Atul Prasad Sen

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Atul Prasad Sen
Barrister Atul Prasad Sen, Lucknow.jpg
Atul Prasad Sen
Born (1871-10-20)20 October 1871
Dhaka, Bengal, British India
Died 26 August 1934(1934-08-26) (aged 62)
Lucknow, United Provinces, India
Occupation Advocate, Poet, Educationist, Lawyer
Nationality British Indian
Period Bengal Renaissance
Years active 1900–1934
Atul Prasad Sen
Atul prasad.jpg

Atul Prasad Sen Bengali: অতুল প্রসাদ সেন (20 October 1871 – 26 August 1934) was a Bengali composer, lyricist and singer, and also a lawyer, philanthropist, social worker, educationist and littérateur.[1]

Early life[edit]

Atul Prasad Sen was born as the eldest child of Ram Prasad Sen and Hemanta Shashi, in a Vaidya-Brahmin family hailing from the village Magor in South Bikrampur, Faridpur District, presently located in Bangladesh.[2] His paternal grandfather was Krishna Chandra Sen (Kabiraj). He was born in his maternal uncle's house in Dhaka, following the custom at that time.[2] He had three sisters. Ramprasad was a school teacher in Dhaka. Later, with help from Maharshi Debendranath Tagore, Ramprasad studied psychiatry and became the superintendent of the Dhaka Mental Asylum. Unfortunately Ram Prasad died when Atul Prasad was still a toddler. Atul Prasad was raised by his maternal grandfather Kali Narayan Gupta, who was a renowned Brahmo social reformer. It was Kali Narayan who initiated Atul Prasad in music and devotional songs. Atul Prasad's mother later married prominent Brahmo Samaj reformer Durga Mohan Das.[2]

Initially Atul Prasad could not accept this marriage.[3] In due course of time his relationship became very congenial with Durga Mohan and Hemanta Shashi. Sarala Devi recounted in her diary জীবনের ঝরাপাতা (fallen leaves of life) that Durga Mohan, after the demise of his wife Brahmoamoyee, in spite of his busy outward life, took great care of his children. It was his elder daughter Abala, whose eager and consistent effort towards the wellbeing of her aging father convinced Durga Mohan to marry Hemanta Shashi. Durga Mohan extended every possible care to his step children too, and treated them as his own children. His sisters were Smt. Hiran Sen, married to Dr. Ramaswamy Iyengar, Smt. Kiron Sen, married to Sarojmohan Babu, and Smt. Prova Sen, married to Sheshadri Iyengar. His step-sisters were Lady Abala Bose, Smt. Sarala Roy, and Smt. Sailabala Roy and his step-brothers were Satya Ranjan Das, Satish Ranjan Das and Jyotish Ranjan Das.[4]

Atul Prasad married Hem Kusum Gupta, a daughter of Sir Krishna Govinda Gupta, ICS and his wife Lady Prasanna Tara Gupta. His twin sons, born in 1901, were Dilip Kumar and Nilip Kumar.

Education and Profession[edit]

Middle Temple - A sketch by Thomas Shepherd; c.1830 
Atul Prasad Sen's residence at London; c.1882 

After passing the Entrance examination in 1890, Atul Prasad was admitted to Presidency College in Kolkata, and in the same year took a voyage to England to study law.[a]

Durga Mohan Das sent his sons to London to become Barrister[6]. The eldest son Satya Ranjan passed matriculation from Emmanuel College and was at Middle Temple during 1883-1886, followed by Chitta Ranjan Das, Durga Mohan's brother's son, during 1890-1894, Satish Ranjan Das (1891-1894) and Jyotish Ranjan Das (1892-1895). Atul Prasad Sen stayed at 98 Lansdowne Road, London, W-20. In 25 October 1892 he was admitted to the Middle Temple, and after completing the course was called to the Bar on the same day along with Jyotish Ranjan Das on 26 June 1895. Prafulla Ranjan Das, brother of Chitta Ranjan also followed the suit during 1902-1905. Long afterwards Dhruba Ranjan Das, son of Satish Ranjan, completed the law couse at Middle Temple (1924-1930).[7]

In London he had befriended with Sri Aurobindo Ghosh, Chitta Ranjan Das and Sarojini Naidu among others, and together they promoted Dadabhai Naoroji in the British Parliament.[citation needed]

After becoming a Barrister, he returned to Bengal in 1895 and joined with Satyendra Prasanno Sinha, (Lord Sinha), as a Bar-at-Law. Successively he opened up law practice in Rangpur and Kolkata[8].

The High Court at Calcutta, which used to be known as the High Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal, was established and formally opened on 1 July 1862. Atul Prasad was called to the Bar in Calcutta High Court in 1895.[9] He was a member of the Bar Library Club of Calcutta High Court.

It was mentioned in "The High Court of Calcutta - 125 Anniversary Souvenir 1862 - 1987":

"The ecstatic resonance of Atul Prasad Sen's (1896) lyrics is heard in every Bengali home. Again, the poet of 'The Song of the Ocean' (Sagara-Sangeet) in his Vaishnavite melody surrendered himself completely to the Almighty".[10]

The noted compilation titled "The High Court at Calcutta - 150 Years: An Overview" remembered Atul Prasad with due reverence,[11]

"Atul Prasad Sen (1896), a member of the Club, was a poet, lyricist, composer and a lawyer all moulded in one, whose songs and poems inspired many a young heart in pre-independence days and are cherished even today."

