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|Principality of Asturias
Principado de Asturias (Spanish)
Principáu d'Asturies (Asturian)
|Principado de Asturias|
|Anthem: Asturias, patria querida|
Location of Asturias in Spain
|• President||Javier Fernández (PSOE)|
|Area(2.1% of Spain; Ranked 10th)|
|• Total||10,604 km2 (4,094 sq mi)|
|• Density||100/km2 (260/sq mi)|
|• Pop. rank||13th|
|• Percent||2.4% of Spain|
asturiano, -na (es)
asturianu, -na (as)
|Official languages||Castilian (Asturian has special status)|
|Statute of Autonomy||January 11, 1982|
|Parliament||General Junta (45 deputies)|
|Congress seats||8 (of 350)|
|Senate seats||6 (of 264)|
|Website||Gobierno del Principado de Asturias|
Asturias (English //, //, //), officially the Principality of Asturias (Spanish: Principado de Asturias [pɾinθiˈpaðo ðe asˈtuɾjas]; Asturian: Principáu d'Asturies [pɾinθiˈpaw ðasˈtuɾjes]), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain. It is coextensive with the province of Asturias, and contains some of the territory that was part of the larger Kingdom of Asturias in the Middle Ages. Divided into eight comarcas (counties), the autonomous community of Asturias is bordered by Cantabria to the east, by Castile and León to the south, by Galicia to the west, and by the Bay of Biscay to the north.
The most important cities are the communal capital, Oviedo (Uviéu or Uvieo), the seaport and largest city Gijón (Xixón), and the industrial town of Avilés. Other municipalities in Asturias include Cangas de Onís (Cangues d'Onís), Cangas del Narcea, Gozón, Grado (Grau or Grao), Langreo (Llangréu), Llanera, Laviana (Llaviana), Lena (Ḷḷena), Llanes, Mieres, Siero, Valdés, Vegadeo (A Veiga) and Villaviciosa (see also List of municipalities and comarcas in Asturias).
Asturias is also home to the Prince of Asturias Awards.
- 1 History
- 2 Administrative and territorial division
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Pollution
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
- 7 Economy
- 8 Main sights
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Music
- 11 Famous citizens
- 12 Famous events
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes and references
- 15 Bibliography
- 16 External links
Asturias has been inhabited, first by Homo erectus, then by Neanderthals and finally by modern humans, since the Lower Paleolithic era, and during the Upper Paleolithic was characterized by cave paintings in the eastern part of the area. In the Mesolithic period, a native culture developed, that of the Asturiense, and later, with the introduction of the Bronze Age, megaliths and tumuli were constructed. In the Iron Age, the territory came under the cultural influence of the Celts; the local Celtic peoples, known as the Astures, were composed of tribes such as the Luggones, the Pesicos, and others, who populated the entire area with castros (fortified hill-towns). Today the Astur Celtic influence persists in place names, such as those of rivers and mountains.
With the conquest of Asturias by the Romans under Augustus (29–19 BC), the region entered into the annals of history. After several centuries without foreign presence, the Suebi and Visigoths occupied the land from the 6th century AD to the beginning of the 8th century, ending with the Moorish invasion of Spain. However, as it had been for the Romans and Visigoths, the Moors did not find mountainous territory easy to conquer, and the lands along Spain's northern coast never fully became part of Islamic Spain. Rather, with the beginning of the Moorish conquest in the 8th century, this region became a refuge for Christian nobles, and in 722, a de facto independent kingdom was established, the Regnum Asturorum, which was to become the cradle of the incipient Reconquista (Reconquest).
In the 10th century, the Kingdom of Asturias gave way to the Kingdom of León, and during the Middle Ages the geographic isolation of the territory made historical references scarce. Through the rebellion of Henry II of Castile in the 14th century, the Principality of Asturias was established. The most famous proponents of independence were Gonzalo Peláez and Queen Urraca, who, while achieving significant victories, were ultimately defeated by Castilian troops. After its integration into the Kingdom of Spain, Asturias provided the Spanish court with high-ranking aristocrats and played an important role in the colonization of America. Since 1388, the heir to the Castilian (later Spanish) throne has been styled Prince of Asturias. In the 16th century, the population reached 100,000 for the first time, and within another century that number would double due to the arrival of American corn.
