In baseball, an at bat (AB) or time at bat is a batter's turn batting against a pitcher. An at bat is different from a plate appearance. A batter is credited with a plate appearance regardless of what happens during his turn at bat, but a batter is credited with an at bat only if that plate appearance does not have one of the results enumerated below. While at bats are used to calculate certain statistics, including batting average and slugging percentage, a player can qualify for the season-ending rankings in these categories only if he accumulates 502 plate appearances during the season.
A batter will not receive credit for an at bat if his plate appearance ends under the following circumstances:
- He receives a base on balls (BB).[note 1]
- He is hit by a pitch (HBP).
- He hits a sacrifice fly or a sacrifice bunt (also known as sacrifice hit).
- He is awarded first base due to interference or obstruction, usually by the catcher.
- He is replaced by another hitter before his at bat is completed, in which case the plate appearance and any related statistics go to the pinch hitter (unless he is replaced with two strikes and his replacement completes a strikeout, in which case the at bat and strikeout are still charged to the first batter).
In addition, if the inning ends while he is still at bat (due to the third out being made by a runner caught stealing, for example), no at bat or plate appearance will result. In this case, the batter will come to bat again in the next inning, though the count will be reset to no balls and no strikes.
Rule 9.02(a)(1) of the official rules of Major League Baseball defines an at bat as: "Number of times batted, except that no time at bat shall be charged when a player: (A) hits a sacrifice bunt or sacrifice fly; (B) is awarded first base on four called balls; (C) is hit by a pitched ball; or (D) is awarded first base because of interference or obstruction[.]"
An at bat is counted when:
- The batter reaches first base on a hit
- The batter reaches first base on an error
- The batter is called out for any reason other than as part of a sacrifice
- There is a fielder's choice
Pete Rose had 14,053 career at bats, the all-time major league and National League record. The American League record is held by Carl Yastrzemski, whose 11,988 career at bats were all in the AL.
The single season record is held by Jimmy Rollins, who had 716 at bats in 2007; Willie Wilson, Ichiro Suzuki and Juan Samuel also had more than 700 at bats in a season. 14 players share the single game record of 11 at bats in a single game, all of which were extra inning games. In games of 9 innings or fewer, the record is 7 at bats and has occurred more than 200 times.
At bat as a phrase
"At bat", "up", "up at bat", and "at the plate" are all phrases describing a batter who is facing the pitcher. Note that just because a player is described as being "at bat" in this sense, he will not necessarily be given an at bat in his statistics; the phrase actually signifies a plate appearance (assuming it is eventually completed). This ambiguous terminology is usually clarified by context. To refer explicitly to the technical meaning of "at bat" described above, the term "official at bat" is sometimes used.
"Time at bat" in the rulebook
Official Baseball Rule 5.06(c) provides that "[a] batter has legally completed his time at bat when he is put out or becomes a runner" (emphasis added). The "time at bat" defined in this rule is more commonly referred to as a plate appearance, and the playing rules (Rules 1 through 8) uses the phrase "time at bat" in this sense[note 2]. In contrast, the scoring rules use the phrase "time at bat" to refer to the statistic at bat, defined in Rule 9.02(a)(1), but sometimes uses the phrase "official time at bat" or refers back to Rule 9.02(a)(1) when mentioning the statistic. The phrase "plate appearance" is used in Rules 9.22 and 9.23 dealing with batting titles and hitting streaks, but is not defined anywhere in the rulebook.
- In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases on balls as hits. The result was high batting averages, including some near .500, and the experiment was abandoned the following season.
- See, e.g., Rule 5.04(a)(3), which states that "[t]he first batter in each inning after the first inning shall be the player whose name follows that of the last player who legally completed his time at bat in the preceding inning" (emphasis added).
- "Official Baseball Rules" (PDF). Major League Baseball (2018 ed.). Office of the Commissioner of Baseball. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
- "Batting Season Finder: Spanning Multiple Seasons or entire Careers, From 1871 to 2018, (requiring AB>=10000), sorted by greatest At Bats". Baseball Reference. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
- "Pete Rose". Baseball Reference. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- "Batting Season & Career Finder: Spanning Multiple Seasons or entire Careers, Playing in the AL, From 1871 to 2018, (requiring AB>=10000), sorted by greatest At Bats". Baseball Reference. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- "Carl Yastrzemski". Baseball Reference. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- "Batting Season Finder: For Single Seasons, From 1871 to 2018, (requiring AB>=700), sorted by greatest At Bats". Baseball Reference. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
- "Batting Game Finder: From 1908 to 2018, (requiring AB>=11), sorted by most recent date". Baseball Reference. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
- "Batting Game Finder: From 1908 to 2018, Only 9-inning games or shortened, (requiring AB>=7), sorted by most recent date". Baseball Reference. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
- "Team Batting Season Finder: For Single Seasons, from 1871 to 2018, At Bats>=5750, Standard statistics, Sorted by greatest At Bats". Baseball Reference. Retrieved June 15, 2018.