Atmanirbhar Bharat (देवनागरी: आत्मनिर्भर भारत , ISO: Ātmanirbhara Bhārata , IAST: Ātmanirbhara Bhārata ) which translates to 'self-reliant India', is a Hindi phrase used and popularized by the Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi and the Government of India in relation to economic development in the country during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. In this context, the term is used as an umbrella concept in relation to making India "a bigger and more important part of the global economy", pursuing policies that are efficient, competitive and resilient, and being self-sustaining and self-generating.
The phrase has been used by Modi since 2014 in relation to national security, poverty and digital India. The first popular mention of this came in the form of the 'Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan' or 'Self-Reliant India Mission' during the announcement of India's COVID–19 pandemic related economic package on 12 May 2020, 12 October and 12 November 2020. Since May 2020, the phrase has been used across ministries such as the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Defence in relation to press releases, statements and policies. The phrase has also been used by the government in relation to the 2021 Union Budget of India.
The phrase has been used by the former Planning Commission in India's Five-Year Plans. Commentators have noted that India has been enacting policies and building institutions that promote self-reliance since the day it was created. Private companies and their products have also been considered as fine examples of self-reliance in India such as— the Maruti 800 car, Thums Up beverage, Amul, HDFC, the leading IT companies of India, and Bharat Biotech and Serum Institute of India. Bharat Biotech developed India's first indigenous COVID-19 vaccine in a bench-to-beside journey that took eight months.
Self reliance and dependence
Indian nationalists emphasized self-reliance in the 1940s. In those years India took cue from economic models in the Soviet Union, later becoming aware of other models such as that of South Korea, Taiwan and Brazil. In a 1983 article by Sanjaya Baru titled "Self-Reliance to Dependence in Indian Economic Development", Baru wrote that self-reliance could be understood as "the strategy and the perception of our relative merits and constraints, of our opportunities and of our tasks. Even where deviations had occurred from this strategy they were viewed as temporary departures, as products of expediency, as being forced on an unwilling government [...]." He based this on a lecture in 1982 at Sydenham College, in which economist Ashok Mitra said,
"self-reliance to us did not mean shutting out the windows to the world; even a certain quantum of external assistance was incorporated in our definition of the term, but we did certainly rule out the probability of chronic foreign aid. India, we argued, was not lacking inherently either in manpower or natural resources, including mineral resources. We had also the advantage of starting out with a certain basic infra-structure of industrial and technological skills and facilities, which was superior to that possessed by most developing countries at the time. In addition, there was the advantage, we thought, of having a political leadership keen to pursue the goal of self-reliance. We opted for self-reliance because, in our view, it was the most rational economic course."
However, following India's decision to take International Monetary Fund (IMF) loans in the 1980s and taking into account the general economic situation in the country, Baru concluded that "it would seem altogether inappropriate to refer to "self-reliance" any longer as constituting a national goal."
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, in an address to the National Development Council in 1976, used the phrase self-reliance a number of times including in relation to "self-reliance in food and energy" and "economic self-reliance". The Fifth Five-Year Plan of India (1974–1978) used the phrase "achievement of self-reliance" as a goal in itself. Usage also included achieving "self-reliance in terms of technology, production and conservation" in relation to non-renewable resources." The report noted that in sectors such as industrial machinery and chemicals "the share of imported machinery and equipment.... declined sharply... reflecting increased self-reliance".
The phrase also found usage in the Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997–2002). Conversely "excessive reliance" was used in the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). The tenth plan also stated that "Science and Technology [...] plays a lead role in contributing... self-reliance." The next plan mentioned the "desire for attaining and sustaining self-reliance in some sectors of the economy".
Self-reliance in defence has to be differentiated from self-sufficiency. [...] In today's international system it is extremely difficult for India to aim at self-sufficiency in defence equipment and it is more pragmatic to plan for self-reliance. [...] Self-reliance therefore calls for very careful selection of supplier and his political trustworthiness.
- Independence to the mid-1960s— self-sufficiency was the overall economic principle governing India’s industrial development.
- From the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s— self-reliance replaced self-sufficiency in defence production.
