Fungus-growing ants

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Attini)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Attini
Formicidae - Atta mexicana-3.JPG
Atta mexicana workers carrying a leaf section
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Euarthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Attini
Smith, 1858
Type genus
Atta
Fabricius, 1804
Genera

See text

Diversity[1]
46 genera

Fungus-growing ants (subtribe Attina) comprise all the known fungus-growing ant species participating in ant-fungus mutualism. They are the sister group to the subtribe Dacetina.[2] Leafcutter ants, including Atta and Acromyrmex, make up two of the genera.[3] Their cultivars come from the fungal tribe Leucocoprineae[2] of family Agaricaceae.

This New World ant clade is thought to have originated about 60 million years ago in the South American rainforest.[2] This is disputed, though, as it appears that they likely evolved in a drier habitat while still learning to domesticate their crops.[2] While the fungal cultivars of the 'lower' attine ants can survive outside an ant colony, those of 'higher' attine ants are obligate mutualists. This obligate mutualism is thought to have evolved outside the rainforest, in areas where the fungi would not have been able to survive outside a colony anyway due to the dry environment.[2]

Evolution[edit]

Early ancestors of Attine ants were probably insect predators. Eventually, they likely began foraging for leaf sections, but then converted their primary food source to the fungus these leaf cuts grew.[4][5][6] Higher attines, like Acromyrmex and Atta evolved in Central and Northern America about 20 MYA, starting with Trachymyrmex cornetzi.[2]

Generalized fungus farming in ants appears to have evolved about 55-60 million years ago, but early 25 MYA ants seemed to have domesticated a single fungal lineage with gongylidia to feed colonies. This evolution of using gongylidia appears to have developed in the dry habitats of South America, away from the rainforests where fungus-farming evolved. About 10 million years later, leaf-cutting ants likely arose as active herbivores and began industrial-scaled farming.[7][8][9][10][4][11][12] The fungus the ants grew, their cultivars, eventually became reproductively isolated, and co-evolved with the ants. These fungi gradually began decomposing more nutritious material - fresh plants.[13][7][10][4][11]

Shortly after Attine ants began keeping their fungus gardens in dense aggregations, their farms began suffering from a specialized genus of Escovopsis mycopathogens.[14][15][16][8][17] The ants evolved cuticular cultures of Actinobacteria that suppress Escovopsis and possibly other bacteria.[18][19][8][20][21][22] These cuticular cultures are antibiotics and antifungals.[19][23][24][22][25] The mature worker ants wear these cultures on their chest plates and sometimes on their surrounding thorax and legs as a biofilm.[8]

Impact of farming[edit]

The scale of the farming done by fungus-farming ants can be compared to human's industrialized farming.[26][27][10][4] The cutting of leaves to grow fungus to feed millions of ants per colony has a large ecological impact in the subtropical areas in which they reside.[6]

Attine ants have very specialized diets, which seems to reduce their microbiotic diversity.[28][29][30][31]

