Athletics at the 1988 Summer Olympics – Men's 100 metres

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Men's 100 meters
at the Games of the XXIV Olympiad
VenueOlympic Stadium
Date23 & 24 September
Competitors102 from 69 nations
Winning time9.92 WR
Medalists
1st, gold medalist(s) Carl Lewis
 United States
2nd, silver medalist(s) Linford Christie
 Great Britain
3rd, bronze medalist(s) Calvin Smith
 United States
← 1984
1992 →

The Men's 100 Meters at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea – frequently dubbed "the dirtiest race in history"[1][2][3][4] – ended in controversy after Canada's Ben Johnson defeated defending champion Carl Lewis of the United States in a world record time of 9.79s, breaking his own record of 9.83s that he had set at the 1987 World Championship in Rome.

Two days later, Johnson was stripped of his gold medal by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) after his post-race drug test determined he had taken stanozolol, and his record of 9.79 seconds was deleted. The gold medal was then awarded to Lewis, who had run 9.92s.

In September 1989, Johnson's world record of 9.83 from the 1987 World Championship Final was rescinded by the IAAF after he admitted to steroid use between 1981 and 1988. As such, Lewis' 9.92 from this race became the official world record, breaking the 9.93 mark that Calvin Smith had set in 1983 and Lewis had tied twice since. Smith had participated in this race as well and finished fourth, but was elevated to third place and given the bronze medal behind Lewis and Linford Christie of the United Kingdom, the original bronze medal winner that moved up to silver.

The other participants in this race, in order of finish, were Dennis Mitchell of the United States, who would go on to win the bronze medal in this event in Barcelona; Robson da Silva of Brazil, who won bronze in the 200 meters in Seoul; Johnson's teammate Desai Williams, a bronze medalist in the 4 x 100 meter relay in Los Angeles four years earlier; and Ray Stewart of Jamaica, who had won a silver medal in the same relay at the Los Angeles Olympics.[5]

It would take another eleven years for a runner to run a "clean" 9.79 in the 100 meters, a feat Maurice Greene accomplished in Athens, Greece in 1999.

Aftermath[edit]

Johnson was not the only participant whose success was questioned: Lewis had tested positive at the US Olympic Trials for pseudoephedrine, ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine, medications available at the time in common cold remedies, but the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) cleared Lewis to participate at the games in Seoul.

Christie was found to have metabolites of pseudoephedrine in his urine after a 200m heat at the same Olympics, but was later cleared of any wrongdoing. Dennis Mitchell tested positive ten years later.[1][6] Of the top five competitors in the race, only former world record holder and eventual bronze medalist Smith never failed a drug test during his career. Smith later said: "I should have been the gold medalist."[7] Johnson had also demanded that Lewis be stripped of his gold medal, but the IOC had no intention of redressing the issue, stating they operate under a three-year statute of limitations.[8]

In the ESPN documentary 9.79*, eventual silver medallist Christie states, and footage of the race shows, that Lewis "ran out of his lane... two or three times" during the race, which could have resulted in Lewis' disqualification had he impeded other competitors. The numerous athletes using performance-enhancing drugs at the time understood how long before a race, and possible drug test, they should stop using the drugs.[9]

Johnson has stated that André Jackson, a mutual friend of Johnson and Lewis, entered the drug testing area in Seoul and added stanozolol to the beer Johnson consumed to produce a urine sample; Jackson has not admitted or denied the claim.[9]

The CBC radio documentary, Rewind, "Ben Johnson: A Hero Disgraced" broadcast on September 19, 2013, for the 25th anniversary of the race, stated 20 athletes tested positive for drugs but were cleared by the IOC at this 1988 Seoul Olympics. An IOC official stated that endocrine profiles done at those games indicated that 80 percent of the track and field athletes tested showed evidence of long-term steroid use, although not all were banned.

In addition, CBC Radio was told by its sources that NBC had threatened to withhold its second rights payment to the IOC due on completion of the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games: "If these games collapse in scandal, we're out and that money's gone".

