Aticaprant

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Aticaprant
Aticaprant.svg
Clinical data
Other namesJNJ-67953964; CERC-501; LY-2456302
Routes of
administration
By mouth[1]
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability25%[1]
Elimination half-life30–40 hours[1]
Identifiers
  • 4-(4-{[(2S)-2-(3,5-Dimethylphenyl)-1-pyrrolidinyl]methyl}phenoxy)-3-fluorobenzamide
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC26H27FN2O2
Molar mass418.512 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • CC1=CC(=CC(=C1)[C@@H]2CCCN2CC3=CC=C(C=C3)OC4=C(C=C(C=C4)C(=O)N)F)C
  • InChI=1S/C26H27FN2O2/c1-17-12-18(2)14-21(13-17)24-4-3-11-29(24)16-19-5-8-22(9-6-19)31-25-10-7-20(26(28)30)15-23(25)27/h5-10,12-15,24H,3-4,11,16H2,1-2H3,(H2,28,30)/t24-/m0/s1
  • Key:ZHPMYDSXGRRERG-DEOSSOPVSA-N

Aticaprant, also known by its developmental codes JNJ-67953964, CERC-501, and LY-2456302, is a κ-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist which is under development for the treatment of major depressive disorder.[2][3][4] A regulatory application for approval of the medication is expected to be submitted by 2025.[2] Aticaprant is taken by mouth.[1]

Side effects of aticaprant include itching, among others.[4][5] Aticaprant acts as a selective antagonist of the KOR, the biological target of the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin.[3] The medication has decent selectivity for the KOR over the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and other targets, a relatively long half-life of 30 to 40 hours, and readily crosses the blood–brain barrier to produce central effects.[4][6]

Aticaprant was originally developed by Eli Lilly, was under development by Cerecor for a time, and is now under development by Janssen Pharmaceuticals.[2] As of July 2022, it is in phase 3 clinical trials for major depressive disorder.[2] Like other kappa opioid antagonists currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of major depression, its efficacy may be compromised by the countervailing activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia within the CNS.

Aticaprant was also under development for the treatment of alcoholism, cocaine use disorder, and smoking withdrawal, but development for these indications was discontinued.[2]

Pharmacology[edit]

Pharmacodynamics[edit]

Aticaprant is a potent, selective, short-acting (i.e., non-"inactivating") antagonist of the KOR (Ki = 0.81 nM vs. 24.0 nM and 155 nM for the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and δ-opioid receptor (DOR), respectively; approximately 30-fold selectivity for the KOR).[7][8][9] The drug has been found to dose-dependently block fentanyl-induced miosis at 25 mg and 60 mg in humans (with minimal to no blockade at doses of 4 to 10 mg), suggesting that the drug significantly occupies and antagonizes the MOR at a dose of at least 25 mg but not of 10 mg or less.[9] However, a more recent study assessing neuroendocrine effects of the drug in normal volunteers and subjects with a history of cocaine dependence reported observations consistent with modest MOR antagonism at the 10 mg dose.[10] In animal models of depression, aticaprant has been found to have potent synergistic efficacy in combination with other antidepressants such as citalopram and imipramine.[11]

Positron emission tomography imaging revealed that brain KORs were almost completely saturated by the drug 2.5 hours following a single dose of 10 mg, which supported the 4 mg to 25 mg dosages that aticaprant is being explored at in clinical trials.[12][13] Occupancy was 35% for a 0.5 mg dose and 94% for a 10 mg dose.[14][13] At 24 hours post-dose, receptor occupancy was 19% for 0.5 mg and 82% for 25 mg.[14][13] No serious side effects were observed, and all side effects seen were mild to moderate and were not thought to be due to aticaprant.[13]

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

The oral bioavailability of aticaprant is 25%.[1] The drug is rapidly absorbed, with maximal concentrations occurring 1 to 2 hours after administration.[1] It has an elimination half-life of 30 to 40 hours in healthy subjects.[1] The circulating levels of aticaprant increase proportionally with increasing doses.[1] Steady-state concentrations are reached after 6 to 8 days of once-daily dosing.[1] Aticaprant has been shown to reproducibly penetrate the blood–brain barrier.[12][13]

History[edit]

Aticaprant was originally developed by Eli Lilly under the code name LY-2456302.[2] It first appeared in the scientific literature in 2010 or 2011.[15][16] The compound was first patented in 2009.[17]

In February 2015, Cerecor Inc. announced that they had acquired the rights from Eli Lilly to develop and commercialize LY-2456302 (under the new developmental code CERC-501).[18]

As of 2016, aticaprant has reached phase II clinical trials as an augmentation to antidepressant therapy for treatment-resistant depression.[19][11] A phase II study of aticaprant in heavy smokers was commenced in early 2016 and results of the study were expected before the end of 2016.[13] Aticaprant failed to meet its main endpoint for nicotine withdrawal in the study.[20]

In August 2017, it was announced that Cerecor had sold its rights to aticaprant to Janssen Pharmaceuticals.[21][20] Janssen was also experimenting with esketamine for the treatment of depression as of 2017.[20]

Research[edit]