During the 18th century, Asturias was one of the centres of the Spanish Enlightenment. The renowned Galician thinker Benito de Feijóo settled in the Benedictine Monastery of San Vicente de Oviedo. Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, a polymath and prominent reformer and politician of the late 18th century, was born in the seaside town of Gijón.
The Industrial Revolution came to Asturias after 1830 with the discovery and systematic exploitation of coal mines and iron factories at the mining basins of Nalón and Caudal, that turned Asturias into an industrial region. At the same time, there was significant migration to America (especially Argentina, Uruguay, Puerto Rico, Cuba and Mexico); those who succeeded overseas often returned to their native land much wealthier. These entrepreneurs were known collectively as 'Indianos', for having visited and made their fortunes in the West Indies and beyond. The heritage of these wealthy families can still be seen in Asturias today: many large 'modernista' villas are dotted across the region, as well as cultural institutions such as free schools and public libraries.
Asturias played an important part in the events that led up to the Spanish Civil War. In October 1934 the Asturian miners and other workers staged an armed uprising (see Revolution of Asturias) to oppose the coming to power of the right-wing CEDA party, which had obtained three ministerial posts in the centralist government of the Second Spanish Republic. For a month, a Popular Front Committee exercised control in southern Asturias, while local workers committees sprang up elsewhere in the region. A war committee dominated by anarcho-syndicalist supporters took power in Oviedo . Troops under the command of a then unknown general named Francisco Franco Bahamonde were brought from Spanish Morocco to suppress the revolt. Franco applied tactics normally reserved for overseas colonies, using troops of the Spanish Legion and Moroccan troops: ferocious oppression followed.
As a result, Asturias remained loyal to the republican government during the Spanish Civil War, and was the scene of an extraordinary defence in extreme terrain, the Battle of El Mazuco. With Franco eventually gaining control of all Spain, Asturias — traditionally linked to the Spanish Crown — was known merely as the "Province of Oviedo" from 1939 until Franco's death in 1975. The province's name was restored fully after the return of democracy to Spain, in 1977. In the 50s and 60s the industrial progress of Asturias continued with the constitution of national enterprises like Ensidesa and Hunosa, but the 80s was the decade of a dramatic industrial restructuring.
On December 30, 1981, Asturias became an autonomous community within the decentralized territorial structure established by the Constitution of 1978. Rafael Luis Fernández Álvarez, who had previously served as the President of the Regional Council since 1978, became the first President of the Principality of Asturias, upon the adoption of autonomy. The Asturian regional government holds comprehensive competencies in important areas such as health, education and protection of the environment. As of May 2011, the President of the Government of Asturias was Francisco Álvarez-Cascos, of the Foro Asturias (FAC), succeeded by Javier Fernández in 2012.
Administrative and territorial division
Municipalities of Asturias
There are at present 78 municipalities in Asturias.
|8||San Martín del Rey Aurelio||17,460|
|9||Corvera de Asturias||16,153|
|10||Villaviciosa de Asturias||14,820|
The parroquia or parish is the subdivision of the Asturian municipalities. Actually, there are 857 parishes integrating the 78 municipalities in the region, and they usually coincide with the ecclesiastic divisions.
Geography and climate
The Cantabrian Mountains (Cordillera Cantábrica) form Asturias's natural border with the province of León to the south. In the eastern range, the Picos de Europa National Park contains the highest and arguably most spectacular mountains, rising to 2,648 metres (8,688 ft) at the Torrecerredo peak. Other notable features of this predominantly limestone range are the Parque Natural de Redes in the central east, the central Ubiñas south of Oviedo, and the Parque Natural de Somiedo in the west. The Cantabrian mountains offer opportunities for activities such as climbing, walking, skiing and caving, and extend some 200 kilometres (120 mi) in total, as far as Galicia province to the west of Asturias and Cantabria province to the east.
