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Atelopus certus calling male edit.jpg
Male A. certus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Atelopus
Duméril and Bibron, 1841

See text


Ateleopus Agassiz, 1846 (unjustified emendation)

Atelopus is a large genus of true toads, commonly known as harlequin toads or stubfoot toads, from Central and South America, ranging as far north as Costa Rica and as far south as Bolivia. Atelopus species are small, generally brightly colored, and diurnal. Most species are associated with mid-to-high elevation streams. This genus has been greatly affected by amphibian declines, and many species are now considered endangered, while others already are extinct. While threatened by habitat loss, pollution, and introduced species, the primary cause of these declines appears to be the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.[1][2] For example, there are 32 known Atelopus species (including half a dozen undescribed) in Ecuador. One of these is data deficient (its status is unclear), two are endangered and the remaining are critically endangered.[3] Almost half the Ecuador species have not been recorded in a decade or more and are likely extinct. In some species conservationists have established captive colonies as a safeguard.[3]

New Atelopus species are discovered with some regularity, and many new species have been described in the last decade. Among others, a new subspecies, popularly dubbed the purple fluorescent frog, was discovered in 2007 by scientists Paul Ouboter and Jan Mol during a follow-up survey of the Nassau plateau in Suriname.[4] Leeanne Alonso from Conservation International, the organisation that led the expedition, said this frog may be threatened by illegal gold mining.[5] It was described as a new subspecies of Atelopus hoogmoedi (itself considered a subspecies of A. spumarius by some), named A. h. nassaui in 2012.[6]


