Auckland volcanic field

Coordinates: 36°52′37″S 174°45′50″E / 36.877°S 174.764°E / -36.877; 174.764
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Auckland Volcanic Field
Map of the Auckland Volcanic Field from 1859
Map of the field drawn by Hochstetter in 1859 and published in English in 1864
Highest point
Elevation260 m (850 ft)
Coordinates36°52′37″S 174°45′50″E / 36.877°S 174.764°E / -36.877; 174.764
Location and extent of the Auckland volcanic field. Clicking on the map enlarges it, and enables panning and mouseover of volcano name/wikilink. Please also see for age and geographical relationships to other North Island surface volcanism
Age of rockPleistocene to Meghalayan0.193–0.0006 Ma[1]
Mountain typeVolcanic field
Type of rockBasalt
Last eruptionc. 1400 CE

The Auckland volcanic field is an area of monogenetic volcanoes covered by much of the metropolitan area of Auckland, New Zealand's largest city, located in the North Island. The approximately 53 volcanoes[2] in the field have produced a diverse array of maars (explosion craters), tuff rings, scoria cones, and lava flows. With the exception of Rangitoto, no volcano has erupted more than once,[3][4] but the other eruptions lasted for various periods ranging from a few weeks to several years.[5] Rangitoto erupted several times[4] and recently twice; in an eruption that occurred about 600 years ago, followed by a second eruption approximately 50 years later.[6] The field is fuelled entirely by basaltic magma, unlike the explosive subduction-driven volcanism in the central North Island, such as at Mount Ruapehu and Lake Taupō.[7] The field is currently dormant, but could become active again.[8]


The field ranges from Lake Pupuke and Rangitoto Island in the north to Matukutururu (Wiri Mountain) in the south, and from Mount Albert in the west to Pigeon Mountain in the east.

The first vent erupted at Pupuke 193,200 ± 2,800 years ago.[1] The most recent eruption (about 600 years ago[9] and within historical memory of the local Māori) was of Rangitoto, an island shield volcano just east of the city, erupting 0.7 cubic kilometres of lava. The last volcano to erupt was much bigger than all others, with Rangitoto making up 41 per cent of the field's entire volume of erupted material[10] with characteristics as to slope and symmetry around the eruptive vents seen in basaltic shield volcanoes as might be expected in a volcano, that may have buried other volcanoes, and now known to have a 1000 year odd eruptive history.[4][3] The field's other volcanoes are relatively small, with most less than 150 metres (490 ft) in height.

Lake Pupuke, on the North Shore near Takapuna, is a volcanic explosion crater. A few similar craters such as Ōrākei Basin are open to the sea.

The field has produced voluminous lava flows that cover much of the Auckland isthmus. One of the longest runs from Mt Saint John northward, almost crossing the Waitematā Harbour to form Meola Reef.[11] More than 50 lava tubes and other lava caves have been discovered, including the 290-metre (950 ft)-long Wiri Lava Cave.[12] The second-longest individual cave in the Auckland field, some 270 metres (890 ft) in total length, is the Cave of a Thousand Press-ups to the east of Maungakiekie/One Tree Hill.[13] Two impressive depressions caused by lava cave collapses are the Puka Street Grotto and the nearby Hochstetter Pond, also known as Grotto Street Pond, in Onehunga.[14][15]

For most of the 200,000 years that the field has been erupting, the planet has been in glacial periods (ice ages) where sea levels were much lower due to water being locked up as ice, and the Waitemata and Manukau Harbours were dry land. All the volcanoes probably erupted on land except for Rangitoto, which erupted during the current interglacial (warmer) period.[16]

Tectonic relationships[edit]

Map of faults and Quaternary volcanoes in the Auckland region. To show well the volcanoes in relation to fault lines you have to click on the map to enlarge and then zoom and pan. This also enables mouse over of the volcano and fault names. Definite active faults are shown in red. Well characterised inactive fault segments are in dark grey and other faults are shown in grey. A number of faults characterised by sea floor studies off the west coast of North Island are not shown. The type of volcanic eruption (some are composite) is indicated by basalt shield type eruption (black), scoria cone (red), or phreatomagmatic eruptions tuff ring (red-brown) and maar (purple). Volcanoes from both the Auckland volcanic field and South Auckland volcanic field are displayed. Miocene volcanoes are not shown.

The Auckland region lies within the Australian Plate, about 400 kilometres (250 mi) west of its plate boundary with the Pacific Plate.[17] The volcanoes are located south of a geological region called the Northland Allochthon, and with the northern volcanoes located over early Miocene sedimentary deposits of the Waitematā Group of rocks and the southern volcanoes over post Miocene sediments.[17] A large proportion of the volcanoes in the field, particularly those with cone structures, lie within 500 metres (1,600 ft) of inferred or known faults, with the qualification that these are inactive historic faults and unlike in many other volcanic fields it is rare for volcanoes to be actually on the fault line.[18] The structure of these Auckland regional faults and the resulting fault blocks is complex but like the volcanic field their locations can be postulated to be related to gravitational variations and where the Stokes Magnetic Anomaly passes through this section of the North Island.[17] The field is part of the Auckland Volcanic Province which comprises four volcanic fields with intra-plate basaltic volcanism starting in the south, at Okete, near Raglan in late Pliocene times (2.7-1.8 Ma).[19] Activity has since moved north through the Ngatutura, South Auckland and Auckland fields since then.[20]