Upon advised by his friend Mumtaj Hussain, he chose the province of Oudh as his field of activity and moved to Lucknow in 1902.

Marriage[edit]

A signed photograph of Barrister Atul Prasad Sen published in Geetigunja in 1931

Atul Prasad married his cousin sister Hem Kusum, which was disapproved by their family members. The couple wedded at Gretna Old Parish Church, Gretna Green, Scotland, under the Scottish Law in the year 1900.[1] However, Atul Prasad had a troubled married life. The emotional sufferings he experienced in his life found their ways into his lyrics; and this has made many of his songs full of pathos.[12]

Work in Lucknow[edit]

Atul Prasad Sen practised law in Lucknow from 1902 to 1934. He attained wealth, prosperity and fame as a lawyer, and in due course of time became the President of the Oudh Bar Association and the Oudh Bar Council. He had distinguished himself amongst the citizens of Lucknow not only for his fame as a lawyer, but with diversified activities and social works.[2]

In 1922 the first conference of Bengali literary personages outside Bengal (Prabasi Banga-Sahitya Sammelan, presently known as Nikhil Bharat Banga Sahitya Sammelan) was organised at Benaras with patronage from distinguished 'Bengalis living outside Bengal' (Prabasis) like Atul Prasad Sen, Radha Kamal Mukherjee, Kedar Nath Bandyopadhyay and Mahendra Chandra Roy, which was presided over by Rabindranath Tagore. Atul Prasad initiated and edited Uttara, the Bengali magazine of the organisation, to keep alive the Bengali culture among the Bengali Diaspora.[13] Later, he presided over its Kanpur and Gorakhpur conventions. He was also editor of Allahabad Law Journal and Awadh Weekly Notes.[14]

Since 1903 Atul Prasad served the Bengali Club of Lucknow, which was founded by Atul Krishna Singh, as the President. In 1929, he initiated the idea of merging of the Bengali Club and the Young Men's Association of Lucknow, and thus emerged a new organisation to be known as Bengali Club and Young Men's Association.[13] A rare photograph of Atul Prasad is uploaded in the website of the Club.[15]

Atul Prasad played an active role in national politics during 1905-1921.[16] He was a close associate of Gopal Krishna Gokhale. In 1905, when Gokhale was elected president of the Indian National Congress and was at the height of his political power, he founded the Servants of India Society to specifically further one of the causes dearest to his heart: the expansion of Indian education. Atul Prasad was sympathetic to nationalistic movement and extended his support and generosity to Congress Party and Servants of India Society founded by Gopal Krishna Gokhale. He joined Indian National Congress and represented Oudh in several annual conventions. He acted as Vice Chairman of Lucknow Municipal Corporation. In 1917 he joined in the Liberal Party.[1]

A P Sen Memorial Girls' College Lucknow

He actively took part in conversion of Lucknow Canning College founded by Raja Dakshina Ranjan Mukhopadhyay to Lucknow University and acted as a member of the first Executive Committee. He extended aid to many educational institutions.[2]

The residence at A P Sen Road, Charbag, Lucknow (now demolished)

Atul Prasad Sen Memorial Girls' College, Lucknow, established in 1902 under the name Mahalaki Pathshala, humbly bears the name of its principal patron.[17] From Mahakali Pathshala, the name was changed to Harimati Balika Vidyalaya. In 1933 it received temporary recognition for High School and intermediate from U.P Board. It was at this time it acquired the name Jubilee-girls School. In 1944, the school received permanent recognition for High school. It advanced to an Inter college in 1947, and to a Degree College in 1955[18].

Atul Prasad's house at Lucknow, which was located next to the labour court complex, is demolished. It is so unfortunate that such a nice specimen of colonial architecture, the famous residence of Atul Prasad Sen which witnessed visit of so many distinguished personalities of pre-Independent India, is no more. A photograph of the house is available in the website of Sri Ramakrishna Math & Ramakrishna Mission Sevashrama, Lucknow.[19]

The A P Sen Road, running in front of the residence, was named after him during his lifetime. This was a very rare instance of expressing immense love, honour and respect imparted ever by the citizen of any town. This road still runs in Charbag area of Lucknow.[20]

Music[edit]

Lucknow played an important role in Atul Prasad's musical creation and experiments. At this time, he used to hold musical soirees almost every evening at his residence. Maestros like Ustad Ahammad Khalif Khan, Ustad Chhotey Munne Khan (The last living courtier of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah), Ustad Barkat Ali Khan, Ustad Abdul Karim Khan and many other eminent exponents of Indian Classical Music used to attend such soirees. He wrote most of his Bengali songs during his residence in Lucknow. He was able to internalise the Hindustani rendition style well since he lived almost half his life in northern India.[citation needed] Such exposure led Atulprasad to introduce the raga-based classical idiom, especially the thumri, a speciality of Lucknow, into Bangla vocal music. Atul Prasad adapted the Hindustani style to fit Bangla songs, without distorting their tune and measure. He added a new dimension to Bangla songs and opened the way for further experiments.[citation needed] He used fast-paced Hindustani tunes like Kheyal, Thumri and Dadra skilfully, and was able to add an element of spontaneity on occasions when the tune has transcended the lyrics.[21]

Atul Prasad is credited with introducing the Thumri style in Bengali music.[2] He also pioneered introduction of Ghazals in Bengali.[21]

