Spear-thrower

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Depiction of an atlatl
Atlatl in use

A spear-thrower, spear-throwing lever or atlatl (pronounced /ˈætlætəl/[1] or /ˈɑːtlɑːtəl/;[2] Nahuatl ahtlatl [ˈaʔt͡ɬat͡ɬ]) is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in dart or javelin-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to store energy during the throw.

It may consist of a shaft with a cup or a spur at the end that supports and propels the butt of the dart. The spear-thrower is held in one hand, gripped near the end farthest from the cup. The dart is thrown by the action of the upper arm and wrist. The throwing arm together with the atlatl acts as a lever. The spear-thrower is a low-mass, fast-moving extension of the throwing arm, increasing the length of the lever. This extra length allows the thrower to impart force to the dart over a longer distance, thus imparting more energy and ultimately higher speeds.[3]

Common modern ball throwers (molded plastic arms used for throwing tennis balls for dogs to fetch) use the same principle.

A spear-thrower is a long-range weapon and can readily impart to a projectile speeds of over 150 km/h (93 mph).[4]

Spear-throwers appear very early in human history in several parts of the world, and have survived in use in traditional societies until the present day, as well as being revived in recent years for sporting purposes. In the United States, the Nahuatl word atlatl is often used for revived uses of spear-throwers (or the Mayan word hul'che); in Australia, the Dharug word woomera is used instead.

The ancient Greeks and Romans used a leather thong or loop, known as an ankule or amentum, as a spear-throwing device.[5] The Swiss arrow is a weapon that works similarly to amentum.

Design[edit]

Bannerstone atlatl weight, c. 2000 BC. Archaic peoples; Ohio

Spear-thrower designs may include improvements such as thong loops to fit the fingers, the use of flexible shafts or stone balance weights. Dart shafts can be made thinner and highly flexible for added power and range, the fletching can be spiralized to add spin to the dart making it more stable and accurate. Darts resemble large arrows or small spears and are typically from 1.2 to 2.7 m (4 to 9 ft) in length and 9 to 16 mm (3/8" to 5/8") in diameter.

Another important improvement to the spear-thrower's design was the introduction of a small weight (between 60 and 80 grams) strapped to its midsection. Some atlatlists maintain that stone weights add mass to the shaft of the device, causing resistance to acceleration when swung and resulting in a more forceful and accurate launch of the dart. Others claim that spear-thrower weights add only stability to a cast, resulting in greater accuracy.[citation needed]

Based on previous work done by William S. Webb, William R. Perkins[6] claims that spear-thrower weights, commonly called "bannerstones", and characterized by a centered hole in a symmetrically shaped carved or ground stone, shaped wide and flat with a drilled hole and thus a little like a large wingnut, are an improvement to the design that created a silencing effect when swung. The use of the device would reduce the telltale "zip" of a swung atlatl to a more subtle "woof" sound that did not travel as far and was less likely to alert prey. Robert Berg's theory is that the bannerstone was carried by hunters as a spindle weight to produce string from natural fibers gathered while hunting, for the purpose of tying on fletching and hafting stone or bone points.[7]

Woomera[edit]

The woomera design is distinctly different from most other spear-throwers, in that it has a curved, hollow shape, which allows for it to be used for other purposes (in some cases) such as carrying food.

Artistic designs[edit]

Several Stone Age spear-throwers (usually now incomplete) are decorated with carvings of animals: the British Museum has a mammoth, and there is a hyena in France. Many pieces of decorated bone may have belonged to Bâtons de commandement.[citation needed]

The Aztec atlatl was often decorated with snake designs and feathers,[8] potentially evocative of its association with Ehecatl, the Aztec wind deity.[9]

History[edit]

