Skjellerup Australia South Africa 1875 1952
Vesto Melvin Slipher USA 1875 1969
Tamara Mikhaylovna Smirnova Russia 1918
George Smoot USA 1945
William Henry Smyth UK 1788 1865
Snell Netherlands 1580 1626
Mary Fairfax Somerville UK 1780 1872
Sir James South UK 1785 1867
Sir Harold Spencer Jones UK 1890 1960
Lyman Spitzer USA 1914 1997
Friederich Wilhelm Gustav Spörer Germany 1822 1895
Rainer Spurzem Germany 1956
Anton Staus Germany 1872 1955
Joel Stebbins USA 1878 1966
Johan Stein Netherlands 1871 1951
Karl August von Steinheil Germany 1801 1870
Édouard Stephan France 1837 1923
David J. Stevenson New Zealand 1948
Edward James Stone 1831 1897
F. J. M. Stratton UK 1881 1960
Bengt Georg Daniel Strömgren Denmark 1908 1987
Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (von) Struve Germany Russia 1793 1864
Karl Hermann Struve Russia Germany 1854 1920
Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig Struve Russia 1858 1920
Otto Struve Russia USA 1897 1963
Otto Wilhelm (von) Struve Russia 1819 1905
Su Song China 1020 1101
Abd Al-Rahman Al Sufi Persia 903 986
Matsuo Sugano Japan
Atsushi Sugie Japan
Nicholas Suntzeff USA 1952
Rashid Alievich Sunyaev Uzbekistan Russia Germany 1943
Shohei Suzuki Japan
Lewis A. Swift USA 1820 1913
Frédéric Sy France
Samad Rizvi Pakistan 1924 2009
Akihiko Tago Japan 1932
Atsushi Takahashi Japan
Kesao Takamizawa Japan 1952
Jill Tarter USA 1944
Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. USA 1941
John Tebbutt Australia 1834 1916
Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Tempel Germany 1821 1889
Thabit ibn Qurra Iraq 826 901
Thorvald Nicolai Thiele Denmark 1838 1910
Louis Thollon France 1829 1887
Norman G. Thomas USA
John Thome USA Argentina 1843 1908
Kip Stephen Thorne USA 1940
Friedrich Tietjen Germany 1834 1895
Beatrice Muriel Hill Tinsley New Zealand USA 1941 1981
François Félix Tisserand France 1845 1896
Johann Daniel Titius Germany 1729 1796
Yasuo Tanaka Japan
Clyde W. Tombaugh USA 1906 1997
Kōichirō Tomita Japan 1925 2006
Richard Tousey USA 1908 1997
Charles Townes USA
Virginia Trimble USA
Chad Trujillo USA 1973
Robert Julius Trumpler USA 1886 1956
R. Brent Tully USA
Herbert Hall Turner England 1861 1930
Nasir al-Din Tusi Persia 1201 1274
Horace Parnell Tuttle USA 1839 1923
Neil deGrasse Tyson USA 1958
Seiji Ueda Japan 1952
Ulugh Beg Persia 1394 1449
Antonio de Ulloa Spain 1716 1795
Albrecht Unsöld Germany 1905 1995
Takeshi Urata Japan
Mu’ayyad al-Din al-’Urdi Persia c. 1200 1266
Fumiaki Uto Japan
Yrjö Väisälä Finland 1891 1971
Benjamin Valz France 1787 1867
James Van Allen USA 1914 2006
George Van Biesbroeck Belgium USA 1880 1974
Hendrik Christoffel van de Hulst Netherlands 1918 2000
Peter van de Kamp USA 1901 1995
Sidney van den Bergh Canada 1929
Martin van den Hove Netherlands 1605 1639
Hendricus Gerardus van de Sande Bakhuyzen Netherlands 1838 1923
Hendrik van Gent Netherlands South Africa 1900 1947
Cornelis Johannes van Houten Netherlands 1920 2002
Pieter Johannes van Rhijn Netherlands 1886 1960
Gérard de Vaucouleurs France USA 1918 1995
Zdeňka Vávrová Czech Republic or Slovakia
Philippe Véron France 1939
Frank Washington Very United States 1852 1927
Yvon Villarceau France 1813 1883
Julie Vinter Hansen Denmark 1890 1960
Hermann Carl Vogel Germany 1841 1907
Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve Germany Russia 1793 1864
Otto Wilhelm von Struve Russia 1819 1905
Alexander N. Vyssotsky Russia USA 1888 1973
Emma Vyssotsky USA 1894 1975
Arno Arthur Wachmann Germany 1902 1990
Abul Wáfa Persia 940 997-8
Walcher of Malvern England 1135
George Wallerstein 1930
William Wales UK ca. 1734 1798
Qingde Wang USA/China
Kazuro Watanabe Japan 1955
James Craig Watson USA 1838 1880
Edmund Weaver UK 1663 1748
Kim Weaver USA 1969
Thomas William Webb UK 1807 1885
Alfred Lothar Wegener Germany 1880 1930
Gary A. Wegner USA 1944
Wei Pu China fl. 11th century
Karl von Weizsäcker Germany 1912 2007
Godefroy Wendelin Belgium 1580 1667
Richard M. West Denmark 1941
Gart Westerhout Netherlands USA 1927 2012
Bengt Westerlund Sweden 1921 2008
J. G. Westphal Germany
Johann Heinrich Westphal Germany Italy 1794 1831
George Wetherill 1925 2006
John Archibald Wheeler USA 1911 2008
Fred Lawrence Whipple USA 1906 2004
Albert Whitford USA 1905 2002
Mary Watson Whitney USA 1847 1921
Chandra Wickramasinghe UK 1939
Paul Wild Switzerland 1925 2014
Olin C. Wilson USA 1909 1994
Robert Wilson USA 1936
John Winthrop Massachusetts Bay Colony 1714 1779
Friedrich August Theodor Winnecke Germany 1835 1897
Carl Wirtanen USA 1910 1990
Jack Wisdom USA
Gustav Witt Germany 1866 1946
Maximilian Wolf Germany 1863 1932
Aleksander Wolszczan Poland 1946
Richard van der Riet Woolley UK 1906 1986
Thomas Wright UK 1711 1786
Issei Yamamoto Japan 1889 1959
Masayuki Yanai Japan 1959
Yi Xing China 683 727
Anne Sewell Young USA 1871 1961
Charles Augustus Young USA 1834 1908
James Whitney Young USA 1941
Franz Xaver von Zach Germany 1753 1832
Abraham Zacuto Spain Portugal 1450 1510
John Zarnecki UK 1949
Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich USSR 1914 1987
Zhang Daqing China 1969
Zhang Heng China 78 139
Zhang Yuzhe China 1902 1986
Lyudmila Vasil'evna Zhuravleva Russia Ukraine
Felix Ziegel Soviet Union 1920 1988
Zu Chongzhi China 429 500
Fritz Zwicky Switzerland USA 1898 1974


In alphabetical order:

A[edit]

B[edit]

C[edit]

D[edit]

E[edit]

F[edit]

G[edit]

H[edit]

I[edit]

J[edit]

K[edit]

L[edit]

M[edit]

N[edit]

O[edit]

P[edit]

Q[edit]

R[edit]

S[edit]

T[edit]

U[edit]

V[edit]

W[edit]

Y[edit]

Z[edit]

Others who influenced astronomy and astrophysics[edit]

The following is a list of people who are not astronomers but made a contribution to the field of astronomy and astrophysics.

References[edit]

See also[edit]