Atheism in the United States

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Atheist Americans
Total population

27,787,098
(lack of belief in god/gods)
(2014)
[1][2]

9,571,112
(self described atheists)
(2014)
[1][2]
Religions

Irreligion:
(including antitheism, agnostic atheism, apatheism, casualism, counter-apologeticism, debaptism evangelical atheism, freethought/freethinker, ignosticism, implicit and explicit atheism, Marxist–Leninist atheism, negative and positive atheism, nonbeliever, nontheism, post-theism, rationalism, new/scientific atheism, secular humanism, skepticism, etc.)

Secular religions:
Buddhism
(including secular Buddhism, etc.)
Christian atheism
(including Cultural Christian (Cultural Catholic, Cultural Mormon, Nontheist Quakers, etc.), Lapsed Catholic, Recovering Catholic, Rice Christian, etc.)
Ethical movement
Hinduism
(including Adevism, Charvaka, Hindu atheist, etc.)
Jainism
Jewish atheism
(including Cultural Judaism, etc.)
Modern Paganism
Muslim atheism
(including Cultural Muslim, etc.)
New religious movements
(including Creativity, Raëlism, etc.)
Parody religions
(including Church of Satan, Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster/Pastafarianism, Invisible Pink Unicorn, Jediism, LaVeyan Satanism, etc.)
Satanism
Taoism
Unitarian Universalism

According to the Pew Research Center in a 2014 survey, self-identified "atheists" make up 3.1% of the US population, despite the fact that 9% of Americans do not have a belief in a god.[2] According to the 2014 General Sociological Survey, 21% of the American population does not identify with a religion; furthermore, the number of atheists and agnostics in the U.S. has remained relatively flat in the past 23 years. In 1991, only 2% identified as atheist, and 4% identified as agnostic. In 2014, only 3.1% identified as atheists, and 5% identified as agnostics.[3] In 2009, Pew stated that only 5% of the US population did not have a belief in a god and out of that small group only 24% self-identified as "atheist", while 15% self-identified as "agnostic" and 35% self-identified as "nothing in particular".[4] According to the 2008 ARIS, only 2% the US population was atheist, while 10% were agnostics.[5] However, a new survey using binary wording found that around 27% of Americans don't believe in god, but they were not comfortable with directly admitting it. However, methodological problems have been identified with the study since people do not have binary relationships to question on God and instead have more complex responses to such questions.[6]

Accurate demographics of atheism are difficult to obtain since conceptions of atheism and self-identification are context dependent by culture.[7]

Demographics[edit]

Age[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods among age groups in the United States (2014)
Age group % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
18-29 year old Americans 16 16
 
6 6
 
[2]
30-49 year old Americans 9 9
 
3 3
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
3.1 3.1
 
[2]
50-64 year old Americans 6 6
 
2 2
 
[2]
65+ year old Americans 6 6
 
2 2
 
[2]

Education[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods among education in the United States (2014)
Generation % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
Post-graduate degree, Americans 14 14
 
5 5
 
[2]
College graduate, Americans 14 14
 
5 5
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
3.1 3.1
 
[2]
Some college, Americans 9 9
 
3 3
 
[2]
High school or less, Americans 6 6
 
2 2
 
[2]

Gender[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods among genders in the United States (2014)
Gender % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
Male American 12 12
 
4 4
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
3.1 3.1
 
[2]
Female American 6 6
 
2 2
 
[2]

Generation[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods among generations in the United States (2014)
Generation % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
Younger Millennial Americans 17 17
 
6 6
 
[2]
Older Millennial Americans 13 13
 
4 4
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
3.1 3.1
 
[2]
Generation X Americans 9 9
 
3 3
 
[2]
Greatest Americans 7 7
 
2 2
 
[2]
Baby Boomer Americans 6 6
 
2 2
 
[2]
Silent Americans 6 6
 
1 1
 
[2]

Household income[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods among household income in the United States (2014)
Generation % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
$100,000 or more, Americans 14 14
 
5 5
 
[2]
$50,000-$99,999, Americans 11 11
 
3 3
 
[2]
$30,000-$49,999, Americans 9 9
 
3 3
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
3.1 3.1
 
[2]
Less than $30,000, Americans 7 7
 
2 2
 
[2]