- From late 1980s till date— emphasis in self-reliance has been on coproduction.
- Early 2000s onwards— self-reliance, coproduction and private sector participation in defence production.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi has said "Atmanirbhar Bharat is not about being self-contained or being closed to the world, it is about being self-sustaining and self-generating" and pursuing "policies that promote efficiency, equity and resilience". Its proponents have said that this self-reliant policy does not aim to be protectionist in nature; the Finance Minister stated, "self-reliant India does not mean cutting off from rest of the world". The law and IT minister Ravi Shankar Prasad said that self-reliance does "not mean isolating away from the world", rather "foreign direct investment is welcome, technology is welcome [...] self-reliant India... translates to being a bigger and more important part of the global economy." In May 2020, Prime Minister Modi laid down five pillars of 'Atmanirbhar Bharat'— economy, infrastructure, technology-driven systems, vibrant demography and demand. In March 2021 Modi said that, "at the core of Atmanirbhar Bharat is to create wealth and values not only for ourselves but for the larger humanity."
In March 2021, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman reiterated that the Atmanirbhar Bharat campaign was not intended to stop imports but to boost manufacturing.
Self-reliance or self-sufficiency
According to Indian Express, "Atmanirbhar" can be understood as either "self-reliance" or as "self-sufficiency". The confusion, according to the Express started on 12 May itself, the day the phrase was first announced,
The state of the world today teaches us that (Atma Nirbhar Bharat) "Self-reliant India" is the only path. It is said in our scriptures — EshahPanthah. That is — self-sufficient India.— Prime Minister Narendra Modi, PIB
Swaminathan Aiyar says the same, "atmanirbhar" can be translated as both self-reliance and self-sufficiency. India in the 1960s-70s tried self-sufficiency and it didn't work out. Aiyer says that "to go back to self-sufficiency again appears to be going in the wrong direction." In May, in an article, Livemint translated the term as "self-sufficiency".
Usage by the Modi government
Prime Minister Modi used the phrase as early as June 2014 in relation to defence manufacturing for self-reliance in national security. He reiterated this over the years, including in 2018 and the need of India to makes its own weapons. In August 2014 he connected self-reliance to Digital India and in September 2014 to making the poor self-reliant.
Usage of the phrase and initiatives towards self-reliance in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic in India:
- A total of three Atmanirbhar Bharat packages worth ₹29.87 lakh crore (US$420 billion) were announced by the government on 12 May, 12 October and 12 November 2020. The second and third economic stimulus packages were labelled as Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan 2.0 and 3.0. As part of the Atmanirbhar Bharat package, numerous government decisions took place such as changing the definition of MSMEs, boosting scope for private participation in numerous sectors, increasing FDI in the defence sector; and the vision has found support in many sectors such as the solar manufacturers sector.
- The growth of India's personal protective equipment (PPE) sector from zero before March, to 4,50,000 pieces a day by the beginning of July, is considered as a fine example of a self-reliant India. The PPE industry in India has become a ₹10,000 crore (US$1.4 billion) in three months, the second largest after China.
- The research, development and manufacture of COVID-19 vaccinations in India was connected to atmanirbharta by the President, Vice President, Prime Minister Minister and other Union Ministers in separate statements. PM Modi has stated that "Made in India vaccines are a symbol of Atmanirbhar Bharat". The Prime Minister got his COVID-19 vaccine, Covaxin, indigenously produced in eight months, by Bharat Biotech.
Other examples of usage of the phrase and initiatives towards self-reliance during the Premiership of Narendra Modi:
- The largest fund in the country worth ₹21,000 crore (US$2.9 billion) was setup by the IIT Alumni Council with the aim of supporting the mission towards self-reliance.
- In August 2020, the Defence Minister Rajnath Singh announced that the Defence Ministry is "now ready for a big push to Atmanirbhar Bharat initiative" by imposing an "import embargo on 101 items" in a staged manner over a period of 5 years. The Defence Production and Export Promotion Policy (DPEPP 2020) and Defence Acquisition Procedure 2020 (DAP) also aims towards self reliance. The 2016 Defence Procurement Procedure introduced a new category of procurement, "Indian-IDDM" (Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured).