Common name Binomial name
Andes stubfoot toad Atelopus andinus Rivero, 1968
Angelito stubfoot toad Atelopus angelito Ardila-Robayo and Ruiz-Carranza, 1998
Ardila's stubfoot toad Atelopus ardila Coloma, Duellman, Almendariz, Ron, Teran-Valdez, and Guayasamin, 2010
Atelopus arsyecue Rueda-Almonacid, 1994
Arthur's stubfoot toad Atelopus arthuri Peters, 1973
Rio Pescado stubfoot toad Atelopus balios Peters, 1973
Atelopus barbotini Lescure, 1981
Azuay stubfoot toad Atelopus bomolochos Peters, 1973
Boulenger's stubfoot toad Atelopus boulengeri Peracca, 1904
Rio Carauta stubfoot toad Atelopus carauta Ruiz-Carranza & Hernández-Camacho, 1978
Venezuelan yellow frog or La Carbonera stubfoot toad Atelopus carbonerensis Rivero, 1974
Guajira stubfoot toad Atelopus carrikeri Ruthven, 1916
Darien stubfoot toad or Toad Mountain harlequin frog Atelopus certus Barbour, 1923
Chiriqui harlequin frog Atelopus chiriquiensis Shreve, 1936
Chocó stubfoot toad Atelopus chocoensis Lötters, 1992
Atelopus chrysocorallus La Marca, 1996
Rio Faisanes stubfoot toad Atelopus coynei Miyata, 1980
Veragua stubfoot toad Atelopus cruciger (Lichtenstein & Martens, 1856)
Atelopus dimorphus Lötters, 2003
Huila stubfoot toad Atelopus ebenoides Rivero, 1963
Elegant stubfoot toad Atelopus elegans (Boulenger, 1882)
Atelopus epikeisthos Lötters, Schulte & Duellman, 2005
Carabaya stubfoot toad Atelopus erythropus Boulenger, 1903
Malvasa stubfoot toad Atelopus eusebianus Rivero & Granados-Díaz, 1993
Atelopus eusebiodiazi Venegas, Catenazzi, Siu-Ting & Carrillo, 2008
Atelopus exiguus Boettger, 1892
Atelopus famelicus Rivero & Morales, 1995
Forest stubfoot toad Atelopus farci Lynch, 1993
Cayenne stubfoot toad Atelopus flavescens Duméril & Bibron, 1841
Central Coast stubfoot toad Atelopus franciscus Lescure, 1974
Antado stubfoot toad Atelopus galactogaster Rivero & Serna, 1993
Pirri Range harlequin frog Atelopus glyphus Dunn, 1931
Guanujo stubfoot toad Atelopus guanujo Coloma, 2002
La Guitarra stubfoot toad Atelopus guitarraensis Osorno-Muñoz, Ardila-Robayo & Ruiz-Carranza, 2001
Morona-Santiago stubfoot toad Atelopus halihelos Peters, 1973
Quito stubfoot toad Atelopus ignescens (Cornalia, 1849)
Atelopus laetissimus Ruiz-Carranza, Ardila-Robayo & Hernández-Camacho, 1994
Limosa harlequin frog Atelopus limosus Ibáñez, Jaramillo & Solís, 1995
El Tambo stubfoot toad Atelopus longibrachius Rivero, 1963
Longnose stubfoot toad Atelopus longirostris Cope, 1868
Atelopus lozanoi Osorno-Muñoz, Ardila-Robayo & Ruiz-Carranza, 2001
Lynch's stubfoot toad Atelopus lynchi Cannatella, 1981
Atelopus mandingues Osorno-Muñoz, Ardila-Robayo & Ruiz-Carranza, 2001
Mindo stubfoot toad Atelopus mindoensis Peters, 1973
Colombian stubfoot toad Atelopus minutulus Ruiz-Carranza, Hernández-Camacho & Ardila-Robayo, 1988
Mittermeier's stubfoot toad Atelopus mittermeieri Acosta-Galvis, Rueda-Almonacid, Velásquez-Álvarez, Sánchez-Pacheco & Peña Prieto, 2006
Hernandez's stubfoot toad Atelopus monohernandezii Ardila-Robayo, Osorno-Muñoz & Ruiz-Carranza, 2002
Mucubaji stubfoot toad Atelopus mucubajiensis Rivero, 1974
La Arboleda stubfoot toad Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1992
Atelopus nahumae Ruiz-Carranza, Ardila-Robayo & Hernández-Camacho, 1994
Atelopus nanay Coloma, 2002
Gualecenita stubfoot toad Atelopus nepiozomus Peters, 1973
Niceforo's stubfoot toad Atelopus nicefori Rivero, 1963
Atelopus onorei Coloma, Lötters, Duellman & Miranda-Leiva, 2007
Atelopus orcesi Coloma, Duellman, Almendáriz, Ron, Terán-Valdez & Guayasamin, 2010
Rednose stubfoot toad Atelopus oxyrhynchus Boulenger, 1903
Schmidt's stubfoot toad Atelopus pachydermus (Schmidt, 1857)
Andersson's stubfoot toad Atelopus palmatus Andersson, 1945
Pataz stubfoot toad Atelopus patazensis Venegas, Catenazzi, Siu-Ting & Carrillo, 2008
San Isidro stubfoot toad Atelopus pedimarmoratus Rivero, 1963
Peru stubfoot toad Atelopus peruensis Gray & Cannatella, 1985
Peters' stubfoot toad Atelopus petersi Coloma, Lötters, Duellman & Miranda-Leiva, 2007
Atelopus petriruizi Ardila-Robayo, 1999
Painted stubfoot toad Atelopus pictiventris Kattan, 1986
Pinango stubfoot toad Atelopus pinangoi Rivero, 1982
Napo stubfoot toad Atelopus planispina Jiménez de la Espada, 1875
Atelopus pulcher Boulenger, 1882
Atelopus pyrodactylus Venegas & Barrio, 2006
Atelopus quimbaya Ruiz-Carranza & Osorno-Muñoz, 1994
Atelopus reticulatus Lötters, Haas, Schick & Böhme, 2002
Anori stubfoot toad Atelopus sanjosei Rivero & Serna, 1989
Upper Amazon stubfoot toad Atelopus seminiferus Cope, 1874
Pass stubfoot toad Atelopus senex Taylor, 1952
Atelopus sernai Ruiz-Carranza & Osorno-Muñoz, 1994
Atelopus simulatus Ruiz-Carranza & Osorno-Muñoz, 1994
Atelopus siranus Lötters &Henzl, 2000
Sonsón stubfoot toad Atelopus sonsonensis Vélez-Rodriguez & Ruiz-Carranza, 1997
Cloud forest stubfoot toad Atelopus sorianoi La Marca, 1983
Pebas stubfoot toad Atelopus spumarius Cope, 1871
Condoto stubfoot toad Atelopus spurrelli Boulenger, 1914
Bogota stubfoot toad Atelopus subornatus Werner, 1899
Venezuela stubfoot toad Atelopus tamaensis La Marca, García-Pérez & Renjifo, 1990
Three-colored stubfoot toad Atelopus tricolor Boulenger, 1902
Veragoa stubfoot toad Atelopus varius (Lichtenstein & Martens, 1856)
Atelopus vogli Müller, 1934
Walker's stubfoot toad Atelopus walkeri Rivero, 1963
Panamanian golden frog Atelopus zeteki Dunn, 1933

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Lötters, Kielgast, Bielby, Schmidtlein, Bosch, Veith, Walker, Fisher, Rödder (2009). The Link Between Rapid Enigmatic Amphibian Decline and the Globally Emerging Chytrid Fungus. EcoHealth 6(3): 358-372
  2. ^ Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani and Young, editors (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Pp. 100, 160-178. ISBN 978-84-96553-41-5
  3. ^ a b Tapia; Coloma; Pazmiño-Otamendi; and Peñafiel (2017). Rediscovery of the nearly extinct longnose harlequin frog Atelopus longirostris (Bufonidae) in Junín, Imbabura, Ecuador. Neotropical Biodiversity 3 (1).
  4. ^ "MSN | Outlook, Office, Skype, Bing, Breaking News, and Latest Videos".
  5. ^ Zabarenko, Deborah (2007-06-04). "Purple frog among 24 new species found in Suriname". Reuters. Retrieved 2007-05-06.
  6. ^ Amphibians of Suriname, Paul E. Ouboter and Rawien Jairam, Brill 2012, ISBN 978-90-04-21075-2

External links[edit]