|Born||Harold Athol Lannigan Fugard|
11 June 1932
Middelburg, Eastern Cape, South Africa
|Education||University of Cape Town (dropped out)|
|Genre||Drama, novel, memoir|
|Notable works||"Master Harold"...and the Boys|
Acclaimed as "the greatest active playwright in the English-speaking world" by Time in 1985, Fugard continues to write and has published more than thirty plays. Fugard was an adjunct professor of playwriting, acting and directing in the Department of Theatre and Dance at the University of California, San Diego. He is the recipient of many awards, honours, and honorary degrees, including the 2005 Order of Ikhamanga in Silver "for his excellent contribution and achievements in the theatre" from the government of South Africa. He is also an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.
Fugard was born as Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard, in Middelburg, Eastern Cape, South Africa, on 11 June 1932. His mother, Marrie (Potgieter), an Afrikaner, operated first a general store and then a lodging house; his father, Harold Fugard, was a disabled former jazz pianist of Irish, English and French Huguenot descent. In 1935, his family moved to Port Elizabeth. In 1938, he began attending primary school at Marist Brothers College. After being awarded a scholarship, he enrolled at a local technical college for secondary education and then studied Philosophy and Social Anthropology at the University of Cape Town, but he dropped out of the university in 1953, a few months before final examinations. He left home, hitchhiked to North Africa with a friend, and then spent the next two years working in east Asia on a steamer ship, the SS Graigaur, where he began writing, an experience "celebrated" in his 1999 autobiographical play The Captain's Tiger: a memoir for the stage.
In September 1956, he married Sheila Meiring, a University of Cape Town Drama School student whom he had met the previous year. Now known as Sheila Fugard, she is a novelist and poet. Their daughter Lisa Fugard is a novelist. In 2015, after almost 60 years of marriage, the couple divorced. In 2016, in New York City Hall, Fugard was married to South African writer and academic Paula Fourie. Fugard and Fourie presently live in the Cape Winelands region of South Africa.
The Fugards moved to Johannesburg in 1958, where he worked as a clerk in a Native Commissioners' Court, which "made him keenly aware of the injustices of apartheid." He was good friends with prominent local anti-apartheid figures, which had a profound impact on Fugard, whose plays' political impetus brought him into conflict with the national government; to avoid prosecution, he had his plays produced and published outside South Africa. A former alcoholic, Fugard has been a teetotaler since the early 1980s.
For several years, Fugard lived in San Diego, California, where he taught as an adjunct professor of playwriting, acting, and directing in the Department of Theatre and Dance at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). For the academic year 2000–2001, he was the IU Class of 1963 Wells Scholar Professor at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana. In 2012, Fugard relocated to South Africa, where he now lives permanently.
In 1958, Fugard organised "a multiracial theatre for which he wrote, directed, and acted", writing and producing several plays for it, including No-Good Friday (1958) and Nongogo (1959), in which he and his colleague black South African actor Zakes Mokae performed. In 1978, Richard Eder of The New York Times criticized Nongogo as "awkward and thin. It is unable to communicate very much about its characters, or make them much more than the servants of a noticeably ticking plot." Eder argued, "Queenie is the most real of the characters. Her sense of herself and where she wants to go makes her believable and the crumbling of her dour defenses at a touch of hope makes her affecting. By contrast, Johnny is unreal. His warmth and hopefulness at the start crumble too suddenly and too completely".
After returning to Port Elizabeth in the early 1960s, Athol and Sheila Fugard started The Circle Players, which derives its name from the production of The Caucasian Chalk Circle by Bertolt Brecht.
In 1961, in Johannesburg, Fugard and Mokae starred as the brothers Morris and Zachariah in the single-performance world première of Fugard's play The Blood Knot (revised and retitled Blood Knot in 1987), directed by Barney Simon. In 1989, Lloyd Richards of The Paris Review declared The Blood Knot to be Fugard's first "major play".
Refusal to stage for "Whites Only" audiences
In 1962, Fugard found the question of whether he could "work in a theatre which excludes 'Non-Whites'--or includes them only on the basis of special segregated performance-- increasingly pressing". It was made more so by the decision of British Equity to prevent any British entertainer visiting South Africa unless the audiences were multi-racial. In a decision that caused him to reflect on the power of art to effect change, Fugard decided that the "answer must be No".
