Atlanta hip hop

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Although the music scene of Atlanta is rich and varied, the city's production of hip-hop music has been especially noteworthy, acclaimed, and commercially successful. In 2009, The New York Times called Atlanta "hip-hop's center of gravity",[1] and the city is home to many famous hip-hop, R&B and neo soul[2] musicians.

History[edit]

In the 1980s and early 1990s Atlanta's hip hop scene was characterized by a local variant of Miami's electro-driven bass music, with stars like Kilo Ali, MC Shy-D, Raheem the Dream, and DJ Smurf (later Mr. Collipark).[1] MC Shy-D is credited with bringing authentic Bronx-style hip-hop to Atlanta (and Miami), such as 1988's Shake it[3] produced by DJ Toomp; Jones was signed to controversial Southern hip hop label Luke Records, run by Luther Campbell aka "Uncle Luke". Arrested Development won the Grammy in 1992 with Tennessee, while Mr. Wendal & People Everyday and Kris Kross won with their hit song Jump. The group Tag Team released their debut platinum certified album Whoomp! (There It Is) (album) on July 20, 1993, spawned by their hit single of the same name.[4]

By the mid-1990s, the rise of LaFace Records artists Outkast, Goodie Mob and the production collective Organized Noize led to the development of the Dirty South style of hip-hop and of Atlanta gaining a reputation for "soul-minded hip-hop eccentrics", contrasting with other regional styles.[1] While Atlanta-area hip hop artists were from the suburban Decatur area, their prominence was eclipsed by music associated with these artists from "The S.W.A.T.S." ("Southwest Atlanta, too strong"),[5][6] i.e. Southwest Atlanta, plus territory extending into the adjacent cities of College Park and East Point. The term "SWATS" came into vogue around 1996, initially made popular by Outkast and Goodie Mob.[7]

From the late 1990s to early 2000s, record producer Lil Jon became a driving force behind the hip hop subgenre known as crunk, known for its upbeat and club oriented hip hop sound. Record producers L.A. Reid and Babyface founded LaFace Records in Atlanta in the late-1980s; the label eventually became the home to multi-platinum selling artists such as Toni Braxton, TLC, Ciara. It is also the home of So So Def Recordings, a label founded by Jermaine Dupri in the mid-1990s, that signed acts such as Da Brat, Jagged Edge, Xscape and Dem Franchise Boyz. The success of LaFace and SoSo Def led to Atlanta as an established scene for record labels such as LaFace parent company Arista Records to set up satellite offices.

In 2009 The New York Times noted that after 2000, Atlanta moved "from the margins to becoming hip-hop's center of gravity, part of a larger shift in hip-hop innovation to the South." Atlanta hip-hop's pop breakthrough—everyone from Jermaine Dupri to OutKast to Lil Jon—involved the blend of various distillations of hard-core sounds from the West, bass beats from Florida, and styles and images from the North.[8] Producer Drumma Boy called Atlanta "the melting pot of the South". Producer Fatboi called the Roland TR-808 ("808") synthesizer "central" to Atlanta music's versatility, used for snap, crunk, trap, and pop rap styles.[1] The same article named Fatboi, Shawty Redd and Zaytoven the four "hottest producers driving the city".[1]

As of 2018, Atlanta Trap music continues to dominate the pop music charts. In 2017, Atlanta recording artist Future had back-to-back releases that debuted at number one on the Billboard charts. Atlanta artists, most notably Lil Yachty have capitalized on internet to make their name. Infectious personal branding allowed Yachty to spread across social media. His 2018 release Lil Boat 2 opened at number 2 on Billboard.

Atlanta Hip-Hop influences other mainstream forms of media. Comedian, actor, and musician Donald Glover, who raps under the name Childish Gambino has gained critical and commercial success with his television show Atlanta. The show chronicles the lives of two cousins trying to navigate the Hip-Hop world. Its acting and social commentary have earned it two Golden Globe awards and two Emmy awards.

Atlanta's hip-hop scene created of many of the decade's dance crazes. Dances like The Dab, the Whip, and the Nae-Nae have all ascended from hip-hop into the mainstream. Proof of these dances mainstream success is evident. Notably, presidential candidate Hillary Clinton did a “Dab” on the popular talk show, Ellen.

Top-selling artists[edit]

Local multi-platinum artists include Ludacris, Ciara, B.o.B, Outkast, Young Jeezy and T.I. The following hip-hop, rap, R&B and soul artists have had #1 or #2 albums or singles on the U.S. Hot 100 chart:

Artist Year Rank Single name Year Rank Album name
21 savage 2016 1 ISSA
B.o.B 2010 1 Nothin' on You 2010 1 B.o.B Presents: The Adventures of Bobby Ray
CeeLo Green 2010 2 Fuck You!
Childish Gambino 2018 1 This Is America
Ciara 2004 1 Goodies 2006 1 Ciara: The Evolution
D4L 2006 1 Laffy Taffy Down for Life
Gnarls Barkley (CeeLo Green/Danger Mouse collaboration) 2006 2 "Crazy"
Kris Kross 1992-1995 1 4 #1 singles 1992 1 Totally Krossed Out
Lil Jon 2004 2 Get Low
Lloyd 2007 2 Street Love
Ludacris 2003-2006 1 4 #1 singles 2003-2010 1 4 #1 albums
Migos 2016 1 Bad and Boujee 2016 1 Culture
Monica 1998-1999 1 4#1 singles 2003 1 2 #1 albums
Outkast 2000-2003 1 3 #1 singles 2003 1 Speakerboxxx/The Love Below
Shop Boyz 2007 2 Party Like a Rockstar Rockstar Mentality
Soulja Boy 2007 1 Crank Dat
Tag Team 1993 2 Whoomp! (There It Is) 1993 Whoomp! (There It Is)
T.I. 2006-2013 1 4 #1 singles 2006-2008 1 3 #1 albums
The-Dream 2009 2 Love vs. Money
Usher 1998-2010 9 #1 singles 2004-2012 4 #1 albums
Ying Yang Twins 2005 2 U.S.A. (United State of Atlanta)
Young Jeezy 2006-2014 2 2 #1 albums

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e John Caramanica, "Gucci Mane, No Holds Barred ", The New York Times, December 11, 2009
  2. ^ NPR: "Atlanta soul scene reborn"
  3. ^ Mickey Hess, Hip Hop in America: A Regional Guide: Volume 1: East Coast and West Coast
  4. ^ Billboard - Google Books. Books.google.com. 1995-09-04. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
  5. ^ "Revolution Rock: Atlanta's Goodie Mob fight for truth, justice, but not necessarily the American Way", Vibe, June-July 1998
  6. ^ S.W.A.T.S. Web television series YouTube channel
  7. ^ Mickey Hess, Hip Hop in America: East Coast and West Coast
  8. ^ Sarig, Roni (2007). Third Coast: Outkast, Timbaland, & How Hip-Hop Became a Southern Thing. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo press.