Atlantic Fleet (United Kingdom)

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Atlantic Fleet
Renown-7.jpg
Capital Ships of the Atlantic Fleet
Active1909–1914;1919–1932
Country United Kingdom
BranchNaval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Navy
TypeFleet

The Atlantic Fleet was a major fleet formation of the Royal Navy. There have been two main formations in the Royal Navy officially called the Atlantic Fleet. The first was created in 1909 and lasted until 1914. The second lasted from 1919 until 1932.

History[edit]

On 14 December 1904 the Channel Fleet was re-styled the 'Atlantic Fleet'.[1] The Atlantic Fleet lasted until 1912 when rising tensions with Germany forced the Royal Navy to relook at fleet formations and the Atlantic Fleet became the 3rd Battle Squadron.[2] The Atlantic Fleet was based at Gibraltar to reinforce either the Channel Fleet or the Mediterranean Fleet, from January 1905 to February 1907. It remained at Gibraltar until April 1912.[3]

The Atlantic Fleet was again formed after the end of World War I, when British naval forces were reorganised to reflect the changed economic and political situation in Europe. The fleet was created upon the disbandment of the Grand Fleet in April 1919, absorbing many, but not all of its elements. It was placed under a Commander-in-Chief, who for part of that year held the title of Commander-in-Chief Atlantic and Home Fleets, before the Home Fleet became the Reserve Fleet and a totally separate command. HMS Queen Elizabeth became the Fleet's flagship and served in that capacity until 1924.[4]

The fleet never fought in a naval battle in its short history. The fleet's only point of note in history was in 1931, during the Invergordon Mutiny. Sailors of the fleet openly refused to obey orders over a dispute on pay sparked by the government at the time.[5] The fleet's short history ended in 1932, when the Admiralty having been shaken by the events of the Invergordon Mutiny, renamed the fleet, as the Home Fleet.[6]

Commander-in-Chiefs First Formation[edit]

Included:[8]
Rank Flag Name Term
Commander-in-Chief Atlantic Fleet [9]
1 Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Lord Charles Beresford 31 December 1904 – 1 March 1905
2 Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir William H. May 1 March 1905 – 23 February 1907
3 Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Assheton Curzon-Howe 23 February 1907 – 19 November 1908
4 Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Prince Louis of Battenberg 19 November 1908 – 20 December 1910
5 Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir John Jellicoe 20 December 1910 – 19 December 1911
6 Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Cecil Burney 19 December 1911 – July, 1914
Notes:The Fleet was commanded by the designated tile of "Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet" between 1910-1912 the post was sometimes styled as "Vice-Admiral Commanding, Atlantic Fleet".

Commander-in-Chiefs Second Formation[edit]

Included:[11]
Rank Flag Name Term
Commander-in-Chief Atlantic Fleet [12]
1 Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Charles Madden 8 April 1919 – 15 August 1922
2 Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir John de Robeck 15 August 1922 – 15 August 1924
3 Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Henry Oliver 15 August 1924 – 15 August 1927
4 Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Hubert Brand 15 August 1927 – 17 April 1929
5 Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Ernle Chatfield 17 April 1929 – 27 May 1930
6 Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Michael Hodges 27 May 1930 – 6 October 1931
7 Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir John Kelly 6 October 1931 – 1932

Rear-Admiral, Second-in-Command, Atlantic Fleet[edit]

First Formation included:[13]
Rank Flag Name Term
Rear-Admiral, Second-in-Command, Atlantic Fleet
1 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Francis Bridgeman 25 June 1904 – 25 August 1905
2 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Archibald Milne 25 August 1905 – 25 August 1906
3 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg George L.C. Egerton 25 August 1906 – 28 August 1907
4 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir John R. Jellicoe 28 August 1907 – 25 August 1908
5 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg William B. Fisher 25 August 1908 – 26 August 1909
6 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Colin R. Keppel 26 August 1909 – 12 September 1910
7 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sackville H. Carden 12 September 1910 – 29 August 1911 (co-assigned)
8 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Christopher G. F. M. Cradock 29 August 1911 – 29 August 1912

Commodore/Rear-Admiral (D) Commanding Destroyer Flotillas, Atlantic Fleet[edit]

Post holders included:[14]

Rank Flag Name Term
Commodore/Rear-Admiral (D) Commanding Destroyer Flotillas, Atlantic Fleet
1 Commodore UK-Navy-OF6-Flag.svg Reginald Y. Tyrwhitt December 1913 - 1914
fleet disbanded 1914 - 1919
2 Commodore UK-Navy-OF6-Flag.svg Hugh J.Tweedie 1919 - May 1920
3 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Michael H. Hodges May 1920-July 1922
4 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Arthur K. Waistell July 1922-April 1923
5 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir George H.Baird April 1923-September 1924
6 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Colin K. Maclean September 1924–September 1926
7 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Wion de M. Egerton September 1926-July 1928
8 Commodore UK-Navy-OF6-Flag.svg Robin C. Dalglish July 1928-August 1930
9 Commodore UK-Navy-OF6-Flag.svg Edward O.B.S.Osborne August 1930-March 1932 continued as R.Adm (D) HF till July 1932.