Genera[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Attini". AntCat. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Branstetter, M. G.; Ješovnik, A.; Sosa-Calvo, J.; Lloyd, M. W.; Faircloth, B. C.; Brady, S. G.; Schultz, T. R. (2017-04-12). "Dry habitats were crucibles of domestication in the evolution of agriculture in ants" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 284 (1852): 20170095. doi:10.1098/rspb.2017.0095. PMC 5394666. PMID 28404776.
  3. ^ Weber, N.A. (1966). "Fungus-Growing Ants". Science. 153 (3736): 587–604. Bibcode:1966Sci...153..587W. doi:10.1126/science.153.3736.587. PMID 17757227.
  4. ^ a b c d Brady, Seán G.; Schultz, Ted R. (2008-04-08). "Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (14): 5435–5440. Bibcode:2008PNAS..105.5435S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0711024105. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC 2291119. PMID 18362345.
  5. ^ Branstetter, Michael G.; Ješovnik, Ana; Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey; Lloyd, Michael W.; Faircloth, Brant C.; Brady, Seán G.; Schultz, Ted R. (2017-04-12). "Dry habitats were crucibles of domestication in the evolution of agriculture in ants". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 284 (1852): 20170095. doi:10.1098/rspb.2017.0095. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 5394666. PMID 28404776.
  6. ^ a b Gerardo, Nicole; Mueller, Ulrich G. (2002-11-26). "Fungus-farming insects: Multiple origins and diverse evolutionary histories". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99 (24): 15247–15249. Bibcode:2002PNAS...9915247M. doi:10.1073/pnas.242594799. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC 137700. PMID 12438688.
  7. ^ a b Kooij, P. W.; Aanen, D. K.; Schiøtt, M.; Boomsma, J. J. (November 2015). "Evolutionarily advanced ant farmers rear polyploid fungal crops". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 28 (11): 1911–1924. doi:10.1111/jeb.12718. ISSN 1420-9101. PMC 5014177. PMID 26265100.
  8. ^ a b c d Currie, Cameron R.; Poulsen, Michael; Mendenhall, John; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Billen, Johan (2006-01-06). "Coevolved crypts and exocrine glands support mutualistic bacteria in fungus-growing ants". Science. 311 (5757): 81–83. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...81C. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.186.9613. doi:10.1126/science.1119744. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 16400148.
  9. ^ Schultz, Ted R.; Rehner, Stephen A.; Mueller, Ulrich G. (1998-09-25). "The Evolution of Agriculture in Ants". Science. 281 (5385): 2034–2038. Bibcode:1998Sci...281.2034M. doi:10.1126/science.281.5385.2034. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 9748164.
  10. ^ a b c Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Zhang, Guojie; Schultz, Ted R.; Brady, Seán G.; Wcislo, William T.; Nash, David R.; Rabeling, Christian; Dikow, Rebecca B.; Deng, Yuan (2016-07-20). "Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant–fungus agricultural symbiosis". Nature Communications. 7: 12233. Bibcode:2016NatCo...712233N. doi:10.1038/ncomms12233. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 4961791. PMID 27436133.
  11. ^ a b Shik, Jonathan Z.; Gomez, Ernesto B.; Kooij, Pepijn W.; Santos, Juan C.; Wcislo, William T.; Boomsma, Jacobus J. (September 6, 2016). "Nutrition mediates the expression of cultivar-farmer conflict in a fungus-growing ant". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (36): 10121–10126. doi:10.1073/pnas.1606128113. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC 5018747. PMID 27551065.
  12. ^ Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J. (2002-08-07). "Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants". Proceedings. Biological Sciences. 269 (1500): 1541–1548. doi:10.1098/rspb.2002.2044. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 1691065. PMID 12184823.
  13. ^ Licht, Henrik H. De Fine; Boomsma, Jacobus J. (2010). "Forage collection, substrate preparation, and diet composition in fungus-growing ants". Ecological Entomology. 35 (3): 259–269. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.2010.01193.x. ISSN 1365-2311.
  14. ^ de Man, Tom J. B.; Stajich, Jason E.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Teiling, Clotilde; Chenthamara, Komal; Atanasova, Lea; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Levenkova, Natasha; Birnbaum, Stephanie S. L. (2016-03-29). "Small genome of the fungus Escovopsis weberi, a specialized disease agent of ant agriculture". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (13): 3567–3572. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113.3567D. doi:10.1073/pnas.1518501113. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC 4822581. PMID 26976598.
  15. ^ Gerardo, Nicole M; Jacobs, Sarah R; Currie, Cameron R; Mueller, Ulrich G (August 2006). "Ancient Host–Pathogen Associations Maintained by Specificity of Chemotaxis and Antibiosis". PLoS Biology. 4 (8): e235. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040235. ISSN 1544-9173. PMC 1489191. PMID 16805647.
  16. ^ Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Yek, Sze Huei (2012). "Towards a Better Understanding of the Evolution of Specialized Parasites of Fungus-Growing Ant Crops". Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 2012: 1–10. doi:10.1155/2012/239392. Retrieved 2019-01-05.
