Aubigny-en-Plaine is located some 27 km south by south-east of Dijon, 30 km north-east of Beaune and 17 km east of Nuits-Saint-Georges. Access to the commune is by the D8 road from Brazey-en-Plaine in the east passing through the village then the width of the commune as it goes west to Saint-Nicolas-lès-Cîteaux. The D 34 road comes from Charrey-sur-Saône in the south-west and passes through the village before continuing north to join the D 968 south of Aiserey. The D 20G goes south-east from the village to Esbarres. The western half of the commune is heavily forested while the eastern half is farmland.
The Vouge river forms the eastern border of the commune as it flows south to join the Saône west of Saint-Jean-de-Losne. The Ruisseau du Bas de Bessey forms the northern border of the commune as it flows east to join the Vouge. An unnamed stream flows through the village to the Vouge.
In 2010 the commune had 366 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
^At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force on 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.