This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
An attractant is a synomone.
An interspecific semiochemical that is beneficial to both interacting organisms, the emitter and receiver, e.g. floral synomone of certain Bulbophyllum species (Orchidaceae) attracts fruit fly males (Tephritidae: Diptera) as pollinators. In this true mutualistic inter-relationship, both organisms gain benefits in their respective sexual reproduction - i.e. orchid flowers are pollinated and the Dacini fruit fly males are rewarded with a sex pheromone precursor or booster; and the floral synomones, also act as rewards to pollinators, are in the form of phenylpropanoids (e.g. methyl eugenol) and phenylbutanoids (e.g. raspberry ketone and zingerone).
a) Tan, K.H., R. Nishida and Y.C. Toong (2002) Bulbophyllum cheiri's floral synomone lures fruit flies to perform pollination. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28:1161-1172.
b) Nishida, R., K.H. Tan, S.L. Wee, A.K.W. Hee and Toong, Y. C. (2004) Phenylpropanoids in the fragrance of the fruit fly orchid, Bulbophyllum cheiri, and their relationship to the pollinator, Bactrocera papayae. Biochemical Systematics & Ecology. 32: 245-252.
c) Tan, K.H., L.T. Tan, and R. Nishida (2006) Floral phenylpropanoid cocktail and architecture of Bulbophyllum vinaceum orchid in attracting fruit flies for pollination. Journal of Chemical Ecology 32: 2429-2441.
- Tan, K.H. and R. Nishida (2005) Synomone or Kairomone? - Bulbophyllum apertum (Orchidaceae) flower releases raspberry ketone to attract Bactrocera fruit flies. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 31(3): 509-519.
a) Tan, K.H. and R. Nishida (2000) Mutual reproductive benefits between a wild orchid, Bulbophyllum patens, and Bactrocera fruit flies via a floral synomone. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26: 533-546.
b) Tan, K.H. and R. Nishida (2007) Zingerone in the floral synomone of Bulbophyllum baileyi (Orchidaceae) attracts Bactrocera fruit flies during pollination. Biochemical Systmatics and Ecology 35: 334-341.