|Drug class||Antineoplastic agent|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||144612.59 g·mol−1|
In May 2018, atezolizumab was in combination with Avastin and standard chemotherapy for some patients with lung cancer was granted priority review.
In September 2018, it was announced that atezolizumab prolongs survival in extensive stage small cell lung cancer treatment, according to study results presented at the 19th World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC) in Toronto, Canada.
In March 2019, it was approved in the United States, in combination with paclitaxel protein-bound, for adult patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) whose tumors express PD-L1 (PD-L1 stained tumor-infiltrating immune cells [IC] of any intensity covering ≥ 1% of the tumor area), as determined by an FDA-approved test. The FDA also approved the VENTANA PD-L1 (SP142) Assay as a companion diagnostic device for selecting TNBC patients for atezolizumab.
Approval was based on IMpassion130 (NCT02425891), a multicenter, international, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial that included 902 patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic TNBC who had not received prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either atezolizumab (840 mg) or placebo intravenous infusions on days 1 and 15 of every 28-day cycle, plus paclitaxel protein-bound (100 mg/m2) administered via intravenous infusion on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 28-day cycle.
Tumor specimens (archival or fresh) were evaluated prospectively using the VENTANA PD-L1 (SP142) Assay at a central laboratory and the results were used as a stratification factor for randomization and to define the PD-L1 positive population for pre-specified analyses.
In patients whose tumors express PD-L1, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.4 months (6.6, 9.2) for patients receiving atezolizumab with paclitaxel protein-bound and 4.8 months (3.8, 5.5) for those receiving placebo with paclitaxel protein-bound. The stratified hazard ratio for PFS was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.77; p<0.0001) in favor of the atezolizumab plus paclitaxel protein-bound arm. Objective response rate (ORR) in patients with confirmed responses was 53% compared to 33% for the atezolizumab and the placebo-containing arms, respectively. Overall survival data were immature with 43% deaths in the intent to treat (ITT) population.
In March 2019, it was approved in the United States, in combination with carboplatin and etoposide, for the first-line treatment of adult patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC).
Approval was based on IMpower133 (NCT02763579), a randomized (1:1), multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 403 patients with ES-SCLC who received no prior chemotherapy for extensive stage disease and had ECOG performance status 0 or 1. Patients were randomized to one of the following:
- atezolizumab 1200 mg and carboplatin AUC 5 mg/mL/min on day 1 and etoposide 100 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 2 and 3 of each 21-day cycle for a maximum of 4 cycles, followed by atezolizumab 1200 mg once every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity, or
- placebo and carboplatin AUC 5 mg/mL/min on day 1 and etoposide 100 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 2, and 3 of each 21-day cycle for a maximum of 4 cycles, followed by placebo once every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Major efficacy outcome measures were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) as assessed by investigator per RECIST 1.1 in the intent-to-treat population. Median OS was 12.3 months (10.8, 15.9) for patients receiving atezolizumab with chemotherapy and 10.3 months (9.3, 11.3) for those receiving placebo with chemotherapy (hazard ratio 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.91; p=0.0069). Median PFS was 5.2 months (4.4, 5.6) compared with 4.3 months (4.2, 4.5) in the atezolizumab and placebo arms, respectively (HR 0.77; 0.62, 0.96; p=0.0170).
In May 2016, the FDA granted accelerated approval to atezolizumab for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma treatment after failure of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The confirmatory trial (to convert the accelerated approval into a full approval) failed to achieve its primary endpoint of overall survival. In 2018, FDA altered the use of atezolizumab as a first-line treatment for metastatic bladder cancer in patients who can't receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy and have high levels of PD-L1.
In October 2016, FDA approved atezolizumab for the treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease progressed during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy. Patients with EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations should have disease progression on FDA-approved therapy for these aberrations prior to receiving atezolizumab.
In March 2019, the FDA approved Atezolizumab for the treatment of patients with triple-negative breast cancer.
Mechanism of action
Atezolizumab blocks the interaction of PD-L1 with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and CD80 receptors (B7-1Rs). PD-L1 can be highly expressed on certain tumors, which is thought to lead to reduced activation of immune cells (cytotoxic T-cells in particular) that might otherwise recognize and attack the cancer. Inhibition of PD-L1 by atezolizumab can remove this inhibitor effect and thereby engender an anti-tumor response. It is one of several ways to block inhibitory signals related to T-cell activation, a more general strategy known as "immune checkpoint inhibition."
For some cancers (notably bladder) the probability of benefit is related to PD-L1 expression, but most cancers with PD-L1 expression still do not respond, and many (about 15%) without PD-L1 expression do respond.
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