The Asturian coastline is extensive, with hundreds of beaches, coves and natural sea caves. Notable examples include the Playa del Silencio (Beach of Silence) near the fishing village of Cudillero (west of Gijón), as well as the many beaches surrounding the summer resort of Llanes, such as the Barro, Ballota and Torimbia (the latter a predominantly nudist beach). Most of Asturias's beaches are sandy, clean, and bordered by steep cliffs, on top of which it is not unusual to see grazing livestock.
The key features of Asturian geography are its rugged coastal cliffs and the mountainous interior. The climate of Asturias, as with the rest of northwest Spain, is more varied than that of southern parts of the country. Summers are generally humid and warm with considerable sunshine but also some rain. Winters are cold with some very cold snaps. The cold is especially felt in the mountains, where snow is present from October till May. Both rain and snow are regular weather features of Asturian winters. In coastal or near-coastal areas, daytime high temperatures generally average around 12 °C (54 °F) – 13 °C (55 °F) during winter and 22 °C (72 °F) – 23 °C (73 °F) in summer.
The Gijón area was marked and singled out as one of the pollution hotspots in Western Europe in a 2015 report from the International Institute for Applied Science Systems, where predicitions for 2030 conditions were made. The Gijón and Oviedo region was marked much higher than any other Spanish metro area, this in spite of the much larger population in Madrid and Barcelona for example. This was attributed to heavy industrial activities. Since outdoor air pollution is a major cause of premature death in Europe, the excessive pollution is a major concern for Asturias. The majority of Asturias population live within a 25 kilometres (16 mi) range from the port of Gijón, so pollution would be likely to heavily affect the population. A Spanish government study conducted in 2010 regarding life expectancy in relative communities Asturias was ranked lowest (tied with Andalucia) for male life expectancy with 76.7 years from 2007 readings. However, female life expectancy was 84 years and normal among autonomous communities. However, even the male life expectancy is only just below Western European standards, and exaggerated by the high Spanish life expectancy rate. Considering a vast majority of the Asturian population lives in proximity to the Gijón heavy industrial activities, these figures for especially female relative health still contributes to a position that Gijón is still a safe location to live. The numbers for "disability-free" life expectancy has risen significantly both for males and females in the area since 1986 according to the report.
The only official language in Asturias is Spanish. The Asturian language, also known as Bable, is also spoken, and is protected by law (Ley 1/1998, de 23 de marzo, de uso y promoción del bable/asturiano — "Law 1/1998, of March 23, of Use and Promotion of Bable/Asturian"). It is sometimes used by the Asturian civil service. In the western part of Asturias, Eonavian is also spoken, and its promotion also falls under the responsibility of Law 1/1998. Whether Eonavian is a dialect continuum or a variety of Galician language, however, is a subject of debate, and its use in the Asturian Administration is minor compared to the use of the Asturian language. Within Asturias, there is an ongoing process to establish place names in Asturian and Eonavian dialects.
Food and drink
While Asturias is especially known for its seafood, the most famous regional dish is fabada asturiana, a rich stew typically made with large white beans (fabes), shoulder of pork (lacón), black sausage (morcilla), and spicy sausage (chorizo).
Apple groves foster the production of the region's traditional alcoholic drink, a natural cider (sidra). Since it is natural and bottled without gas, when Asturian cider is served, it is poured in a particular way, el escanciado: the bottle is held above the head allowing for a long vertical pour, causing the cider to be aerated when it splashes into the glass below. After drinking most of the content, it is customary to splash a little out onto the ground, as a way to clean the glass of any lees for the next serving. Traditionally, the same glass is refilled and passed around, with everyone drinking from it in turn.
Asturias has two main football teams: Sporting de Gijón and Oviedo, which have played over 35 seasons in First Division. Other current notable sports teams are Oviedo CB (basketball) and AB Gijón Jovellanos (handball).
For centuries, the backbone of the Asturian economy was agriculture and fishing. Milk production and its derivatives was also traditional, but its big development was a byproduct of the economic expansion of the late 1960s. Nowadays, products from the dairy cooperative Central Lechera Asturiana are being commercialised all over Spain.
