The natural Atmakaraka is the Sun in all natal charts. The personal Atmakaraka is the Chara Atmakaraka which is considered more important than the natural Atmakaraka (Sun) according to Jaimini's Astrology. Chara in Sanskrit means 'movable', and one of eight planets (Sun, Moon, Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Rahu) can be the Chara Atmakaraka, depending on its minutes and seconds (00'00" to 59'59") in the natal chart.
This is based on the prove from Jaimini's Upadesa Sutras also known as Jaimini Sutras in Chapter 1, First Foot/Subchapter (which is known as Adhikaar Sutras or Rules to be Followed).
Verse No. 10 in Sanskrit: “आत्माधिकः कलादिभिर्नभोगः सप्तानामष्टानां वा [जैमिनी सूत्रम् – प्रथम अध्याय प्रथम पाद श्लोक 10].
Sanskrit Transliteration: “Ātmādhikaḥ kalādibhirnabhōgaḥ saptānāmaṣṭānāṁ vā [jaiminī sūtram – prathama adhyāya prathama pāda ślōka 10].
English Translation & Meaning: [Ātmā - Atmakaraka/Significator of the Soul], [ādhikaḥ - More/Highest], [kalādibhir - Starting from the Minutes and Seconds of an Arc], [nabhōgaḥ - Planet/Celestial body], [saptānām - 7], [aṣṭānāṁ - 8], [vā - or].
Atmakaraka/Significator of the Soul is the planet that obtained the highest minutes and seconds from a group of either 7 planets (Sun to Saturn) or 8 planets (Sun to Rahu) => Jaimini Sutram - Chapter 1, First Foot/Subchapter, verse No. 10 [jaiminī sūtram – prathama adhyāya prathama pāda ślōka 10].
Informations to be Noted: Kalādibhir or also known as (Kala - Vikala which means Minutes and Seconds of an Arc). Based on the verse stated earlier, Sage Jaimini has clearly mentioned that the planet with the highest minutes and seconds must be taken as the Chara Atmakaraka.
In Jaimini Astrology following karakas exist:
- Atmakaraka (Own Self, [Considered the strongest planet irrespective of exaltation, debilitation or combustion])
- Amatyakaraka (Associates)
- Bhratrukaraka (Siblings)
- Matrukaraka (Mother)
- Pitrukaraka (Father)
- Putrakaraka (Children)
- Gnatikaraka (Relatives)
- Darakaraka (Husband/Wife)
Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra gave an 8th karaka - Pitrukaraka; however, some only uses the redacted version of only 7 karakas (removing Pitrukaraka altogether). In Jaimini Astrology these karakas are identified from the descending order of minutes.
The planet with highest minutes and seconds will become the Atmakaraka. The next planet with lesser minutes and seconds will be Amatyakarka and so on.
Since the lunar nodes naturally moves in a retrograde/backwards movement, apply the exact minutes and seconds of the lunar nodes and do not inverse it. Same thing has to be done when the five planets namely Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn are in a retrograde movement.
In the case, of two planets having the same highest minutes then consider the planet with the higher seconds as the Chara Atmakaraka and the planet with the lesser seconds as the Chara Amatyakaraka.
The Rasi and Nakshatra in which the Atmakaraka is placed plays an important role in deciding and determining your true nature.