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Atrivo, also known as InterCage, was a Concord, California, United States-based website hosting provider.[1][2]

The Russian Business Network, a criminal organization, had used Atrivo servers. In August 2008, HostExploit, a web security blog, issued a report stating that Atrivo deliberately allowed cyber criminals to use the web domain.[1] The 39-page report was written by Jart Armin, Matt Jonkman and James McQuaid.[3] In September 2008 Pacific Internet Exchange, the last remaining company that provided upstream services to Atrivo, ended the upstream services, cutting Atrivo off from the world wide web.[4] For a period after Atrivo's shutdown, botnet and spam activity declined.[2][5]


  1. ^ a b Krebs, Brian. "Report Slams U.S. Host as Major Source of Badware." The Washington Post. August 28, 2008. Retrieved on August 31, 2009.
  2. ^ a b Danchev, Dancho. "Atrivo/Intercage's disconnection briefly disrupts spam levels." ZDNet. October 7, 2008. Retrieved on August 31, 2009.
  3. ^ Hamilton, David. "Atrivo Hosts Much Malware: Report Archived August 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.." Web Host Industry Review. August 29, 2008. Retrieved on August 31, 2009.
  4. ^ Hruska, Joel. "Bad seed ISP Atrivo cut off from rest of the Internet." Ars Technica. September 23, 2008. Retrieved on August 31, 2009.
  5. ^ Krebs, Brian. "Spam Volumes Plummet After Atrivo Shutdown." The Washington Post. October 9, 2008. Retrieved on August 31, 2009.

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