Immigrant status[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods among immigrant status in the United States (2014)
Generation % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
Second generation Americans 14 14
 
4 4
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
3.1 3.1
 
[2]
Third generation or higher Americans 9 9
 
3 3
 
[2]
Immigrants 8 8
 
3 3
 
[2]

Marital status[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods among marital status in the United States (2014)
Generation % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
Never married Americans 15 15
 
5 5
 
[2]
Living with a partner Americans 14 14
 
5 5
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
3.1 3.1
 
[2]
Married Americans 7 7
 
2 2
 
[2]
Divorced/separated Americans 6 6
 
2 2
 
[2]
Widowed Americans 3 3
 
1 1
 
[2]

Metro area[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods/self described atheists among metro areas in the United States (2014)
State/federal district % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
Greater San Francisco Bay Area 21 21
 
5 5
 
[2]
Seattle metropolitan area 20 20
 
10 10
 
[2]
Boston metropolitan area 17 17
 
4 4
 
[2]
Providence metropolitan area 15 15
 
4 4
 
[2]
Baltimore metropolitan area 14 14
 
3 3
 
[2]
Philadelphia metropolitan area 13 13
 
5 5
 
[2]
Tampa metropolitan area 13 13
 
4 4
 
[2]
San Diego metropolitan area 12 12
 
3 3
 
[2]
Washington metropolitan area 12 12
 
4 4
 
[2]
Greater Los Angeles Area 11 11
 
4 4
 
[2]
New York metropolitan area 11 11
 
4 4
 
[2]
Phoenix metropolitan area 11 11
 
3 3
 
[2]
Chicago metropolitan area 10 10
 
3 3
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
3.1 3.1
 
[2]
Detroit metropolitan area 9 9
 
3 3
 
[2]
Miami metropolitan area 9 9
 
3 3
 
[2]
Riverside metropolitan area 8 8
 
1 1
 
[2]
Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex 7 7
 
1 1
 
[2]
Atlanta metropolitan area 6 6
 
3 3
 
[2]
Houston metropolitan area 6 6
 
2 2
 
[2]
St. Louis metropolitan area 6 6
 
3 3
 
[2]
Pittsburgh metropolitan area 5 5
 
3 3
 
[2]

Political affiliation[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods among political affiliation in the United States (2014)
Racial group % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
Democrat/Lean Democrat Americans 13 13
 
5 5
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
3.1 3.1
 
[2]
No lean, Americans 9 9
 
3 3
 
[2]
Republican/Lean Republican Americans 5 5
 
1 1
 
[2]

Parental status[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods among parental status in the United States (2014)
Racial group % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
Non-parents of children under 18 year old Americans 10 10
 
3 3
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
3.1 3.1
 
[2]
Parents of children under 18 year old Americans 7 7
 
2 2
 
[2]

Political ideology[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods among political ideology in the United States (2014)
Racial group % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
Liberal Americans 19 19
 
7 7
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
3.1 3.1
 
[2]
Moderate Americans 9 9
 
3 3
 
[2]
Don't know, Americans 8 8
 
[2]
Conservative Americans 3 3
 
1 1
 
[2]

Race[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods among racial groups in the United States (2014)
Racial group % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
Asian Americans 19 19
 
6 6
 
[2]
White Americans 11 11
 
4 4
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
3.1 3.1
 
[2]
Other/Mixed Americans 8 8
 
2 2
 
[2]
Latino Americans 6 6
 
2 2
 
[2]
African Americans 2 2
 
1 1
 
[2]

Region[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods/self described atheists among regions in the United States (2014)
State/federal district % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
Northeastern United States 12 12
 
4 4
 
[2]
Western United States 12 12
 
4 4
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
3.1 3.1
 
[2]
Midwestern United States 8 8
 
3 3
 
[2]
Southern United States 7 7
 
2 2
 
[2]

Religion[edit]

Lack of belief in god/gods among religious/belief groups in the United States (2014)
Religious group % of lack of belief in god/gods Source
Atheist Americans 92 92
 
