Atlantic Transport Line

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Atlantic Transport Line
Industry Shipping
Founded 1881 in United States
Founder Bernard N Baker
Defunct 1936
Headquarters Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Area served
North Atlantic
Services Passenger and Cargo transport, including live cattle

The Atlantic Transport Line was an American passenger shipping line based in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1901 the company was folded into the International Mercantile Marine shipping trust (IMM). The line developed with railroad support as an offshoot of Bernard N. Baker's Baltimore Storage and Lighterage Company in 1881. Although American owned, the Atlantic Transport Line operated from Britain, with British registered and manned vessels, most of which were British built. General cargo, live cattle and small numbers of passengers were carried from Baltimore and Philadelphia to British ports and the line developed an excellent reputation for shipping valuable horses. A full-scale weekly passenger service between New York and London commenced in 1892 and today the line is best remembered for its exclusively first class direct London to New York passenger/cargo service operated by its four Minne class ships, SS Minneapolis, SS Minnehaha, SS Minnetonka and SS Minnewaska from 1900 to 1915.

In 1898 the U.S. Government bought seven of the Line's ten ships for use as military transports in the Spanish–American War (Baker lent another for use as a hospital ship). The line survived this potentially devastating blow because Baker pulled off a sensational deal and bought a British competitor's five brand new ships almost immediately as replacements. The Atlantic Transport Company of West Virginia was formed at this time to assert American ownership of the line's overseas assets. Baker's attempt to sell the line to British owners in the late 1890s sparked the chain of events that lead to the formation of the IMM.

The line's most important ships were all sunk during the First World War. After the war four huge replacements for the Minne class ships were planned. Only two of these were built however and the passenger service, which recommenced in 1923, never matched pre-war successes. With first class travel declining the A.T.L. introduced a tourist third class ship in 1925 and for two seasons operated a second. But the line was faltering even before the Wall Street Crash and with the recession of 1931 its remaining ships were laid up or transferred to other IMM lines and it effectively ceased to exist. The American holding company survived until 1936. The SS Minnewaska was the last ship the Atlantic Transport Line operated.

Fleet[edit]