That old argument used to be so comforting; so plausible: 'One person in that segregated, white audience, might be moved to think, and then to change, by what he saw'.
I'm beginning to wonder whether it really works that way. The supposition seems to be that there is a didactic--a teaching through feeling element in art. What I do know is that art can give meaning, can render meaningful areas of experience, and most certainly also enhances. But teach? Contradict? State the opposite to what you believe and then lead you to accept it?
In other words, can art change a man or woman? No. That is what life does. Art is no substitute for life.
Of the few venues in the country where a play can be presented to mixed audiences some, Fugard noted, were little better than barns. But he concluded that under these circumstances "every conceivable dignity--audience, producer, act, 'professional' etc.--" was "operative" in the white theatre except one, "human dignity".
Fugard publicly supported the Anti-Apartheid Movement (1959–94) in the international boycott of South African theatres due to their segregated audiences. The results were additional restrictions and surveillance, leading him to have his plays published and produced outside South Africa.
The Serpent Players
In the 1960s, Fugard formed the Serpent Players, whose name derives from its first venue, the former snake pit (hence the name) at the Port Elizabeth Museum, "a group of black actors worker-players who earned their living as teachers, clerks, and industrial workers, and cannot thus be considered amateurs in the manner of leisured whites", developing and performing plays "under surveillance by the Security Police", according to Loren Kruger's The Dis-illusion of Apartheid, published in 2004. The group largely consisted of black men, including Winston Ntshona, John Kani, Welcome Duru, Fats Bookholane and Mike Ngxolo as well as Nomhle Nkonyeni and Mabel Magada. They all got together, albeit at different intervals, and decided to do something about their lives using the stage. In 1961 they met Athol Fugard, a white man who grew up in Port Elizabeth and who recently returned from Johannesburg, and asked him if he could work with them "as he had the know-how theatrically—the tricks, how to use the stage, movements, everything"; they worked with Athol Fugard since then, "and that is how the Serpent Players got together." At the time, the group performed anything they could lay their hands on in South Africa as they had no access to any libraries. These included Bertolt Brecht, August Strindberg, Samuel Beckett, William Shakespeare and many other prominent playwrights of the time. In an interview in California, Ntshona and Kani were asked why they were doing the play Sizwe Banzi Is Dead, considered a highly political and telling story of the South African political landscape at the time. Ntshona answered: "We are just a group of artists who love theatre. And we have every right to open the doors to anyone who wants to take a look at our play and our work...We believe that art is life and conversely, life is art. And no sensible man can divorce one from the other. That's it. Other attributes are merely labels." They mainly performed at the St Stephen's Hall – renamed the Douglas Ngange Mbopa Memorial Hall in 2013 – adjacent to St Stephen's Church, and other spaces in and around New Brighton, the oldest Black township in Port Elizabeth.
According to Loren Kruger, Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the University of Chicago,
the Serpent Players used Brecht's elucidation of gestic acting, dis-illusion, and social critique, as well as their own experience of the satiric comic routines of urban African vaudeville, to explore the theatrical force of Brecht's techniques, as well as the immediate political relevance of a play about land distribution. Their work on the Caucasian Chalk Circle and, a year later, on Antigone led directly to the creation, in 1966, of what is still  South Africa's most distinctive Lehrstück [learning play]:The Coat. Based on an incident at one of the many political trials involving the Serpent Players, The Coat dramatized the choices facing a woman whose husband, convicted of anti-apartheid political activity, left her only a coat and instructions to use it.
Clive Barnes of The New York Times panned People Are Living There (1969) in 1971, arguing: "There are splinters of realities here, and pregnancies of feeling, hut [sic] nothing of significance emerges. In Mr. Fugard's earlier plays he seemed to be dealing with life at a proper level of humanity. Here—if real people are living there—they remain oddly quiet about it...The first act rambles disconsolately, like a lonely type writer looking for a subject and the second act produces with pride a birthday party of Chaplinesque bathos but less than Chaplinesque invention and spirit..[The characters] harangue one another in an awkward dislocation between a formal speech and an interior monologue." Mark Blankenship of Variety negatively reviewed a 2005 revival of the same work, writing that it "lacks the emotional intensity and theatrical imagination that mark such Fugard favorites" as "Master Harold"...and the Boys. Blankenship also stated, however, that the performance he attended featuring "only haphazard sketches of plot and character" was perhaps the result of Fugard allowing director Suzanne Shepard to revise the play without showing him the changes.
