Atacama Cosmology Telescope

Coordinates: 22°57′31″S 67°47′15″W / 22.9586°S 67.7875°W / -22.9586; -67.7875
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Atacama Cosmology Telescope
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope, with Cerro Toco in the background
Alternative namesACTpol Edit this at Wikidata
Part ofLlano de Chajnantor Observatory Edit this on Wikidata
Location(s)Atacama Desert
Coordinates22°57′31″S 67°47′15″W / 22.9586°S 67.7875°W / -22.9586; -67.7875 Edit this at Wikidata
Wavelength28, 41, 90, 150, 220 GHz (1.07, 0.73, 0.33, 0.20, 0.14 cm)
First light22 October 2007 Edit this on Wikidata
Telescope stylecosmic microwave background experiment
radio telescope Edit this on Wikidata
Diameter6 meter
Websiteact.princeton.edu Edit this at Wikidata
Atacama Cosmology Telescope is located in Chile
Atacama Cosmology Telescope
Location of Atacama Cosmology Telescope
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The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) was a cosmological millimeter-wave telescope located on Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert in the north of Chile.[1] ACT made high-sensitivity, arcminute resolution, microwave-wavelength surveys of the sky in order to study the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), the relic radiation left by the Big Bang process. Located 40 km from San Pedro de Atacama, at an altitude of 5,190 metres (17,030 ft), it was one of the highest ground-based telescopes in the world.[a]

Cosmic microwave background experiments like ACT, the South Pole Telescope, the WMAP satellite, and the Planck satellite have provided foundational evidence for the standard Lambda-CDM model of cosmology. ACT first detected seven acoustic peaks in the power spectrum of the CMB, discovered the most extreme galaxy cluster and made the first statistical detection of the motions of clusters of galaxies via the pairwise kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect.[3]

ACT was buit in 2007 and saw first light on October 2007 with its first receiver, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera (MBAC). ACT has had two major receiver upgrades which enabled polarization sensitive observations: ACTPol[4] (2013-2016) and Advanced ACT[5] (2017-2022). ACT observations ended in mid-2022. ACT is funded by the US National Science Foundation.

Science goals[edit]

Measurements of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) by experiments such as COBE, BOOMERanG, WMAP, CBI, the South Pole Telescope and many others, have greatly advanced our knowledge of cosmology, particularly the early evolution of the universe. At the arcminute resolutions probed by ACT, the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, by which galaxy clusters leave an imprint on the CMB, is prominent. This method of detection provides a redshift-independent measurement of the mass of the clusters, meaning that very distant, ancient clusters are as easy to detect as nearby clusters.

Atacama Cosmology Telescope observing patches and depth map

Detection of galaxy clusters and follow-up measurements in visible and X-ray light, provide a picture of the evolution of structure in the universe since the Big Bang. This is used to improve our understanding of the nature of the mysterious dark energy which seems to be a dominant component of the universe.

High sensitivity observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation allow precision measurements of cosmological parameters, detection of galaxy clusters among other scientific goals, probing the early and late stages in the history of the evolution of the universe.

Scientific highlights[edit]

Throughout its operation, ACT contributed the scientific community with:

  • The first detection of seven acoustic peaks in the power spectrum of the CMB.[6]
  • First detection of gravitational lensing in a CMB map only.[7]
  • First measurement of the cross-correlation between optical quasars and CMB lensing.
  • First measurement of the cross correlation between CMB lensing and galaxy lensing.
  • Discovery of the most extreme galaxy cluster.[8]
  • First measurement of the motions of clusters of galaxies using the kinematic pairwise Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect.[9][10]
  • Provided updated estimates of the Hubble constant.[11]
  • Provided evidence of dark energy using CMB data alone
  • First statistical detection of CMB lensing by massive halos
  • First measurement of the motions of clusters of galaxies using the velocity reconstruction method.[12]
  • First joint thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect galaxy profile measurement.[13]
  • A blind search for Planet Nine.[14]

Location[edit]

Aerial view of the Andes as seen from the vicinity of Calama, Chile. ACT is located on Cerro Toco, near Cerro Chajnantor and the Licancabur Volcano.