Records[edit]

These were the then-recognized world and Olympic records (in seconds) prior to the 1988 Summer Olympics.

World Record 9.831 Canada Ben Johnson Rome (ITA) August 30, 1987
Olympic Record 9.95 United States Jim Hines Mexico City (MEX) October 14, 1968

1 Johnson's world record was rescinded by the IAAF Council in September 1989 after he admitted to using steroids between 1981 and 1988. Carl Lewis was credited with a new Olympic record upon being awarded the gold medal after Johnson's failed steroid test, and his time of 9.92 was also recognized as the new world record after Johnson's time was rescinded.

Final[edit]

RANK FINAL TIME NOTES
Med 1.png  Carl Lewis (USA) 9.92 Awarded gold medal and world record after Johnson's disqualification.
Med 2.png  Linford Christie (GBR) 9.97 Set a British and European record.
Med 3.png  Calvin Smith (USA) 9.99 This was the first time anyone had broken ten seconds and finished third.
4.  Dennis Mitchell (USA) 10.04
5.  Robson da Silva (BRA) 10.11
6.  Desai Williams (CAN) 10.11
7.  Ray Stewart (JAM) 12.26 Pulled a hamstring after 55 meters.
DSQ  Ben Johnson (CAN) 9.79 Stripped of gold medal and world record after he tested positive for stanozolol.

Semi finals[edit]

RANK HEAT 1 TIME
1.  Carl Lewis (USA) 9.97
2.  Calvin Smith (USA) 10.15
3.  Ray Stewart (JAM) 10.18
4.  Desai Williams (CAN) 10.24
5.  Arnaldo da Silva (BRA) 10.32
6.  Olapade Adeniken (NGR) 10.33
7.  Mardi Lestari (INA) 10.39
8.  John Myles-Mills (GHA) 10.43


RANK HEAT 2 TIME
1.  Ben Johnson (CAN) 10.03
2.  Linford Christie (GBR) 10.11
3.  Dennis Mitchell (USA) 10.23
4.  Robson da Silva (BRA) 10.24
5.  Attila Kovács (HUN) 10.31
6.  Juan Núñez (DOM) 10.35
7.  Isiaq Adeyanju (NGR) 10.60
 Vladimir Krylov (URS) DNS

Quarter finals[edit]

RANK HEAT 1 TIME
1.  Linford Christie (GBR) 10.11
2.  Dennis Mitchell (USA) 10.13
3.  Ben Johnson (CAN) 10.17
4.  John Mair (JAM) 10.41
5.  Charles-Louis Seck (SEN) 10.42
6.  Li Tao (CHN) 10.53
7.  Kennedy Ondiek (KEN) 10.57
8.  Ousmane Diarra (MLI) 10.61


RANK HEAT 2 TIME
1.  Desai Williams (CAN) 10.16
2.  Arnaldo da Silva (BRA) 10.25
3.  Vladimir Krylov (URS) 10.26
4.  Attila Kovács (HUN) 10.27
5.  Michele Lazazzera (ITA) 10.50
6.  Thierry Lauret (FRA) 10.51
7.  Zheng Chen (CHN) 10.72
8.  Chidi Imoh (NGR) 11.44


RANK HEAT 3 TIME
1.  Ray Stewart (JAM) 10.25
2.  Juan Núñez (DOM) 10.33
3.  Sven Matthes (GDR) 10.36
4.  Jean-Charles Trouabal (FRA) 10.41
5.  José Javier Arqués (ESP) 10.43
6.  Amadou M'Baye (SEN) 10.45
7.  Barrington Williams (GBR) 10.55
8.  Christian Haas (FRG) 10.57


RANK HEAT 4 TIME
1.  Calvin Smith (USA) 10.16
2.  Olapade Adeniken (NGR) 10.30
3.  Andreas Berger (AUT) 10.34
4.  Emmanuel Tuffour (GHA) 10.37
5.  Talal Mansour (QAT) 10.38
6.  Patrick Stevens (BEL) 10.50
7.  Cheng Hsin-Fu (TPE) 10.54
8.  György Fetter (HUN) 10.55