The Serpent Players conceptualised and co-authored many plays that it performed for a variety of audiences in many theatres around the world. The following are some of its notable and most popular plays:
- Its first production was Niccolò Machiavelli's La Mandragola, directed by Fugard as The Cure and set in the township. Other productions include Georg Buchner's Woyzeck, Brecht's The Caucasian Chalk Circle and Sophocles' Antigone. When the group had turned to improvisation, they came up with classic works such as Sizwe Banzi Is Dead and The Island, emerging as inner experiences of the actors who are also the co-authors of the plays.
- In The Coat, Kruger observes, "The participants were engaged not only in representing social relationships on stage but also on enacting and revising their own dealings with each other and with institutions of apartheid oppression from the law courts downward", and "this engagement testified to the real power of Brecht's apparently utopian plan to abolish the separation of player and audience and to make of each player a 'statesman' or social actor...Work on The Coat led indirectly to the Serpent Players' most famous and most Brechtian productions: Sizwe Banzi Is Dead (1972) and The Island (1973)."
Fugard developed these two plays for the Serpent Players in workshops, working with John Kani and Winston Ntshona, publishing them in 1974 with his own play Statements After an Arrest Under the Immorality Act (1972). The authorities considered the title of The Island, which alludes to Robben Island, the prison where Nelson Mandela was being held, too controversial, so Fugard and the Serpent Players used the alternative title The Hodoshe Span (Hodoshe meaning "carrion fly" in Xhosa).
- These plays "espoused a Brechtian attention to the demonstration of gest and social situations and encouraged audiences to analyze rather than merely applaud the action"; for example, Sizwe Banzi Is Dead, which infused a Brechtian critique and vaudevillian irony-–especially in Kani's virtuoso improvisation-–even provoked an African audience's critical interruption and interrogation of the action.
- While dramatising frustrations in the lives of his audience members, the plays simultaneously drew them into the action and attempted to have them analyse the situations of the characters in Brechtian fashion, according to Kruger.
- Blood Knot was filmed by the BBC in 1967, with Fugard's collaboration, starring the Jamaican actor Charles Hyatt as Zachariah and Fugard himself as Morris, as in the original 1961 première in Johannesburg. Less pleased than Fugard, the South African government of B.J. Vorster confiscated Fugard's passport.
"Master Harold"...and the Boys, written in 1982, incorporates "strong autobiographical matter"; nonetheless "it is fiction, not memoir", as Cousins: A Memoir and some of Fugard's other works are subtitled. The play is one of Fugard's best-known works, along with The Road to Mecca (1984).
The Fugard Theatre, in the District Six area of Cape Town opened with performances by the Isango Portobello theatre company in February 2010 and a new play written and directed by Athol Fugard, The Train Driver, played at the theatre in March 2010.
Fugard's plays are produced internationally, have won multiple awards, and several have been made into films.
- Statements: [Three Plays]. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press (OUP), 1974. ISBN 0-19-211385-2 (10). ISBN 978-0-19-211385-6 (13). ISBN 0-19-281170-3 (10). ISBN 978-0-19-281170-7 (13). (Co-authored with John Kani and Winston Ntshona; see below.)
- Three Port Elizabeth Plays: Blood Knot; Hello and Goodbye; and Boesman and Lena. Oxford and New York, 1974. ISBN 0-19-211366-6.
- Sizwe Bansi Is Dead and The Island. New York: Viking Press, 1976. ISBN 0-670-64784-5
- Dimetos and Two Early Plays. Oxford and New York: OUP, 1977. ISBN 0-19-211390-9.
- Boesman and Lena and Other Plays. Oxford and New York: OUP, 1980. ISBN 0-19-570197-6.
- Selected Plays of Fugard: Notes. Ed. Dennis Walder. London: Longman, 1980. Beirut: York Press, 1980. ISBN 0-582-78129-9.
- Tsotsi: a novel. New York: Random House, 1980. ISBN 978-0-394-51384-3.
- A Lesson from Aloes: A Play. Oxford and New York: OUP, 1981.
- Marigolds in August. A.D. Donker, 1982. ISBN 0-86852-008-X.
- Boesman and Lena. Oxford and New York: OUP, 1983. ISBN 0-19-570331-6.
- People Are Living There. Oxford and New York: OUP, 1983. ISBN 0-19-570332-4.
