Athletics at the Summer Paralympics
|Athletics at the Summer Paralympics|
|Events||160 (men: 100; women: 60)|
Visually impaired athletes participate in running events with the help of a sighted guide, to whom they may be attached by a tether. Sound-emitting devices or a sighted "caller" are used to indicate target areas for throwing events, take-off points for jumping events, and other important locations for visually impaired competitors.
Athletes compete in various classes which group them according to their impairments and abilities.
|T/F11||From no light perception at all in either eye, up to and including the ability to perceive light; inability to recognize objects or contours in any direction and at any distance.|
|T/F12||Ability to recognise objects up to a distance of 2 metres i.e. below 2/60 and/or visual field of less than five (5) degrees|
|T/F13||Can recognise contours between 2 and 6 metres away i.e. 2/60 O 6/60 and visual field of more than five (5) degrees and less than twenty (20) degrees.|
|T/F20||Athletes who have a recognised intellectual impairment according to international standards as recognised by the World Health Organisation i.e. IQ testing of 75 and below.|
|T/F33||Moderate quadriplegia. Fair functional strength and moderate problems in upper extremities and torso. Wheelchair for daily activities but may be ambulant with assistive devices.|
|T/F34||Moderate to severe problems in lower limbs, good functional strength and minimal control problems in upper limbs and torso. Wheelchair for daily activities but may be ambulant with assistive devices|
|T/F35||Good functional strength and minimal control problems in upper limbs. No wheelchair. May or may not use assistive devices.|
|T/F36||Greater upper limb involvement, less coordination / balance problems when running or throwing. Ambulates without walking devices.|
|T/F37||Moderate to minimal hemiplegia (i.e. one half of the body affected - arm and leg on same side). Good functional ability in non affected side. Walks / runs without assistive devices, but with a limp.|
|T/F38||Minimal hemiplegia. May have minimal coordination problems, good balance. Runs and jumps freely|
|T40||Dwarfism. Height limit, Males 145cm, Females 140cm.|
|T42||Single leg, above or through knee amputation. Combined lower plus upper limb amputations. Minimal disability.|
|T43||Double leg, below knee amputation. Combined lower plus upper limb amputations. Normal function in throwing arm.|
|T44||Single leg below knee amputation. Combined lower plus upper limb amputations. Ambulant with moderately reduced function in one or both lower limbs|
|T45||Double arm above elbow. Double arm below elbow|
|T46||Single arm, above elbow. Single arm, below elbow. Normal function in both lower limbs. Other impairments in trunk. Upper limb function in throwing.|
|T52||Damage to spinal cord in the higher parts of the back. Substantially impaired or no trunk function; no leg function. Pushing power comes from elbow extensions.|
|T53||Impaired trunk movements, some with no spinal control. Some interference in their ability to perform long and forceful strokes and the ability to rapidly grasp and release the pushing rim of the wheel.|
|T54||Have normal or nearly normal upper limb function. May have no upper trunk movements and when pushing, the trunk is usually lying on the legs. Those with almost normal trunk function are able to perform long and forceful strokes. Double above the knee amputations.|
|F52||Limited arm function. Difficulty gripping with non-throwing arm.
Shot - Unable to form a fist and therefore do not usually have finger contact with the shot at the release point. Discus - Have difficulty placing fingers over the edge of the discus. Javelin - Usually grip the Javelin between the index and middle fingers, or between the middle and ring fingers.
|F53||Have nearly normal grip with non-throwing arm.
Shot - Usually a good fist can be made. Can spread fingers apart and can 'grasp' the shot put when throwing. Discus - Have good finger function to hold the discus and may be able to impart spin on the discus. Are able to spread and close the fingers, but not with normal power. Javelin - Usually grip javelin between the thumb and the index finger. Have ability to hold javelin.
|F54||Normal arm function; no trunk or leg function.
Shot, Discus and Javelin - Have no sitting balance and usually hold on to part of chair whilst throwing
|F55||Some trunk function; no leg function. Fair to good sitting balance.|
|F56||Trunk function with some upper leg function. Good balance and movements backwards and forwards.|
|F57||Usually one 'good' leg and one 'bad' leg. Good movements backwards and forwards, usually to one side. Can raise from a sitting to a standing position with assistance during the throw.|
|F58||Seated. Better function than F57 athletes, but not enough to stand to throw. Usually similar impairment in both legs.|
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