[2]
Agnostic Americans 41 41
 
[2]
Nothing in particular (religion not important), Americans 33 33
 
[2]
Unaffiliated Americans 33 33
 
[2]
Buddhist Americans 27 27
 
[2]
New Age movement, Americans 21 21
 
[2]
Nothing in particular, Americans 20 20
 
[2]
Unitarians and other liberal faiths in "other faiths", Americans 19 19
 
[2]
Jewish Americans 17 17
 
[2]
Hindu Americans 10 10
 
[2]
Americans 9 9
 
[2]
Episcopalian (Mainline Protestant) Americans 4 4
 
[2]
Anglican Church, Americans 3 3
 
[2]
Episcopal Church, Americans 3 3
 
[2]
Nothing in particular (religion important), Americans 3 3
 
[2]
Eastern Orthodox Americans 3 3
 
[2]
Lutheran (Mainline Protestant) Americans 2 2
 
[2]
Mainline Protestant Americans 2 2
 
[2]
Nondenominational (Mainline Protestant) Americans 2 2
 
[2]
Roman Catholic Americans 2 2
 
[2]
Baptist (Mainline Protestant) Americans 1 1
 
[2]
Christian Americans 1 1
 
[2]
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Americans 1 1
 
[2]
Muslim Americans 1 1
 
[2]
Pentecostal (Evangelical Protestant) Americans 1 1
 
[2]
Presbyterian (Evangelical Protestant) Americans 1 1
 
[2]
Presbyterian (Mainline Protestant) Americans 1 1
 
[2]
Presbyterian Church in America, Americans 1 1
 
[2]
Presbyterian Church, Americans 1 1
 
[2]
United Church of Christ, Americans 1 1
 
[2]
United Methodist Church, Americans 1 1
 
[2]
Adventist (Evangelical Protestant) Americans <1 [2]
African Methodist Episcopal Church, Americans <1 [2]
American Baptist Churches, Americans <1 [2]
Assemblies of God, Americans <1 [2]
Baptist (Evangelical Protestant) Americans <1 [2]
Baptist (Historically Black Protestant) Americans <1 [2]
Church of God, Americans <1 [2]
Church of God in Christ, Americans <1 [2]
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Americans <1 [2]
Church of the Nazarene, Americans <1 [2]
Churches of Christ, Americans <1 [2]
Evangelical Protestant Americans <1 [2]
Historically Black Protestant, Americans <1 [2]
Holiness (Evangelical Protestant), Americans <1 [2]
Independent Baptist (Evangelical Protestant) Americans <1 [2]
Interdenominational (Evangelical Protestant) Americans <1 [2]
Interdenominational (Mainline Protestant) Americans <1 [2]
Jehovah's Witness, Americans <1 [2]
Lutheran (Evangelical Protestant) Americans <1 [2]
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, Americans <1 [2]
Methodist (Historically Black Protestant) Americans <1 [2]
Mormon Americans <1 [2]
National Baptist Convention, Americans <1 [2]
Nondenominational (Evangelical Protestant) Americans <1 [2]
Nondenominational (Historically Black Protestant) Americans <1 [2]
Nondenominational charismatic Americans <1 [2]
Nondenominational evangelical Americans <1 [2]
Nondenominational fundamentalist Americans <1 [2]
Pentecostal (Historically Black Protestant) Americans <1 [2]
Restorationist (Evangelical Protestant) Americans <1 [2]
Seventh-day Adventist Americans <1 [2]
Southern Baptist Convention, Americans <1 [2]

Sexual orientation[edit]

Self described atheists among sexual orientations in the United States (2014)
Sexual orientation % of self described atheists Source
LGB Americans 8 8
 
[2]
Americans 3.1 3.1
 
[2]
Straight Americans 3 3
 
[2]

State/federal district[edit]

Disbelief in god/gods in the United States by state/territory in 2014
  Disbelief in god/gods—20-30%
  Disbelief in god/gods—10-20%
  Disbelief in god/gods—<10%
Lack of belief in god/gods/self described atheists among states/local district in the United States (2014)
State/federal district % of lack of belief in god/gods % of self described atheists Source
# of population # of population
 Vermont 131,406 21 21
 