- "Master Harold"...and the Boys. New York and London: Penguin, 1984. ISBN 0-14-048187-7.
- Notebooks 1960-1977. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984. ISBN 0394537556
- The Road to Mecca: A Play in Two Acts. London: Faber and Faber, 1985. ISBN 0-571-13691-5. [Suggested by the life and work of Helen Martins of New Bethesda, Eastern Cape, South Africa.]
- Selected Plays. Oxford and New York: OUP, 1987. ISBN 0-19-281929-1. [Includes: "Master Harold"...and the Boys; Blood Knot (new version); Hello and Goodbye; Boesman and Lena.]
- A Place with the Pigs: a personal parable. London: Faber and Faber, 1988. ISBN 0-571-15114-0.
- My Children! My Africa! and Selected Shorter Plays. Ed. and introd. Stephen Gray. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand UP, 1990. ISBN 1-86814-117-9.
- Blood Knot and Other Plays. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1991. ISBN 1-55936-019-4.
- Playland and Other Worlds. Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand UP, 1992. ISBN 1-86814-219-1.
- The Township Plays. Ed. and introd. Dennis Walder. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 1993. ISBN 0-19-282925-4 (10). ISBN 978-0-19-282925-2 (13). [Includes: No-good Friday, Nongogo, The Coat, Sizwe Bansi Is Dead, and The Island.]
- Cousins: A Memoir, Johannesburg: Witwatersrand UP, 1994. ISBN 1-86814-278-7.
- Hello and Goodbye. Oxford and New York: OUP, 1994. ISBN 0-19-571099-1.
- Valley Song. London: Faber and Faber, 1996. ISBN 0-571-17908-8.
- The Captain's Tiger: A Memoir for the Stage. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1997. ISBN 1-86814-324-4.
- Athol Fugard: Plays. London: Faber and Faber, 1998. ISBN 0-571-19093-6.
- Interior Plays. Oxford and New York: OUP, 2000. ISBN 0-19-288035-7.
- Port Elizabeth Plays. Oxford and New York: OUP, 2000. ISBN 0-19-282529-1.
- Sorrows and Rejoicings. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 2002. ISBN 1-55936-208-1.
- Exits and Entrances. New York: Dramatists Play Service, 2004. ISBN 0-8222-2041-5.
- Statements: [Three Plays]. 1974. By Athol Fugard, John Kani, and Winston Ntshona. Rev. ed. Oxford and New York: OUP, 1978. ISBN 0-19-281170-3 (10). ISBN 978-0-19-281170-7 (13). ["Two workshop productions devised by Athol Fugard, John Kani, and Winston Ntshona, and a new play"; includes: Sizwe Bansi Is Dead and The Island, and Statements After an Arrest Under the Immorality Act.]
- Co-authored with Ross Devenish
- The Guest: an episode in the life of Eugene Marais. By Athol Fugard and Ross Devenish. Craighall: A. D. Donker, 1977. ISBN 0-949937-36-3. (Die besoeker: 'n episode in die lewe van Eugene Marais. Trans. into Afrikaans by Wilma Stockenstrom. Craighall: A. D. Donker, 1977. ISBN 0-949937-43-6.)
- Films adapted from Fugard's plays and novel
- Boesman and Lena (1974), dir. Ross Devenish
- Marigolds in August (1980), dir. Ross Devenish
- "Master Harold"...and the Boys (1984), TV movie, dir. Michael Lindsay-Hogg, first broadcast on Showtime
- The Road to Mecca (1991), co-dir. by Fugard and Peter Goldsmid (screen adapt.)