RANK HEAT 5 TIME
1.  Carl Lewis (USA) 9.99
2.  Robson da Silva (BRA) 10.24
3.  Isiaq Adeyanju (NGR) 10.32
4.  Pierfrancesco Pavoni (ITA) 10.33
5.  Vitaliy Savin (URS) 10.36
6.  Koji Kurihara (JPN) 10.49
7.  István Tatár (HUN) 10.68
8.  Issa Alassane-Ousséni (BEN) 10.83


RANK HEAT 6 TIME
1.  John Myles-Mills (GHA) 10.21
2.  Mardi Lestari (INA) 10.32
3.  Max Morinière (FRA) 10.37
4.  Ezio Madonia (ITA) 10.38
5.  Peter Wekesa (KEN) 10.43
6.  Sim Deok-Seop (KOR) 10.55
7.  Andrew Smith (JAM) 10.63
8.  Cai Jianming (CHN) 10.76

Heats[edit]

RANK HEAT 1 TIME
1.  Robson da Silva (BRA) 10.37
2.  Ezio Madonia (ITA) 10.40
3.  Cheng Hsin-fu (TPE) 10.48
4.  Thierry Lauret (FRA) 10.56
5.  Boevi Lawson (TOG) 10.59
6.  Leung Wing Kwong (HKG) 10.82
7.  Mohamed Fahd Al-Bishi (KSA) 10.85
8.  Jerry Jeremiah (VAN) 10.96


RANK HEAT 2 TIME
1.  Calvin Smith (USA) 10.28
2.  Attila Kovács (HUN) 10.39
3.  Mardi Lestari (INA) 10.40
4.  Andrey Razin (URS) 10.58
5.  Henri Ndinga (CGO) 10.74
6.  Fabian Muyaba (ZIM) 10.75
7.  Moustafa Kamel Salmi (ALG) 11.08
8.  Markus Büchel (LIE) 11.21


RANK HEAT 3 TIME
1.  Talal Mansour (QAT) 10.42
2.  Juan Núñez (DOM) 10.47
3.  Amadou M'Baye (SEN) 10.64
4.  Fabian Whymns (BAH) 10.70
5.  Neville Hodge (ISV) 10.73
6.  Horace Dove-Edwin (SLE) 10.89
7.  Alexandre Yougbare (BUR) 10.90
8.  Henrico Atkins (BAR) 11.01


RANK HEAT 4 TIME
1.  Emmanuel Tuffour (GHA) 10.31
2.  Koji Kurihara (JPN) 10.46
3.  Andrew Smith (JAM) 10.49
4.  Zheng Chen (CHN) 10.51
5.  István Tatár (HUN) 10.52
6.  Christian Haas (FRG) 10.54
7.  John Hou (PNG) 10.96
8.  Ehab Fuad Ahmed Nagi (YMD) 11.53


RANK HEAT 5 TIME
1.  Linford Christie (GBR) 10.19
2.  Max Morinière (FRA) 10.34
3.  Sven Matthes (GDR) 10.35
4.  Li Tao (CHN) 10.47
5.  Samuel Nchinda-Kaya (CMR) 10.60
6.  Lee Shiunn-long (TPE) 10.69
7.  Bill Trott (BER) 10.69
8.  Frank Maziya (SWZ) 11.52


RANK HEAT 6 TIME
1.  Chidi Imoh (NGR) 10.62
2.  Charles-Louis Seck (SEN) 10.64
3.  Issa Alassane-Ousséni (BEN) 10.72
4.  John Regis (GBR) 10.76
5.  Mothobi Kharitse (LES) 10.97
6.  Robert Loua (GUI) 11.20
7.  Samuel Birch (LBR) 11.68
 Pedro Agostinho (POR) DNF


RANK HEAT 7 TIME
1.  Ray Stewart (JAM) 10.22
2.  Pierfrancesco Pavoni (ITA) 10.36
3.  Vitaliy Savin (URS) 10.52
4.  György Fetter (HUN) 10.54
5.  Khaled Ibrahim Jouma (BRN) 10.80
6.  Muhammad Afzal (PAK) 10.91
7.  Claude Roumain (HAI) 11.22