Atul Prasad's acquaintances with maestros in Urdu and Persian Ghazal inspired him to experiment this particular style to be brought into Bengali music. He created around six or seven Ghazals in Bengali and pioneered a stream of Bengali music which was later enriched profusely by contribution of Kazi Nazrul Islam.[21]

Atul Prasad's introduction of the raga to the Bangla songs had a significant impact on Bengali music, and influenced the songs of Kazi Nazrul Islam and other raga-based modern songs. The songs created by him are known as অতুলপ্রসাদের গান (Atul Prasad's song).[21]

Atul Prasad's Song (অতুলপ্রসাদের গান)[edit]

Handwriting of Atul Prasad Sen, from Geetigunja

Atul Prasad wrote 212 poems and except a few most of the poems were used as song.[1] Unfortunately none of the songs were dated. Only three among these 212 poems were titled (অর্ঘ্য, সাগরবক্ষে জ্যোৎস্নাসুন্দরী, প্রত্যাবর্তন).

Atul Prasad himself, in his book গীতিগুঞ্জ (Geetigunja), arranged his songs into five broad categories: দেবতা (Devotional), প্রকৃতি (Nature), স্বদেশ (Patriotic), মানব (Humanity) and বিবিধ (others). He did not explicitly categorised any of his songs into the category of love. However, many of his songs, having multi-layered association of deep emotional sentiments, bloom into expression of love and lug deep shadow of sadness, which was his constant companion.[1]

Love songs[edit]

A sample is[1]:

বঁধুয়া - নিদ নাহি আঁখিপাতে। আমিও একাকী, তুমিও একাকী আজি এ বাদল রাতে।

বঁধু এমন বাদলে তুমি কোথা? আজি পড়িছে মনে মম কত কথা।

একা মোর গানের তরী ভাসিয়ে ছিলাম নয়ন জলে..

Devotional songs[edit]

Atul Prasad was a follower of Bahmo faith, which was initiated in Calcutta in 1828 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Dwarkanath Tagore as reformation of the prevailing Brahmanism of the time. Atul Prasad created many songs devoted to Brahmo faith. Also, some of his compositions are dedidated to faith of Vaishnavism (worshiper of Lord Vishnu or Sri Krishna - হরি), Shaivism (worshiper of Lord Shiva - শিব) and Shaktism, where the metaphysical reality is considered feminine (Mother Kali or Mother Universal - শক্তি).[1]

He employed variety of folk tunes in his compositions apart from using Classical Ragas. কীর্তন (Kirtan), বাউল (Baul), ভাটিয়ালি (Vatially) and রামপ্রসাদী (Ramprasadi) tunes were prominent among them.[1]

পরানে তোমারে ডাকিনি হে হরি (কীর্তন)

যদি দুঃখের লাগিয়া গড়েছ আমায়, সুখ আমি নাহি চাই (কীর্তন)

Patriotic songs[edit]

Atul Prasad contributed immensely to the awakening of nationalism in colonial India by creating various patriotic songs. During his first voyage to England in 1890, Atul Prasad passed through Italy and being inspired by the tune of the Gondola rowers' song in Venice[22] he composed his famous patriotic song, উঠ গো ভারত-লক্ষ্মী..:[1]

    উঠ গো ভারত-লক্ষ্মী, উঠ আদি-জগত-জন-পূজ্যা, 
      দুঃখ দৈন্য সব নাশি করো দূরিত ভারত-লজ্জা।
        ছাড়ো গো ছাড়ো শোকশয্যা, কর সজ্জা 
          পুনঃ কনক-কমল-ধন-ধান্যে!
   (Goddess of grace of India, 
      O rise you world-respected! 
        End all woes and sorrows, and 
          Remove her shame dejected!..[23])

The movement against the partition of Bengal during 1905-11 inspired creation of patriotic songs which helped in propagation of Swadeshi movement ideologies. Rabindranath Tagore, Atulprasad Sen, Dwijendralal Roy, Rajanikanta Sen, Mukunda Das, Kamini Kumar Bhattacharya, Aswini Kumar Datta, Manmohan Chakravarty, Satish Chandra Banerjee and many others composed various patriotic songs in support of the movement.[21][24]

In 1916 All India Congress Convention was held in Lucknow, and Atul Prasad actively participated in the program contributing a song that stressed upon harmony between Hindu and Muslims: দেখ মা এবার দুয়ার খুলে গলে গলে এনু মা তোর হিন্দু মুসলমান দুই ছেলে (Look, O Mother, we have come hand in hand, two of your children, Hindu and Musalman).

Hindusthan Record Company produced a record in 1930s with the song "উঠ গো ভারত-লক্ষ্মী" in one side, and in the other side it was "হও ধরমেতে ধীর" :

হও ধরমেতে ধীর
  হও করমেতে বীর,
    হও উন্নত শির
      নাহি ভয়।
ভুলি ভেদাভেদ জ্ঞান
  হও সবে আগুয়ান,
    সাথে আছে ভগবান
      হবে জয়।
নানা ভাষা, নানা মত,
  নানা পরিধান
    বিবিধের মাঝে দেখো
      মিলন মহান !
দেখিয়া ভারতে মহাজাতির উথান,
  জগ জন মানিবে বিস্ময়!
  জগ জন মানিবে বিস্ময়!