- During a speech in 2017, the Prime Minister said that the government was trying to convert human capital flight, "Brain drain to brain gain", and had the aim of engaging India's diaspora. To this effect, new organisations such as IN–SPACe will help in "preventing India’s Space talent Brain Drain".
- Minister of Chemicals and Fertilisers, D V Sadananda Gowda , in September 2020, said that "India will be self-reliant in fertiliser production by 2023".
- Coir Udyami Yojana aims to develop the coir-related industry’s sustainable development.
- India's own 'Made in India' 5G network was announced in July 2020 by Reliance Jio. Mukesh Ambani announced in mid-July "Jio has created a complete 5G solution from scratch, that will enable us to launch a world-class 5G service in India, using 100 per cent homegrown technologies and solutions". In September 2020, Tech Mahindra announced that they have "the capability to build and run an entire 4G or 5G network in India [...] We have done that already."
- With the aim of promoting the toy industry of India, the country's first national toy fair was digitally launched in February 2021.
Vocal for local
Not only should products be 'made in India', but the promotion of those products should take place so as to make those products competitive. During the Independence Day speech in 2020, Prime Minister Modi said that "The mindset of free India should be 'vocal for local'. We should appreciate our local products, if we don't do this then our products will not get the opportunity to do better and will not get encouraged." Amul Managing Director RS Sodhi explained that the phrase vocal–for–local "meant that products be made competitive vis-a-vis global brands" and that "it didn’t mean that one must only buy products that have a logo 'made in India' on it." An extension of this slogan is 'local for global', that local products in India should have global appeal and reach. The slogan has also been extended to sectors such as the toy sector, "time to be vocal for local toys".
Make for the world
Prime Minister Modi, during the 2020 Independence speech, said that 'make for world' should go hand in hand with 'make in India' and that the slogan 'make for world' should be a key slogan like 'make in India' is. A variation of the slogan is "Make in India for the world".
Atmanirbhar Bharat has been called by some as a re-packaged version of the Make in India movement using new taglines such as 'Vocal for Local'. Other opposition members spoke about how India had enacted policies and built companies since its creation to make India self-reliant - SAIL for steel production, IIT for domestic engineers, AIIMS for medical science, DRDO for defence research, HAL for aviation, ISRO for space, CCL, NTPC and GAIL in the area of energy; criticising the advertising tactics. Some have re-phrased it to "Fend For Yourself" Campaign. It has been noted (satirically) that the phrase has been used so extensively that it has become "India's overarching national policy... for growth and development".
Calls for India to boycott Chinese products (and promote an Atmanirbhar Bharat instead), are practically difficult in the short term for India as India imports $75 billion worth of goods every year from China, to the extent that parts of Indian industry are dependent on China. Following the Galwan Valley skirmish on 15 June 2020 in which around 40 Chinese soldiers and 20 Indian soldiers died, Swadeshi Jagaran Manch said that if the government was serious about making India self-reliant, Chinese companies should not be given projects such as the Delhi-Meerut RRTS. However, a Chinese company was awarded a contract for 5.6 km of the project.
civil service reform (the steel frame has become a steel cage), government reform (Delhi doesn’t need 57 ministries and 250 people with Secretary rank), financial reform (sustainably raising credit to GDP ratio from 50 per cent to 100 per cent), urban reform (having 100 cities with more than a million people rather than 52), education reform (our current regulator confuses university buildings with building universities), skill reform (our apprentice regulations are holding back employers and universities), and labour reform (our capital is handicapped without labour and labour is handicapped without capital).
In 1968, Romesh Thapar wrote, "Self-reliance demands the courage, the guts, to sacrifice something for the future. If no one does, there will be only one new export our current efforts will yield - brain and talent."
- "Oxford Hindi Word of the Year 2020 | Oxford Languages". languages.oup.com. Archived from the original on 13 March 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
The Oxford Hindi Word of the Year 2020 is… Aatmanirbharta or Self-Reliance.