The main regional industry in modern times, however, was coal mining and steel production: in the times of Francisco Franco's dictatorship, it was the centre of Spain's steel industry. The then state-owned ENSIDESA steel company is now part of the privatised Aceralia, now part of the ArcelorMittal Group. The industry created many jobs, which resulted in significant migration from other regions in Spain, mainly Extremadura, Andalusia and Castile and León.
The steel industry is now in decline when measured in terms of number of jobs provided, as is the mining. The reasons for the latter are mainly the high costs of production to extract the coal compared to other regions. Regional economic growth is below the broader Spanish rate, though in recent years growth in service industries has helped reduce Asturias's high rate of unemployment. Large out-of-town retail parks have opened near the region's largest cities (Gijón and Oviedo), whilst the ever-present Spanish construction industry appears to continue to thrive.
Asturias has benefited extensively since 1986 from European Union investment in roads and other essential infrastructure, though there has also been some controversy regarding how these funds are spent, for example, on miners' pensions.
As of 2008, the GDP (PPP) per capita of Asturias stood at €22.640, or 90.2% of the European average of €25.100. This makes the region the 12th richest in Spain, a big decrease from the 1970s/1980s - the heyday of the Spanish mining industry, when Asturias was commonly regarded as one of the most prosperous regions in Southern Europe. Indeed Asturias has been growing below the Spanish national average since the decline of the mining industry, and grew just 0.82% in 2008, the lowest of all regions in Spain. On the plus side, unemployment in Asturias is below the average of Spain; at 8.43% it is also below the European average.
Oviedo, the capital city of Asturias: a clean, picturesque city with a diverse architectural heritage. Santa María del Naranco and San Miguel de Lillo, a pre-Romanesque church and a palace respectively, which were built by the first Asturian kings on Mount Naranco, to the north of the city (World Heritage Site). In modern architecture, the Palacio de Congresos de Oviedo (or Modoo), designed by Santiago Calatrava.
Gijon, the biggest city of Asturias, is a coastal city famous for cultural and sports events and there is a beach tourism centre in northern Spain. It also is famous for the traditional Asturian gastronomy and for being an important Asturian's cider production spot. There are many museums and places to visit in the city. It is also important to mention the Universidad Laboral de Gijón, including a modern art museum, theatre, etc.
Avilés, the third largest city in Asturias, is now becoming an essential touristic spot in the principality. "La villa del adelantado"(as locals usually call it, in reference of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés) is a meeting point where present and past meet. This is most notably clear once we go through the streets in the old quarter of the city. "Saint Nicholas of Bari" or "Capilla de los Alas" in Romanesque and Romanesque-Gothic style, respectively; Palacio de Balsera, in Modernist style or St. Thomas of Canterbury church (dating from the 13th century) are just a few examples which clearly show the magnificent historical patrimony to be found in the city. On the other hand, the Centro Niemeyer, designed by the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer, is one of the examples of modern architecture in Asturias.
The Picos de Europa National Park, and other parts of the Asturian mountain range: The most famous mountain in the park is the Picu Urriellu (2519 m or 8262 ft), also known as El Naranjo de Bulnes, a molar-shaped peak which, reputedly, glows orange in the evening sun, hence its name. Weather permitting, it can be viewed clearly from Camarmeña village, near Poncebos, south of Arenas de Cabrales.
The shrine to the Virgin of Covadonga and the mountain lakes (Los Lagos), near Cangas de Onís: Legend has it that in the 8th century, the Virgin blessed Asturian Christian forces with a well-timed signal to attack Spain's Moorish conquerors, thereby taking the invaders by surprise in the Battle of Covadonga. The Reconquista and eventual unification of all Spain is therefore said to have started in this very location.
Asturias has an excellent industrial heritage as a consequence of its great industrial activities in the 19th and 20th centuries. It had metallurgical and chemical factories, mines, bridges and railways, specially in the towns of Langreo, Mieres and Avilés.
Other places of interest
- Ceceda village: east of Oviedo along the N634 road. Of particular interest in this exemplary settlement are the traditional horreo grain silos, raised on stilts so as to keep field mice from getting at the grain.
- The Dobra River: south of Cangas de Onís, famous for its unusual colour and natural beauty.