Water vapor in the atmosphere emits microwave radiation which contaminates measurements of the CMB, for this reason CMB telescopes benefit from arid, high-altitude locations. ACT is located in the dry and high (yet easily accessible) Chajnantor plateau in the Andean mountains in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. Due to the exceptional observing conditions of the Atacama Desert and its accessibility by road and nearby ports, several other observatories are located in the region, including CBI, ASTE, Nanten, APEX and ALMA. These astronomical observatories and telescopes form the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory, a cluster of astronomical telescopes primarily in millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths.

Design[edit]

The Atacama Cosmology Telescope viewed from the top of the outer ground screen. The top half of the segmented, primary mirror can be seen above the inner ground screen that moves with the telescope.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope. In this picture, the ground screen had not yet been completed, allowing the telescope to be seen.

Telescope[edit]

The ACT is an off-axis Gregorian telescope. This off-axis configuration is beneficial to minimize artifacts in the point spread function. The telescope reflectors consist of a six-metre (236 in) primary mirror and a two-metre (79 in) secondary mirror. Both mirrors are composed of segments, consisting of 71 (primary) and 11 (secondary) aluminum panels. These panels follow the shape of an ellipsoid of revolution and are carefully aligned to form a joint surface. Unlike most telescopes which track the rotating sky during observation, the ACT observes the sky by keeping the telescope oriented at a constant elevation and by scanning back and forth in azimuth at the relatively rapid rate of two degrees per second. The rotating portion of the telescope weighs approximately 32 tonnes (35 short tons), creating a substantial engineering challenge. A ground screen surrounding the telescope blocks contamination from microwave radiation emitted by the ground. The design, manufacture and construction of the telescope were done by Dynamic Structures in Vancouver, British Columbia.

Instrument[edit]

ACT can accommodate three instrument cameras simultaneously. Over time these cameras have been upgraded from the original MBAC design to the current Advanced ACT instrument progressively adding more features like polarization sensitivity and the ability to sense multiple frequencies in one instrument module. Each camera in ACT consists of a three lens system, the Gregorian focus is reimaged into a detector focal plane, a Lyot stop reimages the primary mirror allowing stray light mitigation.

The three lenses in ACT are made of cryogenically cooled anti-reflection coated silicon, a desirable material for instruments in the millimeter due to its high index of refraction (n=3). Anti-reflection coatings in ACTPol and AdvACT are made of sub-wavelength structured metamaterial silicon, an innovation in ground based CMB telescopes at the time. The optical components and the detector module are kept at a vacuum with a plastic window. A stack of filters reject infra-red radiation which is detrimental for mm-wavelength observations.

Radiation is thermally coupled to transition-edge sensor bolometers, which are read out using an array of SQUIDs.

Observations[edit]

Observations are made at resolutions of about an arcminute (1/60th of a degree) in three frequencies: 145 GHz, 215 GHz and 280 GHz. Each frequency is measured by a 3 cm × 3 cm (1.2 in × 1.2 in), 1024 element array, for a total of 3072 detectors. The detectors are superconducting transition-edge sensors, a technology whose high sensitivity allows measurements of the temperature of the CMB to within a few millionths of a degree.[15] A system of cryogenic helium refrigerators keep the detectors a third of a degree above absolute zero.

Detectors[edit]

ACT has had three generations of cameras. Each camera is the result of the development of specialized detector technology which has been optimized through the years. These cameras take advantage of superconducting transition edge sensor arrays to achieve high sensitivity.

The first array of cameras to populate the ACT focal plane (MBAC) consisted of three cameras where each one was sensitive to its own band and had no polarization sensitivity. The second generation of cameras (ACTPol) added polarization sensitivity and the first camera to be sensitive to two bands (dichroic). The third generation of cameras (AdvACT) incorporated the advances achieved in ACTPol, which allowed all cameras to be sensitive to two bands.