- "Aatmanirbhar Bharat not self-containment: PM assures global investors". Outlook India. 9 July 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- "'To spur growth': Nirmala Sitharaman on PM Modi's Atamanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan". Hindustan Times. 13 May 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
- "Bennett University webinar: Need to tap Artificial Intelligence to fight Covid, says IT minister Ravi Shankar Prasad". The Economic Times. 26 May 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- "PM Narendra Modi dedicates largest warship INS Vikramaditya to the nation, pitches for self-reliance". The Indian Express. PTI. 14 June 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2021.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Indigenous defence production must for India's self-reliance: PM Narendra Modi". The Economic Times. 14 July 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- "Prime Minister Narendra Modi pitches schemes to make poor self-reliant". The Indian Express. PTI. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2021.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "PM Narendra Modi calls for 'Digital India' to improve governance". Business Today. PTI. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2021.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Misra, Udit (13 May 2020). "PM Modi's self-reliant India Mission economic package: Here is the fine print". The Indian Express. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
- Sharma, Manoj (12 November 2020). "Govt announces Atmanirbhar Bharat 3.0; claims COVID stimulus now worth Rs 29.8 lakh crore". Business Today. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- Mohanty, Prasanna (14 November 2020). "Rebooting Economy 45: What is AatmaNirbhar Bharat and where will it take India?". Business Today. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- Prasad, Gireesh Chandra (16 December 2020). "Mint Budget 2021: Atmanirbhar Bharat is govt's mantra for economic revival". mint. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
- "Address of the Prime Minister to the meeting of the National Development Council on September 24, 1976 (Reproduced as foreword of the 5th Five Year Plan of India)". NITI Aayog. Archived from the original on 6 February 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- "Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997–2002)". NITI Aayog. Archived from the original on 20 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- Kumar, Abhay (31 May 2020). "Shatrughan Sinha takes jibe at PM over 'Atma-nirbhar Bharat'". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
- Khanna, Sundeep (21 February 2021). "The Best Symbols Bharat". Moneycontrol. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Covaxin's efficacy shows immense strength of Atmanirbhar Bharat: ICMR chief". Business Standard India. 3 March 2021. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- "Iconic Brands of India: Indigenous brands step into the spotlight". The Economic Times. 7 April 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- Bhaduri, Ayshee, ed. (3 March 2021). "Covaxin demonstrates prowess of Atmanirbhar Bharat, says ICMR chief". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- Baru 1983, p. 34.
- Baru 1983, p. 40.
- Baru 1983, p. 36.
- Baru 1983, p. 45.
- "5th Five Year Plan: Chapter 2". NITI Aayog. Archived from the original on 6 February 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- "Tenth Five Year Plan 2002-07 (Volume 1)" (PDF). NITI Aayog. Planning Commission, Government of India. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- "Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-12 (Volume 3)" (PDF). NITI Aayog. Planning Commission, Government of India. p. 344. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- Behera 2013, p. 5.
- Subrahmanyam, K. (October 2000). "Self-Reliant Defence and Indian Industry". www.idsa-india.org. Archived from the original on 23 March 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- Behera 2013, p. 34.