- The senda costera (coastal way) between Pendueles and Llanes: This partly paved nature route takes in some of Asturias' most spectacular coastal scenery, such as the noisy bufones (blowholes) and the Playa de Ballota.
- The unusual rock formation on the beach at Buelna village: east of Llanes. Best viewed at low tide.
Asturias is served by Asturias International Airport (OVD), 40 kilometres from Oviedo, near the northwest coast and the industrial town of Avilés.
- International carriers
- Air France
- A UK-based international carrier, EasyJet, began daily flights to Asturias airport in March 2005, it operates to Stansted Airport, which the airline uses as a major hub. During the winter period, EasyJet usually reduces flying frequency to four flights per week.
- A German-based carrier, Air Berlin, began flights to Asturias airport in November 2006, it operates to Mallorca which the airline uses as a major hub.
- Several national carriers also link Asturias to Madrid and Barcelona, Brussels, Paris, Seville and others.
Eastern Asturias is also easily accessible from Santander Airport. Recent improvements introduced in the road network permit flying into Santander and later driving into Asturias, which can be entered in less than an hour's drive. The Irish airline Ryanair operates flights to Santander Airport from Frankfurt Hahn, Liverpool, Dublin, Edinburgh, London Stansted and Rome Ciampino.
El Musel (the Port of Gijón) is able to receive cruise ships of any size. Companies as P&O, Swan Hellenic or Hapag Lloyd choose the Port of Gijón every year for their calls in the Atlantic European Coast. The following areas are available for cruise vessels:
- Moliner quay: 313 m berthing with 14 m draught.
- 7ª Alignment: 326 m with 12 m draught.
- Espigón II. South alignment. 360 m berth with 9 m draught.
These locations allow a high degree of access control, with security guaranteed for both vessels and passengers alike. The city centre is only 4 km away and the Port Authority provides dedicated coach connection allowing passengers to take advantage of the cultural, gastronomic and commercial opportunities that Gijón has to offer.
Since 2010, the city of Gijón is connected by ferry with the French city of Nantes. This connection is also known as the "sea highway" and it has a frequency of two ferries per day in both directions.
Spain's national RENFE rail network also serves Asturias well; trains regularly depart to and from the Spanish interior. Major stops are the regional capital, Oviedo, and the main coastal city, Gijón. Meanwhile, the FEVE rail company links the centre of the region with Eastern and Western Asturias. Under the Cantabrian Mountains, the Pajares Base Tunnel, is currently under construction, and will reduce the journey times from Madrid to Asturias from 5 hours to just 3 hours, paving the way for the arrival of AVE trains in the near future.
There is also a comprehensive bus service run by the ALSA company. It links Avilés, Gijón, Oviedo and Mieres with Madrid and other major towns, several times a day. These include services to Barcelona, Salamanca, León, Valladolid, A Coruña, Bilbao, Seville, San Sebastián, Paris, Brussels and Nice, to name just a few.
The music of Asturias is varied. The most characteristic instrument in traditional music is the Asturian bagpipe, or gaita, which has a single drone in common with the traditional bagpipes of other Celtic nations such as Wales & Ireland. The bagpipe is often accompanied by hand drum, whistles and accordion. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in traditional folk music, and several music ensembles have gained regional and international recognition for their ethnomusicological study and presentation of indigenous Asturian music. Notable examples include traditional pipers such as Xuacu Amieva and Tejedor and fusionist José Ángel Hevia (whose Busindre Reel music video provides views of both the gaita and the Asturian landscape), and the groups Llan de Cubel, Xera, Nuberu and Felpeyu. Additionally, numerous rock, ska and heavy metal groups have also found relative success within Asturias, many of which incorporate elements of traditional Asturian music into their sound.
The Asturian anthem Asturias, patria querida (Asturias, beloved fatherland) was a popular song adopted as the region's anthem and formalised by Ley 1/1984, de 27 de Abríl.
Orquesta Sinfónica del Principado de Asturias
The Orquesta Sinfonica del Principado de Asturias is the premier orchestra of the Principality of Asturias. It is based in the Auditorio Principe Felipe in Oviedo, but also performs in the main concert venues in Gijón and Avilés. Rossen Milanov is the Music Director.