In addition to major depressive disorder, aticaprant was under development for the treatment of alcoholism, cocaine use disorder, and smoking withdrawal.[2] However, development for these indications was discontinued.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Li W, Sun H, Chen H, Yang X, Xiao L, Liu R, Shao L, Qiu Z (2016). "Major Depressive Disorder and Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonists". Translational Perioperative and Pain Medicine. 1 (2): 4–16. PMC 4871611. PMID 27213169.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "CERC 501". Adis Insight. 30 January 2018.
  3. ^ a b Browne CA, Wulf H, Lucki I (2022). "Kappa Opioid Receptors in the Pathology and Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder". Handb Exp Pharmacol. 271: 493–524. doi:10.1007/164_2020_432. PMID 33580854.
  4. ^ a b c Reed B, Butelman ER, Kreek MJ (2022). "Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonists as Potential Therapeutics for Mood and Substance Use Disorders". Handb Exp Pharmacol. 271: 473–491. doi:10.1007/164_2020_401. PMID 33174064.
  5. ^ Krystal AD, Pizzagalli DA, Smoski M, Mathew SJ, Nurnberger J, Lisanby SH, Iosifescu D, Murrough JW, Yang H, Weiner RD, Calabrese JR, Sanacora G, Hermes G, Keefe RS, Song A, Goodman W, Szabo ST, Whitton AE, Gao K, Potter WZ (May 2020). "A randomized proof-of-mechanism trial applying the 'fast-fail' approach to evaluating κ-opioid antagonism as a treatment for anhedonia". Nat Med. 26 (5): 760–768. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0806-7. PMID 32231295.
  6. ^ Dhir A (January 2017). "Investigational drugs for treating major depressive disorder". Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 26 (1): 9–24. doi:10.1080/13543784.2017.1267727. PMID 27960559.
  7. ^ Rorick-Kehn LM, Witkin JM, Statnick MA, Eberle EL, McKinzie JH, Kahl SD, et al. (February 2014). "LY2456302 is a novel, potent, orally-bioavailable small molecule kappa-selective antagonist with activity in animal models predictive of efficacy in mood and addictive disorders". Neuropharmacology. 77: 131–44. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.09.021. PMID 24071566. S2CID 3230414.
  8. ^ Lowe SL, Wong CJ, Witcher J, Gonzales CR, Dickinson GL, Bell RL, et al. (September 2014). "Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic evaluation of single- and multiple-ascending doses of a novel kappa opioid receptor antagonist LY2456302 and drug interaction with ethanol in healthy subjects". Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 54 (9): 968–78. doi:10.1002/jcph.286. PMID 24619932. S2CID 14814449.
  9. ^ a b Rorick-Kehn LM, Witcher JW, Lowe SL, Gonzales CR, Weller MA, Bell RL, et al. (October 2014). "Determining pharmacological selectivity of the kappa opioid receptor antagonist LY2456302 using pupillometry as a translational biomarker in rat and human". The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. 18 (2): pyu036. doi:10.1093/ijnp/pyu036. PMC 4368892. PMID 25637376.
  10. ^ Reed B, Butelman ER, Fry RS, Kimani R, Kreek MJ (March 2018). "Repeated Administration of Opra Kappa (LY2456302), a Novel, Short-Acting, Selective KOP-r Antagonist, in Persons with and without Cocaine Dependence". Neuropsychopharmacology. 43 (4): 928. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.245. PMC 5809790. PMID 29422497.
  11. ^ a b Urbano M, Guerrero M, Rosen H, Roberts E (May 2014). "Antagonists of the kappa opioid receptor". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 24 (9): 2021–32. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.03.040. PMID 24690494.
  12. ^ a b BusinessWire (11 December 2015). "Publication Reports Human Brain Penetration and Target Engagement of Cerecor's Oral Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonist, CERC-501".
  13. ^ a b c d e f Naganawa M, Dickinson GL, Zheng MQ, Henry S, Vandenhende F, Witcher J, et al. (February 2016). "Receptor Occupancy of the κ-Opioid Antagonist LY2456302 Measured with Positron Emission Tomography and the Novel Radiotracer 11C-LY2795050". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 356 (2): 260–6. doi:10.1124/jpet.115.229278. PMC 4727157. PMID 26628406.
  14. ^ a b Placzek MS (August 2021). "Imaging Kappa Opioid Receptors in the Living Brain with Positron Emission Tomography". Handb Exp Pharmacol. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 271: 547–577. doi:10.1007/164_2021_498. ISBN 978-3-030-89073-5. PMID 34363128. S2CID 236947969.
  15. ^ Zheng MQ, Nabulsi N, Kim SJ, Tomasi G, Lin SF, Mitch C, et al. (March 2013). "Synthesis and evaluation of 11C-LY2795050 as a κ-opioid receptor antagonist radiotracer for PET imaging". Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 54 (3): 455–63. doi:10.2967/jnumed.112.109512. PMC 3775344. PMID 23353688.
  16. ^ Mitch CH, Quimby SJ, Diaz N, Pedregal C, de la Torre MG, Jimenez A, Shi Q, Canada EJ, Kahl SD, Statnick MA, McKinzie DL, Benesh DR, Rash KS, Barth VN (December 2011). "Discovery of aminobenzyloxyarylamides as κ opioid receptor selective antagonists: application to preclinical development of a κ opioid receptor antagonist receptor occupancy tracer". J Med Chem. 54 (23): 8000–12. doi:10.1021/jm200789r. PMID 21958337.
  17. ^ "WO2009094260A1 - Kappa selective opioid receptor antagonist". Google Patents. 13 January 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  18. ^ "Cerecor Bolsters Clinical Pipeline with Acquisition of Phase 2-ready Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonist from Eli Lilly and Company". cerecor.com. February 20, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-02-23. Retrieved March 18, 2015.
  19. ^ Rankovic Z, Hargreaves R, Bingham M (2012). Drug Discovery for Psychiatric Disorders. Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 314–317. ISBN 978-1-84973-365-6.
  20. ^ a b c Bushey R (August 2017). "J&J Adds New Depression Drug to Portfolio". Drug Discovery and Development Magazine.
  21. ^ "Cerecor Announces Divestiture of CERC-501 to Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc". Marketwired. August 2017.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]