Righteous, upright
In the work bright,
Devoid of all fright
Head high!
Dismiss difference
Unite, Progress,
God bless success
Comes by.
Varied are tongues, and
Varies each dress
Amid it a unity -
What great grace!
India risen a noble nation
World will wonder with wide eye!
World will wonder with wide eye![23]

Ideology of Unity in Diversity and Indian Pluralism was conceived and urged by Atul Prasad in this song.[25]

Atul Prasad was an ardent believer and fearless preacher of Indian reawakening. He wrote:

    বল, বল, বল সবে, শত বীণা-বেণু-রবে, 
      ভারত আবার জগত-সভায় শ্রেষ্ঠ আসন লবে।
        ধর্মে মহান্ হবে, কর্মে মহান্ হবে, 
          নব দিনমণি উদিবে আবার পুরাতন এ পুরবে!
   (Chant, chant, chant all, 
      With a clarion call - 
        India will regain again 
          Best place among all!..[23])

The following song, venerating the Bengali language, played an equally significant inspirational role in the struggle for independence of India in 1947 as well as in the struggle for liberation of Bangladesh during 1971.

মোদের গরব, মোদের আশা, আ- মরি বাংলা ভাষা; (মাগো) তোমার কোলে, তোমার বোলে, কতই শান্তি ভালোবাসা।(Our pride Our hope, O thy our Bengali language)

Classical based songs[edit]

Atul Prasad pioneered in creation of Ghazals in Bengali.[1]

ভাঙা দেউলে মোর কে আইলে আলো হাতে? (Who has come to my derelict house with a lamp in hand? / Ghazal)

Classical based songs of Atul Prasad were reflections of his extensive exposure and profound expertise in Indian Classical Music. Some examples of such compositions are:

কি আর চাহিব বলো (What more shall I ask for?/ Raga Bhairabi/Tappa Kheyal)

ওগো নিঠুর দরদী (O the merciless/ Raga Mixed Ashabari-Dadra/tap Thumri)

যাবো না যাবো না ঘরে (I won't go home/ Thumri)

বন্ধু ধরো ধরো মালা (O my friend, take the garland/ Raga Kalingda)

তবু তোমায় ডাকি বারে বারে (Yet I call you/ Raga Sindhu Kafi)

Noted rendition of Atul Prasad's song[edit]

Sahana Devi,[b] Autl Prasad's cousin, edited and published 70 songs, along with her staff notations, in কাকলি (Kakali) in two volumes.[c] in 1922 Sahana Devi and Harendranath Chattopadhyay recorded Atul Prasad's song in Gramophone Company's record.

In 1932 three recording companies having Indian ownership were born in Calcutta, one of which was Hindusthan Music Products Ltd, founded by Chandi Charan Saha.[31] Chandi Charan approached Rabindranath Tagore for contributing his voice in the first record under the banner of Hinduasthan Records. In July 1932, Rabindranath Tagore sang, তবু মনে রেখো in the house no. 6/1, Akrur Datta Lane near Subodh Mallick Square. The second record consisted of two songs sung by Atul Prasad Sen, being the only instance the poet recorded his voice.[32] Atul Prasad sang:

"মিছে তুই ভাবিস মন! তুই গান গেয়ে যা, গান গেয়ে যা আজীবন!"[33][34] and

"জানি জানি তোমারে গো রঙ্গরাণী, শূন্য করি লইবে মম চিত্তখানি"[35][36]

The third one with two songs was sung by Renuka Dasgupta (née Sengupta), one of which was পাগলা মনটারে তুই বাঁধ, a song written by Atulprasad.

যদি তোর হৃদযমুনা (Jadi tor hridjamuna) ~ Harendranath Chattopadhyay (1937) HMV

সে ডাকে আমারে (Se dake amare) ~ Pahari Sanyal (1970). Film Aranyer Din Ratri directed by Satyajit Ray.

Since the day of creation to the present day, the songs of Atul Prasad remain very popular and close to the heart of Bengal. His songs are being used in Bengali films even today. Many eminent singers have sung and recorded his songs, and the trend is continuing.

Atul Prasad's songs in Bengali films[edit]

Friends, relatives and acquaintances[edit]

  • A deep friendship grew between Rabindranth and Atulprasad.

Rabindranath Tagore initiated Khamkheyali Sabha along with Gaganendranath Tagore at Jorasako, and its meeting on February 5, 1897 was attended by Atul Prasad Sen and Chittaranjan Das, among other dignitaries.[37] In July 1897 Atul Prasad hosted the meeting of the Khamkheyali Sabha in his house at Wellesley Mansion, Kolkata.

Rabindranath Tagore purchased this house at the hilltop of Ramgarh in 1914

Rabindranath Tagore's first visit to Lucknow was on invitation from Atul Prasad in 1914.[38] Tagore was accompanied by Andrews (Charles Freer Andrews, popularly known as Deenabondhu Andrews) and Atul Prasad joined with them at Tagore's cottage at Ramgarh, which the Poet bought on May 10, 1914. In June, 1914 Tagore came to Lucknow from Ramgarh, and enjoyed the hospitality of Atul Prasad, and returned to Calcutta on 14 June 1914.[39]

Atul Prasad mentioned this event in his memoirs and recapitulated:

"He invited me to stay with him at Ramgarh for some days. I came hurriedly from Lucknau to Ramgarh. One day there was heavy rain which contiued late in the night. We had an assembly of rainy season on that day. From afternoon till at ten o'clock at night, the poet (Rabindranath) recited poems written by him one after another and sung many songs of rainy season. I couldn't forget that day. At about eight in the night our dinner was made ready. The daughter and daughter-in-law of the poet was waiting at the door, but neither the poet nor any of us could take notice of them. In that sitting Rabindranath requested me, "Atul, will you please sing a Hindi song of your locality?". I sang, "Maharaja keoriya kholo, rasaki bund pare". It was a timely song, and everybody liked it. The poet accompanied me in the song. Even the song touched Andrews who was ignorant of the song. He accompanied me loudly with his strange pronunciation and wrong tuned voice."