RANK HEAT 8 TIME
1.  Ben Johnson (CAN) 10.37
2.  Cai Jianming (CHN) 10.55
3.  Sim Deok-Seop (KOR) 10.56
4.  Carlos Moreno (CHI) 10.70
5.  Abdullah Salem Al-Khalidi (OMA) 10.90
6.  Mohamed Shah Jalal (BAN) 10.94
7.  Joseph Ssali (UGA) 10.95
8.  St. Clair Soleyne (ANT) 11.17


RANK HEAT 9 TIME
1.  Desai Williams (CAN) 10.24
2.  Peter Wekesa (KEN) 10.50
3.  Olapade Adeniken (NGR) 10.56
4.  Eduardo Nava (MEX) 10.68
5.  Jailto Bonfim (BRA) 10.75
6.  Lindel Hodge (IVB) 10.79
7.  Visut Watanasin (THA) 10.88
8.  Arménio Fernandes (ANG) 10.92


RANK HEAT 10 TIME
1.  Vladimir Krylov (URS) 10.34
2.  Arnaldo da Silva (BRA) 10.44
3.  Michele Lazazzera (ITA) 10.47
4.  Kennedy Ondiek (KEN) 10.51
5.  Takahiko Kasahara (JPN) 10.62
6.  Jimmy Flemming (ISV) 10.70
7.  Jihad Salame (LIB) 11.49
8.  Gilbert Bessi (MON) 11.55


RANK HEAT 11 TIME
1.  Dennis Mitchell (USA) 10.37
2.  Isiaq Adeyanju (NGR) 10.45
3.  Ousmane Diarra (MLI) 10.53
4.  Oliver Daniels (LBR) 10.68
5.  Luís Cunha (POR) 10.80
6.  Evaristo Ortíz (DOM) 11.01
7.  Nguyễn Đình Minh (VIE) 11.09
8.  Secundino Borabota (GEQ) 11.52


RANK HEAT 12 TIME
1.  John Myles-Mills (GHA) 10.31
2.  Andreas Berger (AUT) 10.40
3.  Barrington Williams (GBR) 10.51
4.  Patrick Stevens (BEL) 10.51
5.  Enrique Talavera (ESP) 10.61
6.  Tomohiro Osawa (JPN) 10.71
7.  Dominique Canti (SMR) 11.11
8.  Ismail Asif Waheed (MDV) 11.49


RANK HEAT 13 TIME
1.  Carl Lewis (USA) 10.14
2.  Jean-Charles Trouabal (FRA) 10.39
3.  José Javier Arqués (ESP) 10.44
4.  John Mair (JAM) 10.44
5.  Harouna Pale (BUR) 10.76
6.  Peauope Suli (TGA) 10.94
7.  Maloni Bole (FIJ) 11.19

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Duncan Mackay (April 18, 2003). "The dirtiest race in history Olympic 100m final, 1988". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
  2. ^ Moore, Richard (2012). The Dirtiest Race in History: Ben Johnson, Carl Lewis and the Seoul Olympic 100m Final. Wisden Sports Writing. ISBN 9781408135952. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  3. ^ Montague, James (July 23, 2012). "Hero or villain? Ben Johnson and the dirtiest race in history". CNN.
  4. ^ Mehaffey, John (September 23, 2013). "Smith true winner of 'dirtiest race' in history". Reuters. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  5. ^ "Athletics at the 1988 Seoul Summer Games: Men's 100 metres". Sports Reference. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  6. ^ [1][2][3]
  7. ^ "The most corrupt race ever". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-04-29.
  8. ^ Duncan Mackay (April 23, 2003). "Lewis: 'Who cares if I tested positive'". The Guardian.
  9. ^ a b Simon Burton (May 25, 2012). "50 stunning Olympic moments No33: Ben Johnson wins gold...tests positive". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved October 14, 2012.