Ship Launched ATL Service Notes
SS Columbia 1914 1935 - 1936 Ex Belgic, ex Belgenland. Scrapped 1936
SS Korea 1901 1915 - 1916 From 19898 in Pacific Mail Steamship Company. At the outbreak of World War I, Herambalal Gupta was in Germany as member of the Berlin Committee, which within a short time established contacts with the Ghadar Party in the United States in what came to be called the Hindu–German Conspiracy. Efforts had begun as early as 1911 to procure arms and smuggle them into India.[1] When a clear idea of the conspiracy emerged, more earnest and elaborate plans were made to obtain arms and to enlist international support. After the failure of the SS Korea mission, Herambalal Gupta took over the leadership of American wing of the conspiracy and began efforts to obtain men and arms. While the former resource was in plentiful supply with more and more Indians coming forward to join the Ghadarite cause, obtaining arms for the uprising proved to be more difficult.[2] In 1915 the ship was sold to the Atlantic Transport Company. Sold to the Toyo Kisen Kaisha of Yokohama, Japan, and renamed Korea Maru in 1916. Charles Punchard, Jr. traveled to Hawaii in May 1919 aboard the SS Korea Maru, conducting an inspection of a new national park in Hawaii.[3][4][5] Scrapped 1934
SS Mackinaw 1890 1897 - 1923 Ex British Crown. Scrapped 1923
SS Maine 1887 1887 - 1899 Ex Swansea. Converted to a hospital ship for the Boer War. Wrecked 1914
SS Maine 1903 1903 - 1907 Sold and renamed Virginian. Scrapped 1948
SS Maine 1904 1913 - 1917 Ex Sierra Blanca. Torpedoed by UC-17 1917
SS Maine 1919 1920 - 1931 Ex War Riddle. Sold and renamed Skala. Scrapped 1955
SS Manchuria 1903 1915 - 1918 Requisitioned as a troop transport. On return transferred to the American Line. Sold and renamed President Johnson. Resold and renamed Santa Cruz. Scrapped 1952
SS Manhattan 1898 1898 - 1927 Chartered to the Phoenix Line 1911 - 1914. Scrapped 1927
SS Manitoba 1892 1892 - 1898 Sold to US Government and renamed USAT Logan. Sold and renamed Candler. Scrapped 1924
SS Manitou 1897 1898 - 1902 Ex Victoria. Transferred to Red Star Line. Requisitioned 1915 - 1919. On return renamed Poland then transferred to White Star Line in 1922. Scrapped 1925.
SS Marquette 1897 1898 - 1904 Ex Boadicea. Transferred to Red Star Line. Torpedoed by U-35 1915
SS Maryland 1886 1886 - 1912 Sold and renamed Redentore. Wrecked 1913
SS Maryland 1913 1913 - 1933 Scrapped 1933
SS Massachusetts 1891 1892 - 1898 Requisitioned by US Government and renamed USAT Sheridan. Scrapped in 1923
SS Massachusetts 1902 1902 - 1911 Sold and renamed Kansan. Torpedoed 1917
SS Memphis 1891 1907 - 1908 Ex America. Scrapped 1908
SS Menominee 1897 1898 - 1905 Ex Alexandria. Transferred to Red Star Line. Scrapped 1927
SS Mesaba 1897 1898 - 1918 Ex Winifreda. Torpedoed by UB-118 1918
SS Mesaba 1918 1919 - 1925 Ex War Icarus. Transferred to White Star Line and renamed Delphic. Subsequenty sold to Clan Line and renamed Clan Farquhar. Scrapped 1948
SS Michigan 1890 1890 - 1896 Transferred to the National Line. Sold to US Government and renamed USAT Kilpatrick. Resold and renamed Acropolis. Subsequently resold and renamed Washington. Finally sold and renamed Great Canton. Scrapped 1924
SS Michigan 1899 1899 - 1900 Transferred to the Dominion Line and renamed Irishman. Scrapped 1924
SS Michigan 1897 1914 - 1926 Ex Monmouth, ex Irishman. Sold and renamed Candido. Scrapped 1927
SS Minneapolis 1899 1900 - 1915 Requisitioned by UK government. Torpedoed by U-35 1916
SS Minnehaha 1900 1900 - 1917 Torpedoed by U-48 1917
SS Minnekahda 1917 1920 - 1931 Laid up and eventually scrapped in 1936
SS Minnesota 1887 1887 - 1926 Renamed Mahopac in 1917. Scrapped in 1926
SS Minnesota 1903 1917- 1923 Chartered by US government in 1919 and renamed USS Troy. Scrapped 1923
SS Minnesota 1900 1927 - 1930 Ex Zeeland, ex Northland. Scrapped 1930
SS Minnetonka 1901 1901 - 1918 Torpedoed by U-64 and U-67 1918
SS Minnetonka 1924 1924 - 1934 Scrapped 1934
SS Minnewaska 1894 1897 - 1898 Ex Persia. Requisitioned by the US Government and renamed USAT Thomas. Scrapped 1928
SS Minnewaska 1908 1909 - 1916 Total loss after being mined by UC-23 1916
SS Minnewaska 1923 1923 - 1931 Sold to Red Star Line. Scrapped 1934
SS Mississippi 1890 1890 - 1898 Requisitioned by US government and renamed USAT Buford. Scrapped 1929
SS Mississippi 1902 1902 - 1906 Transferred to Red Star Line and renamed Samland. Transferred to White Star Line 1911 - 1913 and temporarily renamed Belgic. Scrapped 1931
MV Mississippi 1914 1914 - 1933 Scrapped 1933
SS Missouri 1888 1888 - 1898 Sold to US Government and renamed USAT Egbert. Sold and renamed Stanley Dollar. Wrecked 1905
SS Missouri 1903 1903 - 1908 Sold and renamed Missourian. Torpedoed by U-52 1917
SS Missouri 1913 1913 - 1933 Scrapped 1933
SS Mobile 1892 1892 - 1898 Sold to US Government and renamed USAT Sherman. Resold and renamed Calawaii. Scrapped 1933
SS Mobile 1890 1907 -1911 Ex Europe. Sold and renamed Throger. Renamed Guvernoren. Burnt at sea 1915
SS Mohawk 1892 1892 - 1898 Sold to US Government and renamed USAT Grant. Resold and renamed Chinouk. Scrapped 1946
SS Mohawk 1885 1899 - 1903 Ex Belgic. Scrapped 1903
SS Mohegan 1898 1898 - 1898 Ex Cleopatra. Sank 1898
SS Mongolia 1903 1915 - 1920 Transferred to the American Line and subsequently to the Panama Pacific Line. Sold and renamed President Fillimore. Subsequently resold and renamed Panamanian. Scrapped 1947
SS Montana 1887 1887 - 1913 Sold and renamed Resurrezione. Scrapped 1926
SS Montana 1919 1920 - 1935 Ex Defender. Scrapped 1935
SS Montauk 1919 1920 - 1935 Ex Champion. Scrapped 1935
SS Siberia 1901 1915 - 1916 Sold and renamed Siberia Maru. Scrapped 1934
SS Suffolk 1881 1882 - 1886 Wrecked 1886
SS Surrey 1881 1881 - 1889 Renamed Michigan in 1888. Sold and renamed Harry Luckenbach. Torpedoed by U-84 1918
SS Sussex 1882 1882 - 1885 Sank 1885

References[edit]

  1. ^ Plowman 2003, p. 87
  2. ^ Brown 1948, p. 301
  3. ^ The Atlantic Transport Line >> S.S. Korea.
  4. ^ "Charles Pierpont Punchard, Jr.: A Minute on His Life and Service". Transactions of the American Society of Landscape Architects, 1909-1921. 1921. pp. 100–103. 
  5. ^ Repository Name: National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); NARA Series: A3510; Roll: 25. Source Information: Ancestry.com. Honolulu, Hawaii, Passenger and Crew Lists, 1900-1959 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009. Original data: Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving or Departing at Honolulu, Hawaii, 1900–1954. NARA Microfilm Publication A3422, 269 rolls; A3510, 175 rolls; A3574, 27 rolls; A3575, 1 roll; A3576, 1 roll; A3577, 58 rolls; A3615, 1 roll; A3614,76 rolls; A3568 & A3569, 187 rolls; A3571, 64 rolls. Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, Record Group 85. National Archives, Washington, D.C. Passenger and Crew Manifests of Airplanes Departing from Honolulu, Hawaii, 12/1957 - 9/1969. NARA Microfilm Publication A3577 57 rolls. Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1787 - 2004, Record Group 85. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

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