Wooden darts were known at least since the Middle Paleolithic (Schöningen, Torralba, Clacton-on-Sea and Kalambo Falls). While the spear-thrower is capable of casting a dart well over one hundred meters, it is most accurately used at distances of twenty meters or less. The spearthrower is believed to have been in use by Homo sapiens since the Upper Paleolithic (around 30,000 years ago).[10] Most stratified European finds come from the Magdalenian (late upper Palaeolithic). In this period, elaborate pieces, often in the form of animals, are common. The earliest secure data concerning atlatls have come from several caves in France dating to the Upper Paleolithic, about 21,000 to 17,000 years ago. The earliest known example is a 17,500-year-old Solutrean atlatl made of reindeer antler, found at Combe Saunière (Dordogne), France.[11] It is possible that the atlatl was invented earlier than this, as Mungo Man from 42 000 BP displays arthritis in his right elbow, a pathology referred to today as the "Atlatl elbow," resulting from many years of forceful torsion from using an atlatl.[12] At present there is no evidence for the use of atlatls in Africa. Peoples such as the Maasai and Khoi San throw spears without any aids, but its use in hunting is limited in comparison to the spear thrower since the animal must be very close and already immobile.

During the Ice Age, the atlatl was used by humans to hunt Megafauna. Ice Age Megafauna offered a large food supply when other game was limited, and the atlatl gave more power to pierce their thicker skin. In this time period, atlatls were usually made of wood or bone. Improvements made to spears' edge made it more efficient as well.[13]

In Europe, the spear-thrower was supplemented by the bow and arrow in the Epi-Paleolithic. Along with improved ease of use, the bow offered the advantage that the bulk of elastic energy is stored in the throwing device, rather than the projectile; arrow shafts can therefore be much smaller, and have looser tolerances for spring constant and weight distribution than atlatl darts. This allowed for more forgiving flint knapping: dart heads designed for a particular spear thrower tend to differ in mass by only a few percent. By the Iron Age, the amentum, a strap attached to the shaft, was the standard European mechanism for throwing lighter javelins. The amentum gives not only range, but also spin to the projectile.[14]

Ceremonial spear thrower, Peru, 0–300 A.D., Lombards Museum

The spear-thrower was used by early Americans as well. It may have been introduced to America during the immigration across the Bering Land Bridge,[citation needed] and despite the later introduction of the bow and arrow,[citation needed] atlatl use was widespread at the time of first European contact.[citation needed] Atlatls are represented in the art of multiple pre-Columbian cultures, including the Basketmaker culture in the American Southwest, Maya in the Yucatan Peninsula, and Moche in the Andes of South America. Atlatls were especially prominent in the iconography of the warriors of the Teotihuacan culture of Central Mexico. A ruler from Teotihucan named Spearthrower Owl is an important figure described in Mayan stelae. Complete wooden spear-throwers have been found on dry sites in the western United States and in waterlogged environments in Florida and Washington. Several Amazonian tribes also used the atlatl for fishing and hunting. Some even preferred this weapon over the bow and arrow, and used it not only in combat but also in sports competitions. Such was the case with the Tarairiu, a Tapuya tribe of migratory foragers and raiders inhabiting the forested mountains and highland savannahs of Rio Grande do Norte in mid-17th-century Brazil. Anthropologist Harald Prins offers the following description:

As referenced to earlier, the spear-thrower was an important part of life, hunting, and religion in the Ancient Andes. The first made spear-thrower of the South Americas had a proximal handle piece and is commonly referred to as an estòlica in many Andean writings (insert reference). The estòlica and atlatl are almost interchangeable terms with the only difference being in the fact that “estòlica” refers to atlatls made in the Andes during a certain time period. The common thought is that these first appeared in the Nasca culture, but that is not correct. Bernardo Arriaza, a Chilean physical anthropologist wrote about the evidence for the first estòlicas actually being found in the Chinchorro culture and their tombs in his book, Beyond Death: The Chinchorro Mummies of Ancient Chile. There are many other instances of the estòlica seen in various other culture. Wari textiles, Nazca ceramics, and Moche pottery are only a few of the many examples where interpretations of this tool are seen. Very few of these objects remain today because of the fast-decaying process that wood goes through. This, along with the limited written accounts of estòlicas furthers the importance of understanding their depictions on the artwork of the past.[15]