43,802 7 7
 
[2][1]
 Massachusetts 1,178,573 18 18
 
327,381 5 5
 
[2][1]
 Maine 212,538 16 16
 
26,567 2 2
 
[2][1]
 New Hampshire 210,635 16 16
 
78,988 6 6
 
[2][1]
 District of Columbia 84,241 14 14
 
24,069 4 4
 
[2][1]
 Oregon 498,040 13 13
 
191,554 5 5
 
[2][1]
 Washington 874,190 13 13
 
336,227 5 5
 
[2][1]
 Alaska 85,228 12 12
 
35,512 5 5
 
[2][1]
 California 4,470,475 12 12
 
1,490,158 4 4
 
[2][1]
 Nevada 324,066 12 12
 
135,028 5 5
 
[2][1]
 Wisconsin 682,438 12 12
 
170,610 3 3
 
[2][1]
 New York 2,131,591 11 11
 
968,905 5 5
 
[2][1]
 Idaho 172,434 11 11
 
31,352 2 2
 
[2][1]
 New Mexico 226,510 11 11
 
61,775 3 3
 
[2][1]
 Rhode Island 115,782 11 11
 
42,103 4 4
 
[2][1]
 Arizona 639,202 10 10
 
191,761 3 3
 
[2][1]
 Colorado 502,920 10 10
 
201,168 4 4
 
[2][1]
 Florida 1,880,131 10 10
 
564,039 3 3
 
[2][1]
 Indiana 648,380 10 10
 
194,514 3 3
 
[2][1]
 Maryland 577,355 10 10
 
173,207 3 3
 
[2][1]
 Pennsylvania 1,270,238 10 10
 
381,071 3 3
 
[2][1]
 Hawaii 122,427 9 9
 
27,206 2 2
 
[2][1]
 Illinois 1,154,757 9 9
 
384,919 3 3
 
[2][1]
 Iowa 274,172 9 9
 
121,854 4 4
 
[2][1]
 Michigan 889,528 9 9
 
296,509 3 3
 
[2][1]
 Minnesota 477,353 9 9
 
159,118 3 3
 
[2][1]
 Nebraska 164,371 9 9
 
18,263 1 1
 
[2][1]
 United States 27,787,098 9 9
 
9,571,112 3.1 3.1
 
[2][1]
 Montana 79,153 8 8
 
39,577 4 4
 
[2][1]
 New Jersey 703,352 8 8
 
175,838 2 2
 
[2][1]
  North Dakota 53,807 8 8
 
13,452 2 2
 
[2][1]
 Utah 221,111 8 8
 
82,917 3 3
 
[2][1]
 Virginia 640,082 8 8
 
160,020 2 2
 
[2][1]
 Kentucky 303,756 7 7
 
173,574 4 4
 
[2][1]
 Delaware 62,855 7 7
 
17,959 2 2
 
[2][1]
 Iowa 213,245 7 7
 
121,854 4 4
 
[2][1]
 Kansas 199,718 7 7
 
57,062 2 2
 
[2][1]
 North Carolina 667,484 7 7
 
190,710 2 2
 
[2][1]
 Ohio 807,555 7 7
 
230,730 2 2
 
[2][1]
 South Dakota 56,993 7 7
 
24,425 3 3
 
[2][1]
 Georgia 581,259 6 6
 
193,753 2 2
 
[2][1]
 Louisiana 272,002 6 6
 
90,667 2 2
 
[2][1]
 Missouri 359,336 6 6
 
119,779 2 2
 
[2][1]
 Texas 1,508,734 6 6
 
502,911 2 2
 
[2][1]
 Wyoming 33,818 6 6
 
16,909 3 3
 
[2][1]
 South Carolina 231,268 5 5
 
46,254 1 1
 
[2][1]
 West Virginia 92,650 5 5
 
18,530 1 1
 
[2][1]
 Arkansas 116,637 4 4
 
58,318 2 2
 
[2][1]
 Mississippi 118,692 4 4
 
29,673 1 1
 
[2][1]
 Tennessee 190,383 3 3
 
63,461 1 1
 
[2][1]
 Alabama 95,595 2 2
 
47,797 1 1
 
[2][1]

Public officials[edit]

Federal officials[edit]

United States Representatives[edit]

Arizona
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Kyrsten Sinema Kyrsten Sinema Arizona 1st United States Arizona Representative of the 9th district Democratic 2013–present [8]
California
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Pete Stark Pete Stark California 9th United States California Representative of the 8th district Democratic 1973–1975 [9]
Pete Stark Pete Stark California 11th United States California Representative of the 9th district Democratic 1975–1993 [9]
Pete Stark Pete Stark California 9th United States California Representative of the 13th district Democratic 1993–2013 [9]
Massachusetts
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Barney Frank Barney Frank Massachusetts 39th United States Maine Representative of the 4th district Democratic 1981–2013 [10]

United States Senators[edit]

Oklahoma
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Thomas Gore Thomas Gore Oklahoma 1st Class 3rd United States Senator of Oklahoma Democratic 1907–1921 [11]
Thomas Gore Thomas Gore Oklahoma 3rd Class 1st United States Senator of Oklahoma Democratic 1931–1937 [11]

State officials[edit]

State governors[edit]
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Culbert Olson California 29th Governor of California Democratic 1939–1943 [12]
Minnesota
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Jesse Ventura Jesse Ventura Minnesota 38th Governor of Minnesota Reform
(1998-2000)
Independence
(2000-2003)
1999–2003 [13]
State legislators[edit]
Nebraska
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Ernie Chambers Nebraska 11th district Nebraska legislator Independent 1971–2009
2013–present
[14]
State representatives[edit]
Arizona
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Kyrsten Sinema Kyrsten Sinema Arizona 15th district Arizona State Representative Democratic 2005–2011 [8]
Maine
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Sean Faircloth Sean Faircloth Maine 17th / 117th district Maine Representative Democratic 1992–1994
2002–2008
Massachusetts
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Barney Frank Barney Frank Massachusetts 5th Suffolk district Massachusetts State Representative Democratic 1973–1979 [10]
Barney Frank Barney Frank Massachusetts 8th Suffolk district Massachusetts State Representative Democratic 1979–1981 [10]
State senators[edit]
Arizona
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Kyrsten Sinema Kyrsten Sinema Arizona 15th district Arizona State Senator Democratic 2011–2012 [8]
California
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Culbert Olson Utah California State Senator Democratic 1934–1938 [12]
Maine
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Sean Faircloth Sean Faircloth Maine 9th district Maine Senator Democratic 1994–1996
Nevada
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Lori Lipman Brown Lori Lipman Brown Nevada Nevada State Senator Democratic 1992–1994 [15]
Utah
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Culbert Olson Utah Utah State Senator Democratic 1916–1920 [12]
Local officials[edit]
Mayors[edit]
Minnesota
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Jesse Ventura Jesse Ventura Minnesota Mayor of Brooklyn Park, Minnesota Independent 1991–1995 [13]
Utah
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Rocky Anderson Rocky Anderson Utah 33rd Mayor of Salt Lake City, Utah Democratic 2000–2008 [16]
Chairperson of the City Council[edit]
Maine
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Sean Faircloth Sean Faircloth Maine Chairperson of the City Council of Bangor, Maine Democratic 2016–present
City councilors[edit]
North Carolina
Photo Name State Position Party Term Source
Cecil Bothwell Cecil Bothwell North Carolina City councilor of Asheville, North Carolina Democratic 2009–present

Political views[edit]

Richard B. Spencer, founder of the alt-right
Ayn Rand, founder of Objectivism

A June–September 2014 Pew Research Center survey found that 69% of atheist Americans identity as Democratic or lean Democratic, 17% have no lean, 15% identity as Republican, 56% liberal, 29% moderate, 10% conservative, and 5% don't know. Among Americans who don't believe in god/gods, 65% identity as Democratic or lean Democratic, 17% have no lean, 18% identity as Republican, 50% liberal, 31% moderate, 13% conservative, and 6% don't know. That makes atheist and nonbelievers in god/gods Americans as belief groups to be the most politically liberal belief group in America and the least politically aligned belief group with Republicans and conservatism in the United States.[2]

A October 2013 Public Religion Research Institute American Values Survey found 58% of American libertarians report they believe in a personal god, 25% believe god is an impersonal force in the universe, and 16% report that they do not believe in a god. It also found 73% of Americans who identify with the Tea Party report they believe in a personal god, 19% believe god is an impersonal force in the universe, and 6% report that they do not believe in a god. It also found 90% of white evangelical Protestants report they believe in a personal god, 8% believe god is an impersonal force in the universe, and less than 1% report that they do not believe in a god.[17]

List of atheist Americans[edit]

Organizations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba 2014 US Census
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs Religious Landscape Study
  3. ^ Hout, Michael; Smith, Tom (March 2015). "Fewer Americans Affiliate with Organized Religions, Belief and Practice Unchanged: Key Findings from the 2014 General Social Survey" (PDF). General Social Survey. NORC. The percentage answering 'no religion' was 21 percent in 2014, 20 percent in 2012, just 14 percent as recently as 2000, and only 8 percent in 1990." & "In 2014, 3 percent of Americans did not believe in God and 5 percent expressed an agnostic view; the comparable percentages were 2 percent and 4 percent in 1991. More people believed in a 'higher power' in 2014 (13%) than in 1991 (7%). 
  4. ^ "Not All Nonbelievers Call Themselves Atheists | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project". Pewforum.org. 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2014-02-27. 
  5. ^ Kosmin, Barry; Keysar, Ariela (2009). "American Nones: The Profile of the No Religion Population" (PDF). Trinity Colloge. 
  6. ^ Resnick, Brian (13 April 2017). "How many American atheists are there really?". Vox. Vox Media. Vox Media. Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
  7. ^ Zuckerman, Phil (2007), "Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns", Cambridge Companion to Atheism, pp. 47–66, doi:10.1017/CCOL0521842700.004 
  8. ^ a b c Kimberly Winston (2012-11-08). "Kyrsten Sinema, Arizona Democrat, To Replace Pete Stark As Sole Atheist In Congress". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-11-08. 
  9. ^ a b c Stark called himself "a Unitarian who does not believe in a supreme being" and has been identified as an atheist. Rep. Stark applauded for atheist outlook: Believed to be first congressman to declare nontheism, Associated Press, March 13, 2007 (Accessed June 15, 2007)
  10. ^ a b c Wong, Curtis (2013-08-09). "Barney Frank's 'Pot-Smoking Atheist' Revelation Discussed On 'The Rubin Report'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  11. ^ a b "Real Time with Bill Maher Episode #149 April 10, 2009". www.veoh.com. 
  12. ^ a b c The Hon. Atheist Governor: Culbert L. Olson
  13. ^ a b "Jesse Ventura". NNDB.com. Retrieved 25 April 2012. Formerly a Lutheran, Ventura generally considers himself an atheist. 
  14. ^ Hammel, Paul. "Ernie Chambers targets 'so help me God' in oaths". Omaha World-Herald. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  15. ^ ""You can be elected as an openly gay politician in this country, but you can't be elected as an openly atheistic one", said Lori Lipman Brown, who was hired last fall to be the Washington, D.C., lobbyist for an organization devoted to atheist causes, the Secular Coalition for America. She's believed to be the first paid lobbyist for the unbelievers in the nation's capital, the front lines of the culture wars. Now, all Brown is seeking is a constituency willing to go public. "Think of where the LGBT movement was 25 years ago", said Brown, who has worked on gay and lesbian rights issues as a legislator and attorney. "That's where atheists are today." […] Brown, who is married and was raised a "humanistic Jew", talks about how she "came out" as an atheist several years ago, and how most atheists aren't "out yet" at work. She says atheist kids—like many gay children—are made to feel outcasts at school, and explains that she wants to erase the negative connotation to the word "atheist" just as homosexuals have reclaimed slurs like "queer" and "dyke."" Joe Garofoli, 'Atheists hoping to assert rights in religious era', San Francisco Chronicle, February 20, 2006 (accessed June 16, 2008).
  16. ^ voterocky.org
  17. ^ In Search of Libertarians in America

Further reading[edit]

  • Schmidt, Leigh Eric. Village Atheists: How America's Unbelievers Made Their Way in a Godly Nation (Princeton UP, 2016). xxii, 337 pp.