Chief of Staff, Atlantic Fleet[edit]

Second Formation included [15]
Rank Flag Name Term
Chief of Staff, Atlantic Fleet
1 Commodore 1st Class UK-Navy-OF6-Flag.svg Cyril T. M. Fuller 1 May 1920 – 14 August 1922
2 Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Arthur J. Davies 14 August 1922 – 15 August 1927 (initially-Cdre, 1.Cls)

Components[edit]

First formation[edit]

Distribution of the Fleet first formation included:[16]
Unit Date Notes
1 2nd Cruiser Squadron January 1905 – March 1909 replaced by 5th CSQ [17]
2 5th Cruiser Squadron March 1909 – April 1912 [18]
3 Atlantic Fleet Flotilla 1906–1907 no destroyers after 1907 [19]
4 8 battleships January 1905 – March 1909 distributed [20]
4 7 pre-dreadnoughts March 1909 – April 1912 distributed [21]

Second formation[edit]

Distribution of the Fleet second formation included:[22]
Unit Date Notes
1 1st Battle Squadron 1919 – November 1924 re-titled 2nd BS [23]
2 2nd Battle Squadron 1919 – May 1924 absorbed into 1st BS [24]
3 3rd Battle Squadron March 1926 – May 1930 ex Mediterranean Fleet [25]
4 Battlecruiser Squadron 1919 – September 1936 to Med, 4.39-returned to Home Fleet [26]
5 Aircraft Carriers 1919 – September 1931 [27]
6 Aircraft Carrier Squadron September 1931 – 1932 [28]
7 1st Light Cruiser Squadron 1919 – November 1924 to Mediterranean Fleet [29]
8 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron 1919–1920 re-designated 2nd CSQ [30]
9 2nd Cruiser Squadron [31] 1920–1932 [32]
10 1st Destroyer Flotilla 1919 – April 1925 [33]
10 2nd Destroyer Flotilla 1919 – November 1924 to Mediterranean Fleet [34]
11 3rd Destroyer Flotilla 1919 – August 1923 to Mediterranean Fleet [35]
12 4th Destroyer Flotilla 1919 – August 1923 to Mediterranean Fleet [36]
13 5th Destroyer Flotilla 1919 – April 1925 to Mediterranean Fleet as 1DF [37]
14 6th Destroyer Flotilla 1919–1921 absorbed 8th DF [38]
15 7th Destroyer Flotilla 1925 – August 1928 [39]
16 8th Destroyer Flotilla 1925 – August 1927 to China Station [40]
17 9th Destroyer Flotilla 1925 – August 1927 absorbed 7th DF [41]
18 1st Submarine Flotilla 1919–1927 Rosyth Command to 1926 then to Nore Command till 1927 [42]
19 2nd Submarine Flotilla 1919–1924 Plymouth Command to 1924, after to FO, Malta [43]
20 3rd Submarine Flotilla 1919–1927 Portsmouth Command to 1922 Plymouth Command till 1927 then to 2nd SF [44]
21 5th Submarine Flotilla 1919–1932 Portsmouth Command [45]
22 6th Submarine Flotilla 1919–1932 FO, Portland [46]

References[edit]

  1. ^ National Archives records
  2. ^ "Navy Estimates 1912-13". Hansard. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
  3. ^ Smith, Gordon. "Royal Navy Organisation and Ship Deployments 1900-1914". www.naval-history.net. Gordon Smith, 8 August 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  4. ^ "HMS Queen Elizabeth". Retrieved 2 September 2012.
  5. ^ "The Invergordon Mutiny". Retrieved 2 September 2012.
  6. ^ "Home Fleet listing for 1933". Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
  7. ^ Watson, Dr Graham. "Royal Navy Organisation and Ship Deployments 1900-1914: January 1904-February 1907". www.naval-history.net. Graham Smith. 8 August 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  8. ^ Senior Royal Navy Appointments Archived 15 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ Government, H.M. (October 1913). "Flag Officers - Vice Admirals". The Navy List. H.M. Stationery Office. p. 87.
  10. ^ Watson, Dr Graham. "Royal Navy Organisation and Ship Deployments 1900-1914: January 1904-February 1907". www.naval-history.net. Graham Smith. 8 August 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  11. ^ Whitaker's Almanacks 1919–1932
  12. ^ Government, H.M. (October 1913). "Flag Officers - Vice Admirals". The Navy List. H.M. Stationery Office. p. 87.
  13. ^ Harley, Simon; Lovell, Tony. "Atlantic Fleet (Royal Navy) - The Dreadnought Project". dreadnoughtproject.org. Harley and Lovell, 18 July 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  14. ^ Mackie, Colin (July 2018). "Royal Navy Senior Appointments from 1865" (PDF). gulabin.com. C. Mackie. p. 215. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  15. ^ Harley, Simon; Lovell, Tony. "Atlantic Fleet (Royal Navy) - The Dreadnought Project". dreadnoughtproject.org. Harley and Lovell, 18 July 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  16. ^ Watson, Dr Graham. "Royal Navy Organisation and Ship Deployments 1900-1914". www.naval-history.net. Gordon Smith, 8 August 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  17. ^ Watson. 2015
  18. ^ Watson. 2015
  19. ^ Watson. 2015
  20. ^ Watson. 2015
  21. ^ Watson. 2015
  22. ^ Watson, Dr Graham. "Royal Navy Organisation and Ship Deployment, Inter-War Years 1919-1939". www.naval-history.net. Gordon Smith, 2 September 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  23. ^ Watson. 2015
  24. ^ Watson. 2015
  25. ^ Watson. 2015
  26. ^ Watson. 2015
  27. ^ Watson. 2015
  28. ^ Watson. 2015
  29. ^ Watson. 2015
  30. ^ Watson. 2015
  31. ^ Watson. 2015
  32. ^ Watson. 2015
  33. ^ Watson. 2015
  34. ^ Watson. 2015
  35. ^ Watson. 2015
  36. ^ Watson. 2015
  37. ^ Watson. 2015
  38. ^ Watson. 2015
  39. ^ Watson. 2015
  40. ^ Watson. 2015
  41. ^ Watson. 2015
  42. ^ Watson. 2015
  43. ^ Watson. 2015
  44. ^ Watson. 2015
  45. ^ Watson. 2015
  46. ^ Watson. 2015

External links[edit]