  17. ^ Currie, C. R. (2001). "A community of ants, fungi, and bacteria: a multilateral approach to studying symbiosis". Annual Review of Microbiology. 55: 357–380. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.55.1.357. hdl:1808/835. ISSN 0066-4227. PMID 11544360.
  18. ^ Malloch, David; Summerbell, Richard C.; Scott, James A.; Currie, Cameron R. (April 1999). "Fungus-growing ants use antibiotic-producing bacteria to control garden parasites". Nature. 398 (6729): 701–704. Bibcode:1999Natur.398..701C. doi:10.1038/19519. ISSN 1476-4687.
  19. ^ a b Barke, Jörg; Seipke, Ryan F.; Grüschow, Sabine; Heavens, Darren; Drou, Nizar; Bibb, Mervyn J.; Goss, Rebecca JM; Yu, Douglas W.; Hutchings, Matthew I. (2010-08-26). "A mixed community of actinomycetes produce multiple antibiotics for the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus". BMC Biology. 8 (1): 109. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-109. ISSN 1741-7007. PMC 2942817. PMID 20796277.
  20. ^ Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter (2009-03-24). "Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (12): 4742–4746. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.4742H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812082106. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC 2660719. PMID 19270078.
  21. ^ Mattoso, Thalles C.; Moreira, Denise D. O.; Samuels, Richard I. (2012-06-23). "Symbiotic bacteria on the cuticle of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus protect workers from attack by entomopathogenic fungi". Biology Letters. 8 (3): 461–464. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0963. ISSN 1744-957X. PMC 3367728. PMID 22130174.
  22. ^ a b Hutchings, Matthew I.; Goss, Rebecca J. M.; Yu, Douglas W.; Hill, Lionel; Brearley, Charles; Barke, Jörg; Seipke, Ryan F. (2011-08-03). "A Single Streptomyces Symbiont Makes Multiple Antifungals to Support the Fungus Farming Ant Acromyrmex octospinosus". PLOS ONE. 6 (8): e22028. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...622028S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022028. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3153929. PMID 21857911.
  23. ^ Holmes, Neil A.; Innocent, Tabitha M.; Heine, Daniel; Bassam, Mahmoud Al; Worsley, Sarah F.; Trottmann, Felix; Patrick, Elaine H.; Yu, Douglas W.; Murrell, J. C. (2016-12-26). "Genome Analysis of Two Pseudonocardia Phylotypes Associated with Acromyrmex Leafcutter Ants Reveals Their Biosynthetic Potential". Frontiers in Microbiology. 7: 2073. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.02073. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 5183585. PMID 28082956.
  24. ^ Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R.; Clardy, Jon (July 2009). "Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis". Nature Chemical Biology. 5 (6): 391–393. doi:10.1038/nchembio.159. ISSN 1552-4469. PMC 2748230. PMID 19330011.
  25. ^ Seipke, Ryan F.; Grüschow, Sabine; Goss, Rebecca J. M.; Hutchings, Matthew I. (2012). Isolating antifungals from fungus-growing ant symbionts using a genome-guided chemistry approach. Methods in Enzymology. 517. pp. 47–70. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-404634-4.00003-6. ISBN 9780124046344. ISSN 1557-7988. PMID 23084933.
  26. ^ Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Nash, David R.; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus J. (2018). "The evolution of abdominal microbiomes in fungus-growing ants". Molecular Ecology. 0. doi:10.1111/mec.14931. ISSN 1365-294X. PMID 30411820.
  27. ^ Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Rosendahl, Søren; Guldberg-Frøslev, Tobias; Rouland-Lefèvre, Corinne; Eggleton, Paul; Aanen, Duur K. (2002-11-12). "The evolution of fungus-growing termites and their mutualistic fungal symbionts". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99 (23): 14887–14892. Bibcode:2002PNAS...9914887A. doi:10.1073/pnas.222313099. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC 137514. PMID 12386341.
  28. ^ Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Schiøtt, Morten; Sørensen, Søren J.; Hansen, Lars H.; Zhukova, Mariya; Sapountzis, Panagiotis (2015-08-15). "Acromyrmex Leaf-Cutting Ants Have Simple Gut Microbiota with Nitrogen-Fixing Potential". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 81 (16): 5527–5537. doi:10.1128/AEM.00961-15. ISSN 1098-5336. PMC 4510174. PMID 26048932.
  29. ^ Anderson, Kirk E.; Russell, Jacob A.; Moreau, Corrie S.; Kautz, Stefanie; Sullam, Karen E.; Hu, Yi; Basinger, Ursula; Mott, Brendon M.; Buck, Norman (May 2012). "Highly similar microbial communities are shared among related and trophically similar ant species". Molecular Ecology. 21 (9): 2282–2296. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05464.x. ISSN 1365-294X. PMID 22276952.
  30. ^ Bae, Jin-Woo; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Sung-Hee; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Joon-Yong; Choi, Jung-Hye; Kim, Yun-Ji; Nam, Young-Do; Yoon, Changmann (2014-09-01). "Insect Gut Bacterial Diversity Determined by Environmental Habitat, Diet, Developmental Stage, and Phylogeny of Host". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80 (17): 5254–5264. doi:10.1128/AEM.01226-14. ISSN 1098-5336. PMC 4136111. PMID 24928884.
  31. ^ Colman, D. R.; Toolson, E. C.; Takacs-Vesbach, C. D. (October 2012). "Do diet and taxonomy influence insect gut bacterial communities?". Molecular Ecology. 21 (20): 5124–5137. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05752.x. ISSN 1365-294X. PMID 22978555.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Attini at Wikimedia Commons