Attention restoration theory
Attention restoration theory (ART) asserts that people can concentrate better after spending time in nature, or even looking at scenes of nature. Natural environments abound with "soft fascinations" which a person can reflect upon in "effortless attention", such as clouds moving across the sky, leaves rustling in a breeze or water bubbling over rocks in a stream. The theory was developed by Rachel and Stephen Kaplan in the 1980s in their book The experience of nature: A psychological perspective, and has since been found by others to hold true in medical outcomes as well as intellectual task attention, as described below. Berman et al. discuss the foundation of the attention restoration theory (ART). "ART is based on past research showing the separation of attention into two components: involuntary attention, where attention is captured by inherently intriguing or important stimuli, and voluntary or directed attention, where attention is directed by cognitive-control processes." 
Restoration or psychological restoration in the environmental psychology field is the recovery of depleted resources that can be psychological (attention and emotions), physiological (stress) and social, as a result of interaction with a restorative environment, to change negative states to positive ones. Psychological restoration can be described as the capability of perception of restoration, as an observer can perceive the properties of an environment that relieves the mental fatigue and stress in a person.
The Kaplans describes a series of characteristics that an environment must have to be restorative. Fascination, as the ability of an environment to generate awe in people; the amount of awe can give the directed attention a rest as it appears the involuntary attention in its place. Being away, a feeling that can be in objective or subjective form, as a person can be far away from a location or let his or her mind let go from everyday life and worries. Extension, referring to the connection between each element found in an environment; the feeling of being able to travel through the environment in order to look for information it provides to the observer. Compatibility, characteristics found in an environment that meet the preferences and goals of a person.
The function of directed attention is to inhibit stimulus from the environment. Its effectiveness will diminish over time with constant use. The result is mental fatigue, which increases the difficulty of discriminating environmental stimulus.
Attention restoration theory describes a person as being in several states of attention:
- Directed attention
- Directed attention fatigue
- Effortless attention
- Restored attention
Tasks that require mental effort draw upon "directed attention". People must expend effort to achieve focus, to delay expression of inappropriate emotions or actions, and to inhibit distractions. That is, they must concentrate on the higher task, avoiding distractions. Performing the actual task also requires other knowledge and skills.
In Peopleware, a book on office work, Tom DeMarco and Tim Lister report that in an office environment, workers may take 15 minutes to achieve this state of flow in their concentration, and that it will be destroyed in a moment by an interruption such as a telephone call.
The task may be fascinating so that it allows "effortless attention", or may have sufficient scope to sustain interaction without boredom, or may simply be more compatible with a person's interests. However, after a period of directed attention, people begin to suffer "directed attention fatigue". They become distracted, irritable, impatient. They become less effective in performing their tasks.
Attention may be "restored" by changing to a different kind of task that uses different parts of the brain, as in the familiar idiom "a change is as good as a rest". Alternatively, exposure to natural environments and wilderness has psychological benefits including attention restoration.
Nature has an abundance of fascinating objects. "Soft fascinations" such as clouds in the sky or leaves rustling in a breeze, gain our attention relatively effortlessly and are compatible with our wants and needs. This is by comparison to snakes and spiders, which gain our attention out of fear. The biophilia hypothesis argues that people are instinctively enthusiastic about nature, and both Fuller et al. and Irvine et al. suggest that the positive psychological effect increases as the perceived biodiversity of the landscape increases.
After spending some time of effortless attention to soft fascinations removed from their day to day tasks, people may have a chance to reflect. This brings a "restorative" benefit which allows further attention.
After medical surgery, patients resting in rooms overlooking trees recovered better than those in rooms with only a view of a brick wall. They experienced fewer complications from the surgery, recovered faster, and asked for weaker painkiller drugs. Similarly, natural scenes can reduce stress before an event.