Learning the actual makeup of these contraptions is something that archaeologists have been working on throughout the past. There is a wooden body with a hook that were usually made of stone or metal. These hooks have been found at multiple highland sites including Cerro Baúl and other sites in the mountains of Peru. When trying to identify these artifacts, one of the most obvious signs is by finding the points, usually lithic, that are associated with them. In the case of the Ancient Andes, the tips of the darts were often capped with metal or even left bare sometimes. This makes it hard to conclude where many points actually originate from because arrow tips commonly had the same appearance as these Andean tips (Owen reference). The length of a common cylindrical estòlica is thought to have been around 50 cm. These weren’t exceptionally long contraptions and that makes sense as these were used to hunt and in battle, so they had to be easily carriable. From the few handle pieces that have survived over the years, it has been show that the piece was used as a type of place to put the ready darts. The handle pieces were also commonly carved and modeled to represent real world accounts like animals and deities. [16]

Some examples of estòlica with no handle pieces at all have been found. Researchers have come to the conclusion that these were merely used as decorations or childrens toys. A collection of these decorative estòlicas were found in the burial of La Señora de Cao at the El Brujo Archaeological Complex in the Rio Chicama valley. At her feet was a group of twenty-three atlatls which were all made similarly with handle pieces that depicted various birds. The “theatrical” estòlicas at this burial are a lot different than the normal weapons that are used by the Andean people at the time. These are a lot longer (80-100cm) than the regular models (50-60cm) that was referenced earlier. John Whittaker and Kathryn Kamp believe that the most logical role that these objects played is fairly simple and that they might have been part of a ceremony before the burial or simply as a form of symbolism to show that the Señora de Cao was a warrior during life. [17]

Just like many other things in Andean life, there is a great representation of these in the ancient art of the area. In many Moche vessels that depict warfare, the use of atlatls can be seen. John Whittaker talked about many of these pieces of art in his 2006 work, Atlatl Use on Moche Pottery of Ancient Peru. The “warrior narrative” that Whittaker focuses in on of the art of the Andes has the atlatl represented along with maces, clubs, and shields. Often times in the art, especially in that of Chavin de Huantar’s, the figures seen holding atlatls are most commonly the elite. This can be seen directly in the Black and White Portal. The main figure has multiple atlatl representations throughout it and the reasoning behind this has been said to show that the figure might have held a higher position wherever it came from. It is important to understand that atlatls weren’t the only weapons available for hunting and warfare. Just like today, these people had a wide variety to choose from when it came to weapons of war. [18]

Overall, the story and use of the estòlica in the Ancient Andes is one that can help to understand the complexities of hunting, warfare, and religion of the times that they were used in. Through work in anthropology and archaeology, life of the past is always being worked on and studied. The atlatl and estòlica have a rich tradition that is continuing to be studied.

The atlatl, as used by these Tarairiu warriors, was unique in shape. About 88 cm (35 in) long and 3 to 4.5 cm (1+14 to 1+34 in) wide, this spear thrower was a tapering piece of wood carved of brown hard-wood. Well-polished, it was shaped with a semi-circular outer half and had a deep groove hollowed out to receive the end of the javelin, which could be engaged by a horizontal wooden peg or spur lashed with a cotton thread to the proximal and narrower end of the throwing board, where a few scarlet parrot feathers were tied for decoration. [Their] darts or javelins ... were probably made of a two-meter long wooden cane with a stone or long and serrated hard-wood point, sometimes tipped with poison. Equipped with their uniquely grooved atlatl, they could hurl their long darts from a great distance with accuracy, speed, and such deadly force that these easily pierced through the protective armor of the Portuguese or any other enemy.[19]

Among the Tlingit of Southeast Alaska, approximately one dozen very old elaborately carved specimens they call "shee áan" (sitting on a branch) remain in museum collections[20] and private collections, one having sold at auction for more than $100,000.[citation needed]

In September 1997, an atlatl dart fragment, carbon dated to 4360 ± 50 14C yr BP (TO 6870), was found in an ice patch on mountain Thandlät, the first of the southern Yukon Ice Patches to be studied.[21][22][23]:363[24]:2