- Boesman and Lena (2000), dir. John Berry
- Tsotsi (2005), screen adapt. and dir. Gavin Hood; 2005 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
- "Master Harold"...and the Boys (2010), dir. Lonny Price
- Film roles
- Boesman and Lena (1974) as Boesman
- The Guest at Steenkampskraal (1977) as Eugene Marais
- Meetings with Remarkable Men (1979) as Professor Skridlov
- Marigolds in August (1980) as Paulus Olifant
- Gandhi (1982) as General Jan Smuts
- The Killing Fields (1984) as Doctor Sundesval
- The Road to Mecca (1991) as Reverend Marius Byleveld
Selected awards and nominations
- Obie Award
- Tony Award
- New York Drama Critics' Circle Awards
- Evening Standard Award
- 1983 – Best Play – "Master Harold"...and the Boys (winner)
- Drama Desk Awards
- 1982 – "Master Harold"...and the Boys (winner)
- Lucille Lortel Awards
- The Audie Awards (Audio Publishers Association)
- Outer Critics Circle Award
- Honorary awards
- Writers Guild of America, East Award
- 1986 – Evelyn F. Burkey Memorial Award – (along with Lloyd Richards)
- National Orders Award (South Africa)
- American Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate Award
- 2014 - Golden Plate Award
- Honorary degrees
- Yale University, 1983
- Wittenberg University, 1992
- University of the Witwatersrand, 1993
- Brown University, 1995
- Princeton University, 1998
- University of Stellenbosch, 2006
- Smith, David (12 August 2014). "Athol Fugard: 'Prejudice and racism are still alive and well in South Africa'". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- McLuckie, Craig (Okanagan College) (3 October 2003). "Athol Fugard (1932–)". The Literary Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 25 August 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2008.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Andie Miller (October 2009). "From Words into Pictures: In conversation with Athol Fugard". Eclectica. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- "Athol Fugard". University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Archived from the original on 15 May 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
- "Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard (1932 -)". 2005 National Orders Awards. South African Government Online (info.gov.za). 27 September 2005. Archived from the original (World Wide Web) on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- "Fellows". Royal Society of Literature. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- "The Fugard Theatre". Creative Feel. March 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- "Athol Fugard". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 November 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
- Fisher, Iain. "Athol Fugard: Biography". Athol Fugard: Statements. iainfisher.com. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
- Fisher gives Fugard's full birth name as "Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard", spelling Fugard's middle name as Lanigan, following Dennis Walder, Athol Fugard, Writers and Their Work (Tavistock: Northcote House in association with the British Council, 2003). It is spelled as Lannigan in Athol Fugard, Notebooks 1960–1977 (New York: Theatre Communications Group, 2004) and in Stephen Gray's Athol Fugard (Johannesburg and New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982) and many other publications. The former spelling (single n) seems more authoritative, however, as it is also used by Marianne McDonald, a close UCSD colleague and friend of Fugard, in "A Gift for His Seventieth Birthday: Athol Fugard's Sorrows and Rejoicings" Archived 24 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Department of Theatre and Dance, University of California, San Diego, rpt. from TheatreForum 21 (Summer/Fall 2002); in Fugard's National Orders Award (27 September 2005) from the government of South Africa, presented to "Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard (1932 –)"; and in his "Full Profile" in Who's Who of Southern Africa (2007).
- Fugard, Athol (2000). Dennis Walder, and introd (ed.). The Township Plays. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. pp. M1 xvi. ISBN 978-0-19-282925-2. (Google Books limited preview.)
- "History: St Dominic's Prior School...Marist Brothers College" (World Wide Web). St Dominic's Priory School. Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- "Boesman and Lena – Author Biography". Retrieved 31 October 2010.
- Wertheim, Albert (2000). The Dramatic Art of Athol Fugard: From South Africa to the World. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000. pp. 215, 224–38. ISBN 978-0-253-33823-5. (Google Books limited preview.)
- Fugard, Sheila. "The Apprenticeship Years: Athol Fugard issue". Twentieth Century Literature. findarticles.com. 39.4 (Winter 1993). Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- Mudge, Alden (1 January 2006). "African Odyssey: Lisa Fugard Explores the Moral Ambiguities of Apartheid". First Person: Interview. Bookpage.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- "Congratulations Athol Fugard & Paula Fourie". Creative Feel. 13 May 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
- Marianne McDonald (Professor of Theatre and Classics) (April 2003). "Introd. of Athol Fugard" (YouTube Video clip). Times Topics, The New York Times. Retrieved 1 October 2008.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) [Times Topics menu includes link to UCSD YouTube clip of Athol Fugard's lecture, "A Catholic Antigone: an episode in the life of Hildegard of Bingen", Eugene M. Burke C.S.P. Lectureship on Religion and Society, University of California, San Diego (UCSD).]
- Fugard, Athol (31 October 2010). "Once upon a life: Athol Fugard". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 1 November 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
- Athol Fugard & Serena Davies (8 April 2007). "My Week: Athol Fugard". Telegraph.co.uk. London. Retrieved 29 September 2008.[permanent dead link]
- Athol Fugard and Bruce Burgun (IUB theater professor) (29 September 2000). "Conversation on line with South African Dramatist Athol Fugard". Indiana University at Bloomington. Archived from the original on 11 September 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2008.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) (RealAudio clip of interview.)