- Canton, Naomi (3 February 2021). "'Aatmanirbharta' chosen Oxford Hindi Word of Year 2020". The Times of India. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
- "Atmanirbhar Bharat: PM Modi calls for self-reliant India, lays down 5 pillars". The Times of India. 12 May 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- "Creating wealth, values for humanity at core of 'Aatmanirbhar Bharat': PM Modi". The Economic Times. PTI. 11 March 2021. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Atmanirbhar Bharat not to stop imports but to boost manufacturing: FM". Business Today. ?. 22 March 2021. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
- "Atmanirbhar Bharat: A brief and not-so-affectionate history". The Indian Express. 17 August 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- "Govt needs to understand the difference between self-sufficiency and self-reliance: Swaminathan Aiyar". The Economic Times. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- Bhasin, Karan (15 May 2020). "'Invest in India' is at the heart of self-reliance". Livemint. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- "PM Modi Speech LIVE Updates: To battle Covid-19, Rs 20,00,000 crore economic package". The Indian Express. 12 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
- Sharma, Manoj (12 November 2020). "Govt announces Atmanirbhar Bharat 3.0; claims COVID stimulus now worth Rs 29.8 lakh crore". Business Today. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- "Atmanirbhar Bharat: Union Cabinet approves changes in definition of MSMEs". Business Standard India. 1 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
- Mishra, Hari Hari (1 June 2020). "Post-COVID-19 Atma Nirbhar Bharat: Time to usher in an industrial and agricultural revolution". Business Today. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
- "Solar manufacturers extend support to govt's Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan". Economic Times ETEnergyworld. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
- "Building Atmanirbhar Bharat & Overcoming COVID-19 | National Portal of India". www.india.gov.in. Archived from the original on 12 June 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- "From zero, India now produces around 4 lakh PPE kits per day". The Times of India. 5 May 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- Bhushan, Ranjit (10 June 2020). "From PPE kits to sanitisers to ventilators, COVID-19 has sparked off an indigenous cottage industry boom". Moneycontrol. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- "Development of COVID vaccines is major step for Aatma-Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan: President Kovind". The Economic Times. ANI. 9 January 2021. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Indigenous Covid-19 vaccine demonstrates benefits of Atmanirbhar Bharat, says Vice President Venkaiah Naidu". Hindustan Times. ANI. 4 January 2021. Retrieved 14 March 2021.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "'Made in India vaccines are a symbol of Atmanirbhar Bharat': PM Modi". mint. 31 January 2021. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Manufacture Of Covid-19 Vaccine, A Fulfilment Of Atmanirbhar Bharat Vision: Prakash Javedekar". Outlook India. 23 January 2021. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- "Humbled,' tweets Bharat Biotech after PM Modi takes Covaxin dose at AIIMS". The Financial Express. 1 March 2021. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- "IIT Alumni Council to create ₹21,000-cr social initiative fund". The Hindu @businessline. 26 June 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- Kaushik, Krishn (10 August 2020). "Explained: What is the negative imports list for defence announced by Rajnath Singh?". The Indian Express. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
- Philip, Snehesh Alex (9 August 2020). "Artillery guns, assault rifles, AFVs — Here's a list of 101 items MoD won't import in future". ThePrint. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
- "Defence Acquisition Procedure 2020" (PDF). Ministry of Defence, Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 February 2021. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
- "DAP 2020: Solid Provisions Demand Solid Implementation". Indian Defence Review. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
- Das, Pushan (15 April 2020). "India's defence procurement policy 2020: Old wine in a new bottle". ORF. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
- "Defence Procurement Policy". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 24 March 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
- Peermohamed, Alnoor; Pramanik, Ayan (9 January 2017). "India to tap NRIs for R&D and turn 'brain drain' into 'brain gain': Modi". Business Standard India. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- "'Another step towards making India self-reliant': PM Modi lauds govt's 'historic' move in space sector". Hindustan Times. 24 June 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- "India to be self-reliant in fertilisers production by 2023: Sadananda Gowda". The Financial Express. PTI. 13 September 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Evaluation Study on Coir Udyami Yojana Scheme implemented by Coir Board" (PDF). coirboard.gov.in/.