The people of New Guinea and Aboriginal people in Australia also use spear-throwers. In the mid Holocene,[25] Aboriginal people in Australia developed spear-throwers, known as woomeras.[26][27]

As well as its practical use as a hunting weapon, it may also have had social effects. John Whittaker, an anthropologist at Grinnell College, Iowa, suggests the device was a social equalizer in that it requires skill rather than muscle power alone. Thus women and children would have been able to participate in hunting.[4]

Whittaker said the stone-tipped projectiles from the Aztec atlatl were not powerful enough to penetrate Spanish steel plate armor, but they were strong enough to penetrate the mail, leather and cotton armor that most Spanish soldiers wore.[8] Whittaker said the Aztecs started their battles with atlatl darts followed with melee combat using the macuahuitl.[8]

Bâtons de commandement[edit]

Another type of Stone Age artefact that is sometimes excavated is the bâton de commandement. These are shorter, normally less than one foot long, and made of antler, with a hole drilled through them. When first found in the nineteenth century, they were interpreted by French archaeologists to be symbols of authority, like a modern Field Marshal's baton, and so named bâtons de commandement ("batons of command"). Though debate over their function continues, tests with replicas have found them, when used with a cord, very effective aids to spear or dart throwing.[28] Another theory is that they were "arrow-straighteners".[citation needed]

Bian Jian ("Spear sling")[edit]

Bian Jian (鞭箭, lit. 'Whip arrow') is a unique spear-thrower that was used during Song period. It can be described as a very long staff sling that throws a spear-sized dart instead of a rock-like projectile. It requires two operators unlike other spear-throwers. It should not be confused with another Bian Jian (邊箭).

Modern times[edit]

The thrower is checking to see that the dart has been correctly located on the spur of the spear-thrower; next she will turn her head in the other direction, aim and throw
An Aleut atlatl from Nikolski, made in 1976

In modern times, some people have resurrected the dart thrower for sports, often using the term atlatl, throwing either for distance and/or for accuracy. The World Atlatl Association was formed in 1987[29] to promote the atlatl.[30] Throws of almost 260 m (850 ft) have been recorded.[31] Colleges reported to field teams in this event include Grinnell College in Iowa, Franklin Pierce University in New Hampshire, Alfred University in New York, and the University of Vermont.[32]

Atlatls are sometimes used in modern times for hunting. In the U.S., the Pennsylvania Game Commission has given preliminary approval for legalization of the atlatl for hunting certain animals.[33] The animals that would be allowed to atlatl hunters have yet to be determined, but particular consideration has been given to deer. Currently, Alabama allows the atlatl for deer hunting, while a handful of other states list the device as legal for rough fish (those not sought for sport or food), some game birds and non-game mammals.[34] Starting in 2007, Missouri allowed use of the atlatl for hunting wildlife (excluding deer and turkey), and starting in 2010, also allowed deer hunting during the firearms portion of the deer season (except the muzzleloader portion).[35][36] Starting in 2012, Missouri allowed the use of atlatls during the fall archery deer and turkey hunting seasons and, starting in 2014, allowed the use of atlatls during the spring turkey hunting season as well.[37] Missouri also allows use of the atlatl for fishing, with some restrictions (similar to the restrictions for spearfishing and bowfishing).[38] The Nebraska Game and Parks Commission allows the use of atlatls for the taking of deer as of 2013.[39]

The woomera is still used today by some Aboriginal people for hunting in Australia[citation needed]. Yup'ik Eskimo hunters still use the atlatl, known locally as "nuqaq" (nook-ak), in villages near the mouth of the Yukon River for seal hunting.[citation needed]

Competitions[edit]

There are numerous atlatl competitions held every year, with spears and spear-throwers built using both ancient and modern materials. Events are often held at parks, such as Letchworth State Park in New York, Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site in Illinois, or Valley of Fire State Park in Nevada.[4] Atlatl associations around the world[40] host a number of local atlatl competitions. Chimney Point State Historic Site in Addison, Vermont hosts the annual Northeast Open Atlatl Championship. In 2009, the Fourteenth Annual Open Atlatl Championship was held on Saturday and Sunday, September 19 and 20. On the Friday before the Championship, a workshop was held to teach modern and traditional techniques of atlatl and dart construction, flint knapping, hafting stone points, and cordage making.[41] Competitions may be held in conjunction with other events, such as the Ohio Pawpaw Festival,[42] or at the Bois D'Arc Primitive Skills Gathering and Knap-in, held every September in southern Missouri.[43]