- "Athol Fugard Gets Personal In 'Shadow of the Hummingbird' At Long Wharf". Hartford Courant. 23 March 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- Samodien, Leila (17 July 2014). "Athol Fugard wins prestigious award". Cape Times. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- Eder, Richard (4 December 1978). "'Nongogo,' a Drama". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
- Kruger, Loren (2004). "Chapter 5: The Dis-illusion of Apartheid: Brecht in South Africa". Post-Imperial Brecht Politics and Performance, East and South. Cambridge Studies in Modern Theatre. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. M1 215–80. ISBN 978-0-521-81708-0. (Google Books.)
- Gussow, Mel (24 September 1985). "Stage: 'The Blood Knot' by Fugard". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- Richards, Lloyd (1989). "Athol Fugard, The Art of Theater No. 8". The Paris Review. Interviews. Summer 1989 (111). ISSN 0031-2037. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
- Fugard, Athol (1984). Notebooks 1960–1977. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 59. ISBN 0394537556.
- Fugard (1984), p. 60
- "Athol Fugard: Biography". The Internet Off-Broadway Database. Archived from the original on 15 March 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- Kruger, Loren (2004). "Chapter 5: The Dis-illusion of Apartheid: Brecht in South Africa". Post-Imperial Brecht Politics and Performance, East and South. Cambridge Studies in Modern Theatre. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. M1 217–18. ISBN 978-0-521-81708-0. (Google Books limited preview.)
- "'Art is Life and Life is Art'. An interview with John Kani and Winston Ntshona of the Serpent Players from South Africa", in Ufahamu: A Journal of African Studies [Internet], 6(2), 1976, pp. 5–26. Available from: eScholarship, University of California. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- Barnes, Clive (19 November 1971). "Theater: People Are Living There'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
- Blankenship, Mark (17 June 2005). "People Are Living There". Variety. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
- Fugard, Athol (1983). Notebooks 1960–1977. Craighall: A. D. Donker, 1983. ISBN 0-86852-011-X.
Back in S'Kop after five weeks in London for BBC TV production of The Blood Knot. Myself as Morrie, with Charles Hyatt as Zach. Robin Midgley directing. Midgley reduced the play to 90 minutes...Midgley did manage to dig up things that had been missed in all the other productions. Most exciting was his treatment of the letter writing scene – 'Address her' – which he turned into an essay in literacy...Zach sweating as the words clot in his mouth...
- Dennis Walder, "Crossing Boundaries: The Genesis of the Township Plays", Special issue on Athol Fugard, Twentieth Century Literature (Winter 1993); rpt. findarticles.com. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- Klein, Alvin (13 February 1994). "THEATER; 'Hello and Goodbye,' Early Fugard Play". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
- Wertheim, Albert (2000). The Dramatic Art of Athol Fugard: From South Africa to the World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 225. ISBN 978-0-253-33823-5. (Google Books limited preview.)
- Arnott, Christopher (8 May 2018). "Fugard's 'A Lesson From Aloes' Ends Hartford Stage's 2017-18 Season". courant.com. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
- Logan, Brian (28 July 2007). "Finally, It's Personal". The Times. London. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
[Fugard's] plays helped to end apartheid, but it's Athol Fugard's own life that now inspires his work.
- Spencer, Charles (17 August 2007). "Victory: The Fight's Gone Out of Fugard". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 1 October 2008.[permanent dead link] [Theatre review of Victory at the Theatre Royal, Bath.]
- Dugger, Celia W. (13 March 2010). "His Next Act: Driving Out Apartheid's Ghost". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Filmography" in Athol Fugard at AllMovie. Retrieved 3 October 2008.
- Fisher, Iain. "Athol Fugard: Plays" (World Wide Web). Athol Fugard: Statements. iainfisher.com. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
Some of his plays are grouped together. Sometimes this is based on the subject matter (the Port Elizabeth plays), sometimes it is based on a period and style (the Statement Plays)..But no category is complete, and there is overlap (The Township and The Statement Plays) and some plays do not easily fit into any categories.