- "Reliance Jio 'Made in India' 5G solution announced at RIL AGM 2020: Details inside". The Indian Express. 16 July 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
- Khan, Danish (5 September 2020). "Eyeing BSNL: Tech Mahindra says can build and run full-fledged 4G, 5G networks". Economic Times Telecom. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- "'The India Toy Fair, 2021' to be held virtually from 27th February 2021 to 2nd March 2021". pib.gov.in. 11 February 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
- "PM Modi pushes for self-reliant India with 'Make for World' call | India News - Times of India". The Times of India. 16 August 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- James, Nandana; Gandhi, Forum (2 July 2020). "How Modi's 'vocal for local' campaign is going places". The Hindu @businessline. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- "'Vocal for local should become mantra for every Indian': PM Modi". The Times of India. ANI. 15 August 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Chaturvedi, Amit, ed. (15 August 2020). "'Mindset for free India should be vocal for local': PM Modi pushes for self-reliance in Independence Day speech". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- "PM Modi: Time to be vocal for local toys, India can be major hub". The Indian Express. 31 August 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
- Jayaswal, Rajeev (15 August 2020). "New focus of 'Atmanirbhar Bharat' is 'make for world' : PM Modi in Independence Day speech". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- Mukul, Jyoti (11 September 2020). "L&T deal will push Make in India for the world: Schneider India chief". Business Standard India. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- "'Repackaged version of Make in India': Shashi Tharoor on PM Modi's Self-reliant India Mission". Hindustan Times. ANI. 13 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
- "Self-reliant India: The bounce of vocal for local". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
- Sahay, Anand K. (29 May 2020). "Anand K Sahay | 'Atma Nirbhar Bharat': A mantra to mask failure?". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
- "'At least don't buy Ganesha idols from China': FM Sitharaman irked over non-essential imports". Financial Express. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
- HV, Harish (5 June 2020). "'Atmanirbharta' from China — easier said than done". The Hindu @businessline. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
- Arnimesh, Shanker (15 June 2020). "RSS affiliate wants Modi govt to cancel Chinese firm's bid for Delhi-Meerut RRTS project". ThePrint. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
- Shrivastava, Rahul (16 June 2020). "Chinese firm bids lowest for Delhi-Meerut project, RSS affiliate asks Modi govt to scrap company's bid". India Today. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
- "Chinese firm to build stretch of Delhi-Meerut RRTS corridor". The Indian Express. 4 January 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
- "Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan lays strong foundations for raising our per capita GDP". The Indian Express. 18 May 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- Thapar, Romesh (12 October 1968). "Myth of Self-Reliance". Economic and Political Weekly. 3 (4): 1567–1568 – via JSTOR.
- Baru, Sanjaya (1983). "Self-Reliance to Dependence in Indian Economic Development". Social Scientist. 11 (11): 34–46. doi:10.2307/3517074. ISSN 0970-0293.
- Behera, Laxman Kumar (July 2013). Indian Defence Industry: Issues of Self-Reliance (PDF). IDSA Monograph Series No. 21. Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defense Studies and Analyses. ISBN 978-93-82169-21-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2021.
- Kelkar, Vijay Laxman (February 1980). "India and World Economy: Search for Self-Reliance". Economic and Political Weekly. 15 (5/7): 245, 247, 249, 251, 253, 255, 257–258 – via JSTOR.
- Mehrotra, N. N. (22 August 1987). "Indian Patents Act, Paris Convention and Self-Reliance". Economic and Political Weekly. 22 (34): 1461–1465 – via JSTOR.
- Valluri, S. R. (3 April 1993). "CSIR and Technological Self-Reliance". Economic and Political Weekly. 28 (14): 565–568 – via JSTOR.
- Sharma, Krishna Nath. "Self-Reliance and Aid: No Positive Relation". Economic and Political Weekly. 2 (50): 2209–2211 – via JSTOR.
- Dedrick, Jason; Kraemer, Kenneth L. (May 1993). "Information Technology in India: The Quest for Self-Reliance" (PDF). Asian Survey. XXXIII (5): 463–492.
- Gosalia, Sushila (1979). The Gandhian model of self-reliance in the Indian economy, Intereconomics, ISSN 0020-5346, Verlag Weltarchiv, Hamburg, Vol. 14, Iss. 2, pp. 80-83.
- Behera, Laxman Kumar (10 August 2020), Atma Nirbhar in Defence Technology, Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses
- PTI (2 June 2020). PM Modi Calls On India Inc. To Build An 'Atmanirbhar Bharat'. Bloomberg Quint.
- Jagran (2 June 2020). PM Modi presents 5-I formula for 'Aatma Nirbhar Bharat', says 'we will definitely get our growth back'. Jagran English.
- Udit Misra (21 May 2020). Why Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan economic package is being criticised. The Indian Express.
- Ajoy Kumar (31 May 2020). Atmanirbhar Bharat and A Clueless Government. Outlook India.
- Somya Ghosh (22 May 2020). Building Atmanirbhar Bharat: It is about channelling India's strengths and should not be misconstrued as protectionism. The Times of India.
- Shivam Bagri (26 June 2020). Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyan: A step towards self-reliant India. Fact11.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Atmanirbhar Bharat.|