Atlatl events commonly include the International Standard Accuracy Competition (ISAC), in which contestants throw ten times at a bull's-eye target.[44] Other contests involving different distances or terrain may also be included, usually testing the atlatlist's accuracy rather than distance throwing.

Popular culture[edit]

In the sixth episode of the fourth season of the television competition Top Shot, the elimination round consisted of two contestants using the atlatl at ranges of 30, 45 and 60 feet.

An atlatl was the weapon of choice of a serial killer in the 2020 action-thriller The Silencing.[45]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "atlatl". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. ^ "atlatl". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.
  3. ^ "Atlatl History and Physics". Tasigh.org. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  4. ^ a b c "Girls on top". The Economist. April 12, 2008.
  5. ^ Howard L. Blackmore. (2000) Hunting Weapons: From the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century, page 103 "... the air'.31 A device which enabled all but the heaviest of spears to be cast a respectable distance was the spear thrower. ... It was known to the Greeks as the ankuli and to Romans as the amentum.3 The spear was rested in the hand and ..."
  6. ^ "Atlatls & Primitive Technology". Retrieved 2012-08-19.
  7. ^ Robert S. Berg. "Bannerstones And How They Relate To The Atlatl". Retrieved 2018-03-08.
  8. ^ a b c "Mexicolore". Mexicolore. 2012-12-21. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  9. ^ Mexicolore's page on the atlatl, and its connection with Ehecatl
  10. ^ McClellan, James Edward; Dorn, Harold (2006). Science and technology in world history: an introduction. JHU Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8018-8360-6.
  11. ^ Peregrine, Peter N.; Ember, Melvin (2001). "Europe". Encyclopedia of Prehistory. 4. Springer. ISBN 978-0-306-46258-0.
  12. ^ "Mungo Lady and Mungo Man". mungo. n.d. Retrieved November 3, 2018.
  13. ^ Toler, Pamela D. (30 October 2012). Mankind: The Story of All of Us. Running Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7624-4703-9.
  14. ^ Gardiner, E. Norman (1907). "Throwing the Javelin". The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 27: 249–273. doi:10.2307/624444. JSTOR 624444.
  15. ^ Critchley, Zachary. "The Art of the Spearthrower: Understanding the Andean Estólica through Iconography". Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  16. ^ Slater, Donald. "POWER MATERIALIZED: THE DART-THROWER AS A PAN-MESOAMERICAN STATUS MARKER". Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  17. ^ Whittaker, John (July 2016). Peruvian Atlatls I: Golden Atlatls of the Lady of Cao. The Atlatl. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  18. ^ Whittaker, John (July 2016). Peruvian Atlatls I: Golden Atlatls of the Lady of Cao. The Atlatl. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  19. ^ Prins, Harald E.L. (2010). "The Atlatl as Combat Weapon in 17th-Century Amazonia: Tapuya Indian Warriors in Dutch Colonial Brazil" (PDF). The Atlatl. 23 (2): 1–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-29. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
  20. ^ "Fenimore Art Museum | Atlatl". Collections.fenimoreartmuseum.org. 1992-12-08. Archived from the original on 2013-09-23. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  21. ^ "Traditional Homeland". Kusawa Park Steering Committee. n.d. Archived from the original on 2017-03-29. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  22. ^ Kuzyk, G.W.; Russell, D.E.; Farnell, R.S.; Gotthardt, R.M.; Hare, P.G.; Blake, E. (1999). "In pursuit of prehistoric c caribou on Thandlät, southern Yukon" (PDF). Arctic. 52 (2): 214–219. doi:10.14430/arctic924.