- Fisher observes in the Fugard "Biography" section of Athol Fugard: Statements that South African writer and critic Gray, Stephen classifies many of Fugard's dramatic works according to chronological periods of composition and similarities of style: "Apprenticeship" ([1956–]1957); "Social Realism" (1958–1961); "Chamber Theatre" (1961–1970); "Improvised Theatre" (1966–1973); and "Poetic Symbolism" (1975[–1990]).
- Stephen Gray, ed. (1991). File on Fugard. London: Methuen Drama. ISBN 978-0-413-64580-7.
- Fugard, Athol (1990). Stephen Gray, and introd (ed.). My Children! My Africa! and Selected Shorter Plays. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press. ISBN 1-86814-117-9.
- Master Harold...and the Boys at AllMovie. Retrieved 3 October 2008.
- The Guest at Steenkampskraal at AllMovie. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- Meetings with Remarkable Men at AllMovie. Retrieved 3 October 2008.
- "STIAS Fellow Athol Fugard receives prestigious 2014 prize". Stellenbosch University. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- A list of Fugard's Broadway theatre award nominations may be found at the IBDB. "Athol Fugard: Awards". Internet Broadway Database. Archived from the original on 4 March 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
- "Athol Fugard: Award Nominations; Award(s) Won". The Internet Off-Broadway Database. Archived from the original on 15 March 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- "Lucille Lortel Awards Archive: 1986–2000". Lortel Archives. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- "The Audie Awards: 1999". Writers Write, Inc. Archived from the original (World Wide Web) on 2 May 1999. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- "Athol Fugard Biography and Interview". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
- "Yale University: Honorary Degree Honorands: 1977–2000" (PDF). Yale University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- "Honorary Degree Recipients: 1948–2001". Wittenberg University. Archived from the original on 14 August 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- "Honorary Graduates: 1920s to 2000s" (World Wide Web). University of the Witwatersrand. Archived from the original on 3 August 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- "News release 94–185" (World Wide Web) (Press release). Brown University News Bureau (Sweeney). 24 May 1995. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- "Honorary Degrees Awarded by Princeton University: 1940s to 2000s" (World Wide Web). Princeton University. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- Enwemeka, Zeninjor (21 April 2006). "Stellenbosch honours Athol Fugard". IOL. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- The Amajuba Resource Pack. The Oxford Playhouse and Farber Foundry: In Association with Mmabana Arts Foundation. Oxford Playhouse, October 2004. Retrieved 1 October 2008. Downloadable PDF. ["Photographs by Robert Day; Written by Rachel G. Briscoe; Edited by Rupert Rowbotham; Overseen by Yael Farber." 18 pages.]
- Athol Fugard. Special issue of Twentieth Century Literature 39.4 (Winter 1993). Index. Findarticles.com. <http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0403/is_n4_v39>. Retrieved 4 October 2008. [Includes: Athol Fugard, "Some Problems of a Playwright from South Africa" (Transcript. 11 pages).]
- Blumberg, Marcia Shirley, and Dennis Walder, eds. South African Theatre As/and Intervention. Amsterdam and Atlanta, Georgia: Editions Rodopi B.V., 1999. ISBN 90-420-0537-8 (10). ISBN 978-90-420-0537-2 (13).
- Fugard, Athol. A Lesson from Aloes. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1989. ISBN 1-55936-001-1 (10). ISBN 978-1-55936-001-2 (13). Google Books. Retrieved 1 October 2008. (Limited preview available.)
- –––, and Chris Boyd. "Athol Fugard on Tsotsi, Truth and Reconciliation, Camus, Pascal and 'courageous pessimism'...", The Morning After: Performing Arts in Australia (Blog). WordPress. 29 January 2006. Retrieved 4 October 2008. ["An edited interview with South African playwright Athol Fugard (in San Diego) on the publication of his only novel Tsotsi in Australia, 29 January 2006."]
- –––, and Serena Davies. "My Week: Athol Fugard"[dead link]. The Telegraph, 8 April 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2008. [The playwright describes his week to Serena Davies, prior to the opening of his play Victory at the Theatre Royal, Bath (telephone interview).]
- Gray, Stephen. Athol Fugard. Johannesburg and New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982. ISBN 0-07-450633-1 (10). ISBN 978-0-07-450633-2 (13). ISBN 0-07-450615-3 (10). ISBN 978-0-07-450615-8 (13).
- –––, ed. and introd. File on Fugard. London: Methuen Drama, 1991. ISBN 0-413-64580-0 (10). ISBN 978-0-413-64580-7 (13).
