Atelopus senex

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Atelopus senex
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Atelopus
Species: A. senex
Binomial name
Atelopus senex
Taylor, 1952

Atelopus senex (common name: pass stubfoot toad) is a critically endangered, possibly extinct species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Costa Rica and known from the Cordillera Central and Cordillera de Talamanca at elevations of 1,100–2,200 m (3,600–7,200 ft) asl.[1][2][3][4]


Males measure 28–32 mm (1.1–1.3 in) and females 30–43 mm (1.2–1.7 in) in snout–vent length. Males are bluish gray, blue-green, black, or occasionally greenish, without patterning. Females may have patterning consisting of cream, lemon, or lime-coloured lighter areas.[4]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

Its natural habitats are stream margins in premontane and lower montane rainforests.[1] It was formerly abundant but has seen a drastic population decline. Last seen in 1986, it might already be extinct.[1][3] Its decline is likely to have been caused by chytridiomycosis, although climate change, pet trade, and pollution are also possible threats.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e Bolaños, F.; Chaves, G. & Barrantes, U. (2008). "Atelopus senex". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Eleutherodactylus rufifemoralis Noble and Hassler, 1933". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  3. ^ a b Luis Humberto Elizondo C.; Federico Bolaños V. (1999–2014). "Atelopus senex". Biodiversidad de Costa Rica. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "Atelopus senex". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.