Asturias is also the name of the fifth movement of the Suite Española, Op. 47 by Spanish composer Isaac Albéniz. Nevertheless, the music has little in common with the region's own folklore. More authentic is Rimsky Korsakov's Spanish Capriccio, which quotes liberally from Asturian musical heritage.
- Juan Carreño de Miranda, court painter
- Fernando Alonso, Formula One racing driver, 2005 and 2006 world champion
- Leopoldo Alas "Clarín", 19th-century author of La Regenta, a seminal work in the Spanish literary canon
- Armando Palacio Valdés, 19th and 20th-century novelist and critic
- Francisco Álvarez Cascos, minister in Spain's government 1996–2000 and 2000–2004
- Santi Cazorla, Arsenal and Spain international football player, European Champion 2008 and 2012
- Torcuato Fernández-Miranda, key lawmaker during the Spanish transition to democracy
- César Rato González, regarded as one of the leading contributors of the linux kernel quality assurance team
- Olvido García Valdés, poet
- Ángel González, major Spanish poet of the 20th century.
- Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, philosopher, politician, Enlightenment thinker
- Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Spanish conquistador and founder of Saint Augustine, Florida
- Queen Letizia of Spain, a native of Oviedo and wife of Felipe VI, King of Spain
- Severo Ochoa, 1959 Nobel Prize winner for physiology or medicine
- Carmen Polo, wife of Spanish Chief of State General Francisco Franco
- Chechu Rubiera, cyclist
- Noel Fernández Hevia, expert Latin linguist and promoter of the Asturian language.
- José Andrés, chef
- David Villa, New York City FC and Spain international football star, European Champion 2008, World Champion 2010
- Juan Manuel Mata, Manchester United F.C. player, Spain international football star, World Champion 2010 and European Champion 2012
- Michu, S.S.C. Napoli striker
- Xaviel Vilareyo, national poet, writer and musician
- Samuel Sánchez, cyclist, Olympic gold medalist
- Sergio G Sánchez, writer
- Princess of Asturias Awards
- Asturian Revolution (Asturian History)
- Gijón International Film Festival (Entertainment)
- Avilés International Cinema and Architecture Festival (Entertainment)
- Arama 36/37: Association for the Recovery of Asturian Military Architecture 1936–1937
- Asturian architecture between the years 711 to 925
- Asturian cinema
- Asturcón pony
Notes and references
- "Fallece Rafael Fernández". La Voz de Asturias. 2010-12-18. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
- "Updating INE 22 December 2014". Ine.es.
- "Standard climate values for Oviedo". Agencia Estatal de Meteorología. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Map: These will be the Europe's most polluted cities in 2030". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "Modelling Street Level PM10 Concentrations Across Europe" (PDF). International Institute for Applied Science Systems. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "Air - Environment". European Commission. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "Healthy life expectancies in Spain 1986-2007" (PDF). Government of Spain: Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Air - Environment". European Commission. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Fertility rate, by NUTS2 regions number of live births per woman — Eurostat
- Inaugurada en Gijón la primera autopista del mar española; La Nueva España, 16 September 2010
- "Practical guide to making pibgyrn by Gerard KilBride". Pibgyrn.com. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- Sergio y Pablo Arce. "La Gaita Asturiana". Asturies.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- "FolkWorld Article: Llan de Cubel". Folkworld.de. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- cranky crow (2003-09-14). "Celtic music of Spain". World Music Central. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- "CITYFOLK MONTHLY - June 2006". Cityfolk.org. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- "Asturshop". Asturshop. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- Orquesta Sinfonica del Principado de Asturias
- "lkml extract". lkml. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- "L'Academia de la Llingua Asturiana". A.Ll.A. Archived from the original on 17 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- Bowen-Jones, H. and W.B. Fisher. Spain: An Introductory Geography. New York: Praeger, 1966.
- Dresner, Denise, ed. Guide to the World. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1998. S.v. "Asturias"
- Encyclopedia Americana. Danbury: Grolier, 2002. S.v. "Asturias"
- Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1997. S.v. "Asturias"