Tagore's journey to Japan and other countries of the far east was due on May 3, 1916. Many relatives, friends, well-wishers, organisations and followers arranged for farewell ceremonies. Atul Prasad arranged one such farewell gathering in his house in Calcutta on April 27, 1916.[40] Kalidas Nag wrote:

"Gathering was held in the house of Atul Babu situated at Wellesly mansion - the poet, Gagan Babu, Abani Babu, Dinu Babu and others were present. The gathering was fine - with fountain of songs. On 28th farewell was arranged in Mayo Hospital organized by Dr. Dwijendranath Moitra. Dinu Babu and the poet sung traditional songs and patriotic songs. It was wonderful."

Tagore's second visit to Lucknow was during March 5 to 10, 1923,[41] when he addressed the Convocation of Lucknow University. Tagore was basically travelling across India on a lecture tour to raise money for Visva-Varati. Atul Prasad arranged a musical durbar in his honour and invited famous Indian classical singers of Lucknow at his residence. Tagore, while proceeding further to Bombay en route to Ahmedabad by train, composed a song, appreciating the event, তোমার শেষের গানের রেশ নিয়ে কানে চলে এসেছি ওগো কেউ কি তা জানে.[42]

  • Sukumar Ray was a great friend of Atul Prasad.[43] During his college life he initiated the Nonsense Club whose magazine was named as '৩২II ভাজা' (সাড়ে বত্রিশ ভাজা). He visited England during 1911-13 England on the Guruprasanna Ghosh Scholarship to study photography and printing technology, and at that time he became very close to Atul Prasad Sen and many others. After returning from England Sukumar formed Manday Club, a literary gathering of contemporary Bengali writers, which had such noted personalities as Satyendranath Dutta, Suniti Kumar Chaterjee, Atul Prasad Sen, Kalidas Nag, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, Dr. Dwijendranath Maitra and Prabhat Kumar Mukhopadhyay as members. Sukumar married Suprabha Das, granddaughter of Kali Narayan Gupta on December 13, 1919, and a family relation thus was developed between them.
  • Dilip Kumar Roy (22 January 1897 – 6 January 1980) was a Bengali Indian musician, musicologist, novelist, poet, essayist, and was an ardent follower of Sri Aurobindo. He was the son of Dwijendralal Ray. in 1922 while young Dilip Kumar was on a tour studying Indian classical music from various great masters, he came to Lucknow, and here in the house of Atul Prasad Sen he met Ronald Nixon, a professor at Lucknow University, who introduced Dilip to ideologies of Sri Aurobindo.[44] Dilip Kumar became a close collaborator of Atul Prasad, and immensely contributed, along with pursuing in versatile field of activities, in popularising Atul Prasad's songs.[45] (Note on date of event: 1922)
  • Pahari Sanyal, whose real name was Nagendranath, came to Lucknow to join Marris College as a student of Hindustani Classical Music. Young Nagendranath was immediately drawn very close to Atul Prasad because of his unbound passion to classical music and became a regular visitor to his house. He witnessed and took active part in many of Atul Prasad's notable creations. Later, he was known, apart from being an outstanding luminary in the world of Bengali cinema, as one of the best exponents of Atul Prasad's song. He recorded several songs of Atul Prasad later.

(Note on date of event: 1926-28. Marris College of Music, Lucknow, later known as Bhatkhande Music Institute University was established by Sri Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande in 1926. Pahari Sanyal's visit to Atul Prasad's house may be dated around 1926-28.)

  • Kumar Prasad Mukherjee[46] quoted from his father Dhurjati Prasad Mukerji's memoir মনে এলো (Mone Elo):

"I heard Abdul Karim when he was at the peak of his powers. It was a few days after the death of Deshbandhu C. R. Das. What an extraordinary gathering that was – Rabindranath Tagore, Mahatma Gandhi, Atul Prasad Sen and Sharat Chandra Chatterjee, the novelist, all were there in Dilip Kumar Roy’s house … Tagore’s appreciation was “saccha“, true. He would close his eyes and be lost to the world. Atul Prasad got so carried away on occasions that he had to be controlled." (Note on date of event: 1925-26 - after demise of Chittaranjan Das on 16 June 1925.)

  • Sachin Deb Burman mentioned in his memoirs:[47]

    "Shamlal Babu was a famous and very popular harmonium player and Thumri singer, and from him I learnt Thumri. He introduced me to noted singer Girija Kishore Chakravarty and Durjati Prasad Mukhopadhyay of Lucknow. Later, Dhurjati Babu introduced me to learned Atul Prasad Sen. Atul Prasad was very pleased to hear my songs. During that time I got acquainted with film director Sudhirendra Sanyal and subsequently joined New Theatres. Even when I started working as an independent composer, Atul Prasad wrote songs for me, and used to appreciate my songs with all his heart."