  23. ^ de la Cadena, Marisol; Starn, Orin, eds. (September 15, 2007). Indigenous Experience Today. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 384. ISBN 978-1845205195. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  24. ^ Hare, Greg (2011). The Frozen Past: The Yukon Ice Patches (PDF) (Report). Government of the Yukon. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-55362-509-4. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  25. ^ Laet, Sigfried J. de & International Commission for the New Edition of the History of the Scientific and Cultural Development of Mankind & International Commission for a History of the Scientific and Cultural Development of Mankind. History of mankind (1994). History of humanity. Routledge; Paris : Unesco, London; New York, p.1064
  26. ^ Palter, John L. "Design and construction of Australian spear-thrower projectiles and hand-thrown spears." Archaeology & Physical Anthropology in Oceania (1977): 161-172. APA
  27. ^ Cundy, B. J. (1989). Formal variation in Australian spear and spearthrower technology (Vol. 546). British Archaeological Reports Ltd.
  28. ^ Wescott, David, ed. (1999). Primitive Technology: A Book of Earth Skills. Society of Primitive Technology, Gibbs Smith. ISBN 9780879059118. Retrieved 2013-09-21 – via Google Books.
  29. ^ "The World Atlatl Association: About Us". Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  30. ^ "The World Atlatl Association: Modern sport". Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  31. ^ "The Atlatl". Flight-toys.com. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
  32. ^ "Our Towns: A College Team Takes Aim". Parade.com. 2010-05-30. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  33. ^ "Pennsylvania May Let Hunters Use Prehistoric Weapon". RedOrbit.com. 2005-11-13. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
  34. ^ "Spear near in Pennsylvania? from espn.com". Sports.espn.go.com. 2006-06-21. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
  35. ^ "2013 Firearms Deer Hunting | Missouri Department of Conservation". Mdc.mo.gov. 2013-09-15. Archived from the original on 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  36. ^ Wang, Regina (2010-09-28). "Atlatl makes debut for Missouri deer season". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  37. ^ "Conservation Action: Meeting of the May 2011 Conservation Commission | Missouri Department of Conservation". Archived from the original on November 16, 2012. Retrieved 2011-11-25.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  38. ^ "Missouri Department of Conservation, Wildlife Code: Sport Fishing: Seasons, Methods, Limits" (PDF). Sos.mo.gov. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  39. ^ "Whitetail and Mule Deer Hunting". State of Nebraska. Archived from the original on December 21, 2014. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
  40. ^ "Atlatl Associations". Thunderbird Atlatl. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  41. ^ [1] Archived September 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ "2013 Ohio Pawpaw Festival". Ohiopawpawfest.com. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  43. ^ "Bois D' Arc Primitive Skills Gathering and Knap-in". Retrieved 2013-10-06.
  44. ^ "ISAC Rules Package" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-11. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  45. ^ "Atlatl Madness's Atlatl Darts in a Movie!!! "The Silencing"". July 21, 2020. Retrieved August 13, 2020.
  • Garrod, D (1955). "Palaeolithic spear throwers". Proc. Prehist. Soc. 21: 21–35. doi:10.1017/s0079497x00017370.
  • Hunter, W. (1992) "Reconstructing a Generic Basket Maker Atlatl", Bulletin of Primitive Technology, No. 4.
  • Knecht, H. (1997) Projectile technology, New York, Plenum Press, 408 p. ISBN 0-306-45716-4
  • Nuttall, Zelia (1891). The atlatl or spear-thrower of the ancient Mexicans. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology. OCLC 3536622.
  • Perkins, W. (1993) "Atlatl Weights, Function and Classification", Bulletin of Primitive Technology, No. 5.
  • Prins, Harald E.L. (2010). The Atlatl as Combat Weapon in 17th-Century Amazonia: Tapuya Indian Warriors in Dutch Colonial Brazil. The Atlatl, Vol.23, No.2, pp. 1–3. http://waa.basketmakeratlatl.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Tapuya-Atlatl-Article-by-Harald-Prins-25[permanent dead link] May 2010.pdf
  • Stodiek, U. (1993) Zur Technik der jungpaläolithischen Speerschleuder (Tübingen).

External links[edit]