Women with breast cancer who walked in a park, watched birds, or tended flowers, achieved better attention after surgery. Merely keeping sight of natural features improves self-discipline in inner-city girls. Children in New York State were less stressed by adversity when they lived in rural areas. Stress in college examinations was similarly reduced by viewing natural scenes. Viewing scenes of urban streets and artifacts excluding nature did not achieve any stress reduction, in a similar study upon workers viewing a film about industrial accidents.
Taking breaks outside in settings that contained some nature has been shown to reduce stress, leaving nurses feeling refreshed, relaxed, and energized upon return to work.
- Attention span
- Attentional retraining
- Environmental psychology
- Green exercise
- Nature deficit disorder
- Outdoor education
- Kaplan, R.; Kaplan, S. (1989). The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-34139-4.
- The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. By Kaplan S. in Journal of Environmental Psychology 1995, v.15, pp169-182.
- Bell, P.A.; Greene, T.C.; Fisher, J.D. (2001). Environmental Psychology, Fifth Edition. Harcourt College Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8058-6088-7.
- Berman, Mare G et al. "The Cognitive Benefits of Interacting with Nature", Psychological Science, Vol 19. Num 12. Michigan, 28 May 2008. Retrieved on 2012-09-16.
- Hartig, T. (2004). Restorative environments. In C. Spielberger (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied psychology (pp. 273–279). San Diego: Academic.
- Hartig, T. (2011). Issues in restorative environments research: Matters of measurement. In B. Fernández, C. Hidalgo, C. Salvador & M. J. Martos (Eds.), Psicología Ambiental 2011: Entre los estudios urbanos y el análisis de la sostenibilidad (pp. 41-66). Almería, Spain: University of Almeria & the Spanish Association of Environmental Psychology.
- Coles, R., & Keshavarz, N. (2006). The restorative potential of local urban environments-The impact of green infrastructure on the health and well being of local residents. In K. Nilsson & B. Nielsen (Eds.), Urban forestry for human health and wellbeing. Documento presentado en la reunión COST-E39 Research Conference y ASEM Second Symposium on Urban Forestry, Copenhagen, Dinamarca.
- Kaplan, Stephen; Berman, Marc G. (2017-05-05). "Directed Attention as a Common Resource for Executive Functioning and Self-Regulation". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 5 (1): 43–57. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.589.9322. doi:10.1177/1745691609356784. PMID 26162062.
- Hartig, Terry; Mang, Marlis; Evans, Gary W. (2016-07-26). "Restorative Effects of Natural Environment Experiences". Environment and Behavior. 23 (1): 3–26. doi:10.1177/0013916591231001.
- Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (1989). The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
- DeMarco, Tom; Lister, Tim (1988). Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0-396-08808-0.
- Attention Restoration Theory: Empirical Work and Practical Applications, by Cimprich B. (2007)
- Ulrich, R.S.; Simons, R.F.; Losito, B.D.; Fiorito, E.; Miles, M.A.; Zelson, M. Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. J. Environ. Psychol. 1991, 11, 201-230.
- Fuller, R. A., Irvine, K. N., Devine-Wright, P., Warren, P. H., & Gaston, K. J. Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity., Biology letters, 3(4), 390-394.
- Irvine, K. N., Warber, S. L., Devine-Wright, P., & Gaston, K. J. (2013) Understanding urban green space as a health resource: A qualitative comparison of visit motivation and derived effects among park users in Sheffield International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10(1), 417-442.
- Ulrich R. 1984
- Ulrich R. 1986
- Taylor A.F., Kuo F.E., Sullivan W.C. (2001). Views of Nature and Self Discipline: Evidence from Inner City Children Archived 2008-11-20 at the Wayback Machine in Journal of Environmental Psychology (2001), vol. 21.
- Wells, Nancy M.; Evans, G.W. (2003). "Nearby Nature: A Buffer of Life Stress Among Rural Children" (PDF). Environment and Behavior. 35 (35.3): 311–330. doi:10.1177/0013916503035003001.
- Ulrich R. 1979
- Irvine, K.N. Work breaks & well-being: The effect of nature on hospital nurses, Conference proceedings of the 131st Annual Meeting (November 15–19, 2003) of APHA