  • Satyajit Ray had a lasting impression of Atul Prasad, his maternal uncle, on him. He remembered Atul Prasad "indulging in a great display of Urdu manners".[48] In his memoir,[49] he wrote:

    "I have a few memories of a visit to Lucknow, where we stayed first with my mother's cousin, Atul Prasad Sen, and then with his sister, whom I called Chhutki Mashi. There was always music in Atul Mama's house, for he was a lyricist and composer. Often he would get my mother to learn his songs, then write the words down for her in her black notebook. Ravi Shankar's guru, Alauddin Khan, used to stay in Atul Mama's house at that time. I heard him play the piano occasionally. One day, the well-known singer of those times, Sri Krishan Ratanjankar, visited us and sang his famous song, Bhavani dayani, set in Bharavi. Atul Mama wrote a new song, Shuno, shey dakey aamarey (Listen, he's calling out to me), based on Bhavani dayani."

  • Siddhartha Ghosh in his book ছবি তোলা: বাঙালির ফোটোগ্রাফি-চর্চা (Taking Pictures: The Practice of Photography by Bengalis) published an interview with Mira Choudhury, a noted photographer of early twentieth century. Meera was born in 1905 and all through her childhood she met her father’s (Dwijendralal Maitra, a well-known doctor) famous friends: the composer Atulprasad Sen, Sukumar Ray, and many others who visited the family at their quarters at Mayo Hospital, where her father was employed.[50]
  • Bimal Mukherjee was only 23 years of age when he started touring the world in 1926 in his bi-cycle. He returned in 1937 and published his memoir দু'চাকায় দুনিয়া (Duchakay Duniya),[51] where he mentioned that in 1928 he met Atul Prasad in England:

    "I met the famous poet, musician and barrister Atul Prasad Sen. He asked me whether I can sing. He was sorry to hear that I can not. I frequented his house occasionally with my friend Ranjit Kumar Sen (Tulu), and enjoyed his songs. His great character fascinated me. He was amiable, intelligent and having good taste. He used to sing Thumri with all his emotions... In one such visit I heard Dilip Kumar Roy also singing along with Atul Prasad in his Cromwell Road house"

Death[edit]

Kaoradi Brahmo Samaj Temple and the graveyard adjacent to it - founded by Sir Krishna Govinda Gupta at Gazipur, Dhaka in 1893

Atul Prasad died at Lucknow on August 26, 1934 at an age of sixty three years. His mortal remains were buried at the Brahmo Temple of Kaoradi (কাওরাদি ব্রহ্ম মন্দির), Sripur subdivision of Gazipur District, Dhaka division, established by Sir Krishna Govinda Gupta in his estate in 1893.[1]

Atul Prasad was a philanthropist, a fact which not known to many. He donated all his wealth and property, including his residence and every rupee he earned, towards charity.[1]

Considering his failing health, on May 3, 1930, much before his demise, Atul Prasad signed off his will, which was revealed after his death.[citation needed] Apart from monthly stipends for his wife and son, he provided financial assistance to Hemanta Seva Sadan of Ramakrishna Sevashram, Sadharan Bahmo Samaj of Kolkata, Nabo Bidhan Brahmo Samaj of Dhaka, Panchapalli Gururam High School of Faridpur, Lucknow Bengali Club and Young Men's Association, Lucknow Bengali Girls' School, Muslim Orphanage in Mumtaj Park of Lucknow, Several orphanages of Hindu and Arya Samaj and various other charity organisations. All the property he dedicated towards charity included his residence at Charbag, Lucknow; all land property; all furnitures and collection of books, motor car, cash certificates; shares; life insurance and all royalty from his creations and compositions.[1]

Rabindranath Tagore wrote a poem on September 4, 1934 in memory of Atul Prasad.[1] The poem was included in Geetigunja, in its 1957 edition.

        অতুলপ্রসাদ সেন
    বন্ধু, তুমি বন্ধুতার অজস্র অমৃতে
    পূর্ণ পাত্র এনেছিলে মর্ত্ত্য ধরণীতে ।
         ছিল তব অবিরত
         হৃদয়ের সদাব্রত, 
              বঞ্চিত করোনি কভু কারে
              তোমার উদার মুক্তদ্বারে ।।
    মৈত্রী তব সমুজ্জল ছিল গানে গানে
    অমরাবতীর সেই সুধা-ঝরা দানে ।
         সুরে ভরা সঙ্গ তব
         বারে বারে নব নব 
              মাধুরির আতিথ্য বিলালো;
              রসতৈলে জ্বেলেছিলো আলো ।।
    দিন পরে গেছে দিন মাস পরে মাস,
    তোমা হতে দূরে ছিল আমার আবাস ।
        "হবে হবে দেখা হবে" 
         এ কথা নীরব রবে 
              ধ্বনিত হয়েছে ক্ষনে ক্ষনে
              অকথিত তব আমন্ত্রণে ।।
    আমারো যাবার কাল এলো শেষে আজি
   "হবে হবে দেখা হবে" মনে ওঠে বাজি ।
         সেখানেও হাসি মুখে 
         বাহু মেলি লবে বুকে
              নব জ্যোতি-দীপ্ত অনুরাগে
              সেই ছবি মনে মনে জাগে ।।
    এখানে গোপন চোর ধরার ধুলায় 
    করে সে বিষম চুরি যখন ভুলায় ।
         যদি ব্যাথাহীন কাল 
         বিনাশের ফেলে জাল,
              বিরহের স্মৃতি লয় হরি'
              সবচেয়ে সে ক্ষতিরে ডরি ।।
    তাই বলি দীর্ঘ্য আয়ু দীর্ঘ্য অভিশাপ,
    বিচ্ছেদের তাপ নাশে সেই বড় তাপ ।
         অনেক হারাতে হয় 
         তারেও করিনে ভয়;
              যতদিন ব্যাথা রহে বাকি, 
              তার বেশি যেন নাহি থাকি ।।
    ১৯শে ভাদ্র ১৩৪১ 
    শান্তিনিকেতন           রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর

Legacy[edit]

Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie adopted the song "হও ধরমেতে ধীর হও করমেতে বীর, হও উন্নত শির নাহি ভয়" (Hao Dharmete Dheer, Hao Karomete Bir, Hao Unnato Shir—Naahi Bhay) as the Academy song of the Institute.[52]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Sen, Atul Prasad Sen. কয়েকটি গান (Kayekti Gan). Sadharon Brahmo Samaj, Calcutta.
  • Sen, Atul Prasad. (1931). গীতিগুঞ্জ (Geetigunja), published by Jyotirindranath Das, Secretary, Sadharon Brahmo Samaj, 211, Cornwallis Street, Calcutta 6. 1931, Calcutta. (It was a collection of 193 songs created by Atulprasad Sen, and eight songs were included in a later edition after the death of the poet, published in 1957).
  • Debi, Sahana. (Paush - 1336). কাকলি - অতুলপ্রসাদ (Kakoli) (the notation book of the songs written by Atulprasad Sen), Gurudas Chattopadhyay & Sons, Calcutta.
  • Mukhopadhyay, Manasi. (1931). Atul Prasad - A Biography, Signet Bookshop, Calcutta 12.
  • Mukhopadhyay, Manasi. (1971). Atul Prasad, Paribeshak, Kolkata.
  • Ghosh, Nupurchhanda, অবিস্মরণীয় অতুলপ্রসাদ (Abismaraniya Atul Prasad), Bangiyo Sahitya Parishad, Kolkata.
  • Shome, Shovan, (2002). অতুলপ্রসাদ সেনের শ্রেষ্ঠ কবিতা (Atul Prasad Sener Shrestho Kabita), Bharbi, Kolkata.
  • Sanyal, Pahari, (2012). মানুষ অতুলপ্রসাদ (Manush Atul Prasad), Saptarshi Prakashan, Kolkata.
  • Ghosh, Sunilmoy. অতুলপ্রসাদ সমগ্র (Atul Prasad Samagra), Sahityam, Kolkata.
  • Majumder, Nila. (2016). আমিও একাকী তুমিও একাকী (Amio Ekaki Tumio Ekaki), Ananda Bazar Patrika, January 23, 2016.[53]
  • Dasgupta, Binayendranath. (1971). Atul Prasad, memoirs of Atul Prasad Sen, Bagarth, Kolkata.
  • Roy, Dilip Kumar. অতুলপ্রসাদ: মানুষ, কবি, ভক্ত (Atul Prasad - Manush, Kobi, Bhakta), Kolkata.
  • Roy, Dilip Kumar. (1938). সাঙ্গিতিকী (Sangitiki), Calcutta University, Kolkata.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gandhiji went to London in 1988 and passed the London Mariculation in 1890. He was called to the Bar in 1891.[5] It is not known whether Gandhiji and Atul Prasad ever met while staying at London
  2. ^ Atul Prasad was her father's sister's son. Her mother Tarala Devi was the elder sister of Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das
  3. ^ Atul Prasad himself wrote the preface of the book[26][27][28][29][30]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Som, Shovan (2002). Atul Prasad Sen'er Shreshtha Kabita. Bharbi. p. 142. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sayeed, Khan Md (2012). "Sen, Atulprasad". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 
  3. ^ Roy, Sukhendu,; Karlekar, Malavika,; Roy, Bharati, (2009). The Many Worlds of Sarala Devi - A Diary; The Tagores and Sartorial Style - A Photo Essay. Women Unlimited. ISBN 978-8-188-96550-2. 
  4. ^ Devi Choudhurani, Sarala, (2017). Banerjee, Sikata, ed. The Scattered Leaves of My Life: An Indian Nationalist Remembers. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-29571-1. 
  5. ^ Upadhyay, J.M., ed. (1965). Mahatma Gandhi as a Student. The Director Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government of India. 
  6. ^ "Middle Temple" (PDF). hosted.law.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2017-09-02. 
  7. ^ Sturgess, H.A.C., ed. (1949). Register of Admissions to the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple. From the Fifteenth Century to the Year 1944 - Volume II (1782-1909). London: published for the Hon. Society of the Middle Temple by Butterworth & Co. 
  8. ^ Chakrabarty, Kunal, et. al., ed. (2013). Historical Dictionary of the Bengalis. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-8024-5. 
  9. ^ The Calcutta Review 1934. University of Calcutta. 1934. 
  10. ^ Bhattacharya, Hon'ble Justice Anandamoy; Sen, Hon'ble Justice Shyamal Kumar; Nayak, Hon'ble Justice A.K., eds. (1987). The High Court of Calcutta - 125 Anniversary Souvenir 1862 - 1987. The High Court of Calcutta. 
  11. ^ Chief Justice Mookerjee, Chittatosh, et.al., ed. (2012). The High Court at Calcutta - 150 Years: An Overview. The Indian Law Institute. 
  12. ^ চৌধুরী, সুস্নাত. "কেচ্ছা - Anandabazar". 
  13. ^ a b Hasnain, Nadeem (2016). The Other Lucknow - An Ethnographic Portrait of a City of Undying Memories and Nostalgia. Vani Prakashan. p. 249. ISBN 978-93-5229-420-6. 
  14. ^ "Atulprasad Sen Biography in Hindi - बंगाली कवि अतुल प्रसाद सेन की जीवनी". 5 May 2017. 
  15. ^ "LIST OF PRESIDENTS AND GENERAL SECRETARIES". Bengaliclublucknow.com. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  16. ^ Lal, Mohan, ed. (1992). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Academy, New Delhi. ISBN 978-8-126-01194-0. 