Phase Arrays Freq. (GHz) Sens. (µK√s) Pol. Years Patches
MBAC ar1 148 30 No 2008-2010 Equ South
ar2 217 ? No 2008-2010
ar3 277 ? No 2010
ACTPol pa1 150 17-29 Yes 2013-2015 D2 D5 D6 D56 D8 BN
pa2 150 13-18 Yes 2014-2016
pa3 90 16 Yes 2015-2016
150 21-22
AdvACT pa4 150 18.2 Yes 2017-2021 AA Day‑N Day‑S
220 34.1
pa5 98 12.5 Yes 2017-2021
150 13.9
pa6 98 11.3 Yes 2017-2019
150 12.6
pa7 27 ? Yes 2020-2021
39 ?

Institutions[edit]

ACT has collaborators at Princeton University, Cornell University, the University of Pennsylvania, NASA/GSFC, the Johns Hopkins University, the University of British Columbia, NIST, the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, the Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Stanford University, Stony Brook University, Cardiff University, Argonne National Laboratory, Haverford College, Rutgers University, the University of Pittsburgh, UC Berkeley, University of Southern California, the University of Oxford, the University of Paris-Saclay, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Caltech, McGill University, the Center for Computational Astrophysics, Arizona State University, Columbia University, Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Chicago, Haverford College, Florida State University, West Chester University, Yale University, and the University of Toronto. [16]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Receiver Lab Telescope (RLT), an 80 cm (31 in) instrument, is higher at 5,525 m (18,125 ft), but is not permanent as it is fixed to the roof of a movable shipping container.[2] The 2009 University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory is significantly higher than both.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fowler, J. W.; Niemack, M. D.; Dicker, S. R.; Aboobaker, A. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Battistelli, E. S.; Devlin, M. J.; Fisher, R. P.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hincks, A. D. (10 June 2007). "Optical design of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and the Millimeter Bolometric Array Camera". Applied Optics. 46 (17): 3444–3454. arXiv:astro-ph/0701020. Bibcode:2007ApOpt..46.3444F. doi:10.1364/AO.46.003444. ISSN 0003-6935. PMID 17514303. S2CID 10833374.
  2. ^ Marrone; et al. (2005). "Observations in the 1.3 and 1.5 THz Atmospheric Windows with the Receiver Lab Telescope". Sixteenth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology: 64. arXiv:astro-ph/0505273. Bibcode:2005stt..conf...64M.
  3. ^ Hand, Nick; Addison, Graeme E.; Aubourg, Eric; Battaglia, Nick; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bond, J. Richard; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, Jon; Brown, Benjamin R.; Das, Sudeep; Dawson, Kyle S.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando (23 July 2012). "Evidence of Galaxy Cluster Motions with the Kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect". Physical Review Letters. 109 (4): 041101. arXiv:1203.4219. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.041101. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 23006072.
  4. ^ Niemack, M. D.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, J.; Barrientos, F.; Beall, J. A.; Bond, J. R.; Britton, J.; Cho, H. M.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. (16 July 2010). "ACTPol: a polarization-sensitive receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope". In Holland, Wayne S.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas (eds.). Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy V. Vol. 7741. San Diego, California, USA. pp. 537–557. arXiv:1006.5049. doi:10.1117/12.857464. S2CID 27705474.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  5. ^ Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K. (1 August 2016). "Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout". Journal of Low Temperature Physics. 184 (3): 772–779. arXiv:1510.02809. Bibcode:2016JLTP..184..772H. doi:10.1007/s10909-016-1575-z. ISSN 1573-7357. S2CID 53411729.
  6. ^ Dunkley, J.; Hlozek, R.; Sievers, J.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Barrientos, L. F.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bond, J. R.; Brown, B.; Burger, B.; Chervenak, J.; Das, S. (20 September 2011). "The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmological Parameters from the 2008 Power Spectrum". The Astrophysical Journal. 739 (1): 52. arXiv:1009.0866. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/739/1/52. ISSN 0004-637X. S2CID 31436593.
