Gros Ventre language

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Gros Ventre
Native to United States
Region Montana
Ethnicity Gros Ventre
Extinct 1981[1]
Revival 45 self-identified speakers as of 2009-2013[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 ats
Glottolog gros1243[3]

Atsina, or Gros Ventre (also known as Ananin, Ahahnelin, Ahe and A’ani),[4] is the extinct ancestral language of the Gros Ventre people of Montana. The last fluent speaker died in 1981.[1]

History[edit]

Atsina is the name applied by specialists in Algonquian linguistics. Arapaho and Atsina are dialects of a common language usually designated by scholars as "Arapaho-Atsina". Historically, this language had five dialects, and on occasion specialists add a third dialect name to the label, resulting in the designation, "Arapaho-Atsina-Nawathinehena".[1] Compared with Arapaho proper, Gros Ventre had three additional phonemes /tʲ/, /ts/, /kʲ/, and /bʲ/, and lacked the velar fricative /x/.

Theresa Lamebull taught the language at Fort Belknap College, and helped develop a dictionary using the Phraselator when she was 109.[5]

As of 2012, the White Clay Immersion School at Fort Belknap College was teaching the language to 26 students, up from 11 students in 2006.[4][6]

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive plain b t k ʔ
palatalized
Fricative θ s h
Affricate ts
Nasal n
Approximant w j

Vowels[edit]

Short Long
Close ɪ
Mid ɛ
Back ɔ
ʊ

[7]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Mithun 336
  2. ^ "Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English". www.census.gov. US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2017-11-17. 
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Gros Ventre". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ a b "Immersion School is Saving a Native American Language". Indian Country Today Media Network. 2012-02-12. Retrieved 2012-10-22. 
  5. ^ "The Phraselator II". The American Magazine. Retrieved 2013-05-12. 
  6. ^ Boswell, Evelyn (2008-12-04). "MSU grads preserve a native language, keep tribal philosophies alive". MSU News Service. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  7. ^ Salzmann, Zdeněk (1969). Salvage Phonology of Gros Ventre (Atsina). 

References[edit]

  • Mithun, Marianne (1999) The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]