  17. ^ "Prospectus, A P Sen College, Lucknow" (PDF). apsencollegeonline.org. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  18. ^ "A P Sen College, Lucknow". apsencollegeonline.org. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  19. ^ "Prospectus, A P Sen College, Lucknow" (PDF). apsencollegeonline.org. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  20. ^ "Ramakrishna Math & Mission, Lucknow". Ramakrishnalucknow.org. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  21. ^ a b c d e Arnold, Alison (2000). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Taylor & Francis. p. 851. ISBN 0-8240-4946-2. 
  22. ^ Bose, Sugata (2017). The Nation as Mother - and other versions of Nationhood. Penguin Random House. ISBN 978-067-0090-112. 
  23. ^ a b c Translated by Sudipto Chakraborty (August 2017, Ranchi, India)
  24. ^ Chatterjee, Srilata (2002). Congress Politics in Bengal 1919 - 1939. Anthem South Asian Studies. ISBN 978-184-3310-631. 
  25. ^ Gupta, Partha Sarathi (2001). Power, Politics and the People - studies in British Imperialism and Indian Nationalism. Permanent Black, New Delhi. p. 434. ISBN 81-7824-019-X. 
  26. ^ "Kakali". dspace.wbpublibnet.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  27. ^ "Kakaki_title_page" (PDF). dspace.wbpublibnet.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  28. ^ "Kakaki page 1-36" (PDF). dspace.wbpublibnet.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  29. ^ "Kakaki page 37-86" (PDF). dspace.wbpublibnet.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  30. ^ "Kakaki Content" (PDF). dspace.wbpublibnet.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  31. ^ Pearce II, John A, Robinson R B and Mittal Amita (2012). Strategic Management, formulation, implementation and control. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi. p. 654. ISBN 978-1-25-900164-2. 
  32. ^ "The Telegraph - Calcutta (Kolkata) - Metro - Lonely shepherd". Telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  33. ^ Viewable on YouTube: "মিছে তুই ভাবিস মন!" on YouTube; (accessed 30 August 2017)
  34. ^ Side 1 of the EP 1124-0005 by Hindusthan Records, 1932
  35. ^ Viewable on YouTube: "জানি জানি তোমারে" on YouTube; (accessed 30 August 2017)
  36. ^ Side 2 of the EP 1124-0005 by Hindusthan Records, 1932
  37. ^ "Rabisarani". Rabindratirtha-wbhidcoltd.co.in. 
  38. ^ "Rabindranath at Lucknau with Atul Prasad". Sesquicentinnial.blogspot.in. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  39. ^ "Rabisarani". Rabindratirtha-wbhidcoltd.co.in. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  40. ^ "Rabindranath in Japan (contd-1) - 1916". Sesquicentinnial.blogspot.in. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  41. ^ Rabindranath Tagore - A Centenary Volume 1861-1961. Sahitya Academy, New Delhi. 1961. 
  42. ^ Som, Reba (2009). Rabindranath Tagore - the singer and his song. Penguin India. ISBN 978-06-700-8248-3. 
  43. ^ "Sukumar Ray". poetsukumar.blogspot.in. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  44. ^ Nahar, Sujata; Danino, Michel; Bandyopadhyay, Shankar, eds. (2003). Sri Aurobindo to Dilip: (Letters) – In 4 volumes – Volume 1 1929-1933. Hari Krishna Mandir Trust, Pune & Mira Aditi. p. 24. ISBN 81-85137-91-9. 
  45. ^ Trust, Hari Krishna Mandir. "Sri Dilip Kumar Roy - A landmark in the evolution of Bengali music". Harikrishnamandirindiraniloy.com. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  46. ^ Mukherjee, Kumar Prasad (2006). The Lost World of Hindusthani Classical Music. Penguin India. p. 232. ISBN 978-01-4306-199-1. 
  47. ^ "S D Burman's memoirs". sdburman.net. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  48. ^ Robinson, Andrew (1989). Satyajit Ray - The Inner Eye. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06946-3. 
  49. ^ Ray, Bijoya (1998). Childhood Days - A Memoir by Satyajit Ray (translated from Bengali). Penguin India. ISBN 978-01-4025-079-4. 
  50. ^ Ghosh, Siddhartha (1988). Bangalir Photography-Chorcha (Taking Pictures: The Practice of Photography by Bengalis). Ananda Publishers, Kolkata. ISBN 81-7066-100-5. 
  51. ^ Mukherjee, Bimal (1986). Duchakay Duniya - A bi-cycle expedition around the world. Swarnakkhar Prakashani, Kolkata. 
  52. ^ "Academy Song". lbsnaa.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-08-30. 
  53. ^ "আমিও একাকী তুমিও একাকী". Anandabazar.com. Retrieved 2017-08-25.