  7. ^ Das, Sudeep; Sherwin, Blake D.; Aguirre, Paula; Appel, John W.; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D. (5 July 2011). "Detection of the Power Spectrum of Cosmic Microwave Background Lensing by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope". Physical Review Letters. 107 (2): 021301. arXiv:1103.2124. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.021301. PMID 21797590.
  8. ^ Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Sifón, Cristóbal; Hilton, Matt; González, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Felipe Barrientos, L.; Baker, Andrew J.; Bond, John R.; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Kosowsky, Arthur (20 March 2012). "THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: ACT-CL J0102–4915 "EL GORDO," A MASSIVE MERGING CLUSTER AT REDSHIFT 0.87". The Astrophysical Journal. 748 (1): 7. arXiv:1109.0953. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/748/1/7. ISSN 0004-637X. S2CID 204931508.
  9. ^ Ferreira, P. G.; Juszkiewicz, R.; Feldman, H. A.; Davis, M.; Jaffe, A. H. (10 April 1999). "Streaming Velocities as a Dynamical Estimator of Ω". The Astrophysical Journal. 515 (1): L1–L4. doi:10.1086/311959. ISSN 0004-637X.
  10. ^ Hand, Nick; Addison, Graeme E.; Aubourg, Eric; Battaglia, Nick; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bond, J. Richard; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, Jon; Brown, Benjamin R.; Das, Sudeep; Dawson, Kyle S.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando (23 July 2012). "Evidence of Galaxy Cluster Motions with the Kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect". Physical Review Letters. 109 (4): 041101. arXiv:1203.4219. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.041101. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 23006072.
  11. ^ Choi, Steve K.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Koopman, Brian; Lungu, Marius; Abitbol, Maximilian H.; Addison, Graeme E.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aiola, Simone; Alonso, David; Amiri, Mandana; Amodeo, Stefania; Angile, Elio; Austermann, Jason E.; Baildon, Taylor (30 December 2020). "The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: a measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background power spectra at 98 and 150 GHz". Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. 2020 (12): 045. arXiv:2007.07289. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2020/12/045. ISSN 1475-7516. S2CID 220525420.
  12. ^ Atacama Cosmology Telescope Collaboration; Schaan, Emmanuel; Ferraro, Simone; Amodeo, Stefania; Battaglia, Nicholas; Aiola, Simone; Austermann, Jason E.; Beall, James A.; Bean, Rachel; Becker, Daniel T.; Bond, Richard J.; Calabrese, Erminia; Calafut, Victoria; Choi, Steve K.; Denison, Edward V. (15 March 2021). "Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Combined kinematic and thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements from BOSS CMASS and LOWZ halos". Physical Review D. 103 (6): 063513. arXiv:2009.05557. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.103.063513.
  13. ^ Atacama Cosmology Telescope Collaboration; Schaan, Emmanuel; Ferraro, Simone; Amodeo, Stefania; Battaglia, Nicholas; Aiola, Simone; Austermann, Jason E.; Beall, James A.; Bean, Rachel; Becker, Daniel T.; Bond, Richard J.; Calabrese, Erminia; Calafut, Victoria; Choi, Steve K.; Denison, Edward V. (15 March 2021). "Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Combined kinematic and thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements from BOSS CMASS and LOWZ halos". Physical Review D. 103 (6): 063513. arXiv:2009.05557. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.103.063513.
  14. ^ Naess, Sigurd; Aiola, Simone; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, Richard J.; Calabrese, Erminia; Choi, Steve K.; Cothard, Nicholas F.; Halpern, Mark; Hill, J. Colin; Koopman, Brian J.; Devlin, Mark; McMahon, Jeff; Dicker, Simon; Duivenvoorden, Adriaan J.; Dunkley, Jo (1 December 2021). "The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Search for Planet 9". The Astrophysical Journal. 923 (2): 224. arXiv:2104.10264. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac2307. ISSN 0004-637X.
  15. ^ Fowler, J.; et al. (2007). "Optical Design of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and the Millimeter Bolometric Array Camera". Applied Optics. 46 (17): 3444–54. arXiv:astro-ph/0701020. Bibcode:2007ApOpt..46.3444F. doi:10.1364/AO.46.003444. PMID 17514303. S2CID 10833374.
  16. ^ "ACT public webpage".

External links[edit]