- –––. My Children! My Africa! and Selected Shorter Plays, by Athol Fugard. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1990. ISBN 1-86814-117-9.
- Kruger, Loren. Post-Imperial Brecht Politics and Performance, East and South. Cambridge Studies in Modern Theatre. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-81708-0 (10). ISBN 978-0-521-81708-0 (13). (Google Books; limited preview available.)
- McDonald, Marianne. "A Gift for His Seventieth Birthday: Athol Fugard's Sorrows and Rejoicings". Department of Theatre and Dance. University of California, San Diego. Rpt. from TheatreForum 21 (Summer/Fall 2002). Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- McLuckie, Craig (Okanagan College). "Athol Fugard (1932–)". The Literary Encyclopedia. 8 October 2003. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- Morris, Stephen Leigh. "Falling Sky: Athol Fugard's Victory". LA Weekly, 31 January 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2008. (Theatre review of the American première at The Fountain Theatre, Los Angeles, California.)
- Spencer, Charles. "Victory: The Fight's Gone Out of Fugard"[dead link]. The Telegraph, 17 August 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2008. [Theatre review of Victory at the Theatre Royal, Bath.]
- Walder, Dennis. Athol Fugard. Writers and Their Work. Tavistock: Northcote House in association with the British Council, 2003. ISBN 0-7463-0948-1 (10). ISBN 978-0-7463-0948-3 (13).
- Wertheim, Albert. The Dramatic Art of Athol Fugard: From South Africa to the World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-253-33823-9 (10). ISBN 978-0-253-33823-5 (13).
- –––, ed. and introd. Athol Fugard: A Casebook. [Casebooks on Modern Dramatists]. Gen. Ed., Kimball King. New York: Garland Publishing, 1997. ISBN 0-8153-0745-4 (10). ISBN 978-0-8153-0745-7 (13). (Out of print; unavailable.) [Hardcover ed. published by Garland Publishing; the series of Casebooks on Modern Dramatists is now published by Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis, and does not include this title.]
- "Athol Fugard". Faculty profile. Department of Theatre and Dance. University of California, San Diego. (Lists Athol Fugard: Statements: An Athol Fugard site by Iain Fisher as "Personal Website"; see below.)
- Athol Fugard at AllMovie
- Athol Fugard at the Internet Broadway Database
- Athol Fugard at IMDb
- Athol Fugard at the Internet Off-Broadway Database (IOBDb)
- Athol Fugard at Times Topics in The New York Times. (Includes YouTube Video clip of Athol Fugard's Burke Lecture "A Catholic Antigone: An Episode in the Life of Hildegard of Bingen", the Eugene M. Burke C.S.P. Lectureship on Religion and Society, at the University of California, San Diego, introduced by Professor of Theatre and Classics Marianne McDonald, UCSD Department of Theatre and Dance, April 2003 [Show ID: 7118]. 1:28:57 [duration].)
- Athol Fugard at WorldCat
- "Athol Fugard Biography" – "Athol Fugard", rpt. by bookrags.com (Ambassadors Group, Inc.) from the Encyclopedia of World Biography. ("2005–2006 Thomson Gale, a part of the Thomson Corporation. All rights reserved.")
- "Athol Fugard (1932– )" at Britannica Online Encyclopedia (subscription based; free trial available)
- "Athol Fugard (1932– )" – Complete Guide to Playwright and Plays at Doollee.com
- Athol Fugard: Statements: An Athol Fugard site by Iain Fisher. (Listed as "Personal Website" in UCSB faculty profile; see above.)
- "Books by Athol Fugard" at Google Books (several with limited previews available)
- "Full Profile: Mr Athol 'Lanigan' Fugard" in Who's Who of Southern Africa. Copyright 2007 24.com (Media24). (Includes hyperlinked "News Articles" from 2000 to 2008.)
- "Interviews: South Africa's Fugards: Writing About Wrongs". Morning Edition. National Public Radio. NPR RealAudio. 16 June 2006. (With hyperlinked "Related NPR stories" from 2001 to 2006.)
- Richards, Lloyd (Summer 1989). "Athol Fugard, The Art of Theater No. 8". Paris Review.
- "Athol Fugard" in the Encyclopaedia of South African Theatre and Performance
- Nancy T. Kearns collection of Athol Fugard materials, 1983–1996, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts