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The Athens Conservatoire (Greek: Ωδείο Αθηνών) is the oldest conservatoire in modern Greece. It was founded in 1871 by the Athens Music and Drama Society. Initially, the musical instruments that were taught there were limited to the violin and the flute, representative of the ancient Greek Apollonian and Dionysian aesthetic principles. Significantly, piano lessons were not included in the program. In 1881 its new German-taught director Georgios Nazos, in a controversial at that time move, expanded the conservatoire's program by introducing modern Western European-style instruments and theory material.
Among the musicians who have taught at the Athens Consevatoire are Constantine Psachos, Manolis Kalomiris, Felix Petyrek, Elvira de Hidalgo, and Yannos Margaziotis. Notables who were taught at Athens Consevatoire include Spyridon Samaras (1875–1882), Maria Callas (1938), Dimitri Mitropoulos (1919), Nikos Skalkottas (graduated 1920), Gina Bachauer (graduated 1929), Nana Mouskouri, Dimitris Sgouros, Mikis Theodorakis.
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