Human context[edit]

Terraces carved by Māori into the slopes of Maungakiekie / One Tree Hill


Tāmaki Māori myths describe the creation of the volcanic field as a creation of Mataaho (the guardian of the earth's secrets) and his brother Rūaumoko (the god of earthquakes and volcanoes), made as punishment against a tribe of patupaiarehe, supernatural beings living in the Waitākere Ranges, who used deadly magic from the earth to defeat a war party of patupaiarehe from the Hunua Ranges.[21][22] In some traditions, the fire goddess Mahuika creates the volcanic field as a way to warm Mataaho, after his wife leaves and takes his clothing.[23][24] Because of their close association to Mataaho, the volcanic features can be collectively referred to as Nga Maunga a Mataaho ("The Mountains of Mataaho"),[21] or Ngā Huinga-a-Mataaho ("the gathered volcanoes of Mataaho").[24] Many of the volcanic features of Māngere can be referred to as Nga Tapuwae a Mataoho ("The Sacred Footprints of Mataoho"), including Māngere Lagoon, Waitomokia, Crater Hill, Kohuora, Pukaki Lagoon and Robertson Hill.[23][25] Many of the Māori language names of volcanic features in the field refer to Mataaho by name, including Te Pane o Mataaho (Māngere Mountain), Te Tapuwae a Mataoho (Robertson Hill) and Te Kapua Kai o Mataoho (the crater of Maungawhau / Mount Eden).


Many of the maunga (mountains) were occupied by substantial Māori (fortifications) before Pākehā settlement, and many terraces and other archeological remnants are still visible.[26] Many of the cones have been levelled or strongly altered, in small part due to the historical Māori use, but mostly through relatively recent quarrying of construction materials (especially scoria). However many of the remaining volcanoes are now preserved as landmarks and parks.[9]

The warmer northern sides of the mountains were also popular among early Pākehā settlers for housing.[26] In the 1880s, Takarunga / Mount Victoria and Maungauika / North Head were developed as military installations due to fears of a Russian invasion.[26] The cones are also protected by a 1915 law, the Reserves and Other Lands Disposal and Public Bodies Empowering Act 1915, which was passed due to early concern that the distinctive landscape was being eroded, especially by quarrying. While often ignored until the late 20th century, it has amongst other things minimised severe changes to Mount Roskill proposed by Transit New Zealand for the Southwestern Motorway.[27]

In March 2007, New Zealand submitted the volcanic field, with several specifically named features, as a World Heritage Site candidate based on its unique combination of natural and cultural features.[9] At that time, only 2 per cent of more than 800 World Heritage Sites worldwide were in this "mixed" category.

For most of Auckland's post-1840 history, the mountains have been administered variously by the New Zealand Crown, the Auckland Council (or its former bodies including the Auckland City Council and Manukau City Council) or the Department of Conservation.[26]

In the 2014 Treaty of Waitangi settlement between the Crown and the Ngā Mana Whenua o Tāmaki Makaurau collective of 13 Auckland iwi and hapu (also known as the Tāmaki Collective), ownership of the 14 Tūpuna Maunga (ancestral mountains) of Tāmaki Makaurau / Auckland, was vested to the collective. The legislation specified that the land be held in trust "for the common benefit of Ngā Mana Whenua o Tāmaki Makaurau and the other people of Auckland". The Tūpuna Maunga o Tāmaki Makaurau Authority or Tūpuna Maunga Authority (TMA) is the co-governance organisation established to administer the 14 Tūpuna Maunga. Auckland Council manages the Tūpuna Maunga under the direction of the TMA.[26][28][29]


Since the field is not extinct, new volcanic events may occur at any time, though the usual period between events is, on average, somewhere between hundreds to thousands of years. There has been at least one eruption in every 2,500 years over the last 50,000 years.[19] However, the effects of such an event—especially a full-scale eruption—would be substantial, ranging from pyroclastic surges to earthquakes,[30] lava bombs, ash falls, and the venting volcanic gas, as well as lava flows. These effects might continue for several months, potentially causing substantial destruction and disruption, ranging from the burial of substantial tracts of residential or commercial property, to the mid-to-long-term closures of major parts of the country's infrastructure such as the Port of Auckland, the State Highway network, or the Auckland Airport.[8] It is possible that several volcanoes could erupt simultaneously. There is strong evidence that eight erupted within a span of 3000 years or so, between 31,000 and 28,000 years ago.

Most eruptive events in the field have been small volume, very constrained in time, typically involving less than 0.005 km3 (0.0012 cu mi) of magma making its way to the surface.[19] However the same amount of magma can have an order of magnitude different impact. An underwater eruption which is more likely to be explosive resulted in the formation of the 0.7 km (0.43 mi) wide Ōrākei crater that destroyed an area of 3 km3 (0.72 cu mi) by crater formation and base surge impact. This contrasts with the about 0.5 km (0.31 mi) diameter cone produced by the same amount of upwelling magma that might be expected to destroy an area of 0.3 km3 (0.072 cu mi) if there is no ground water interaction.[19] Modelling has suggested that the next eruption in the volcanic field is likely to be associated with water and in the area extending from the central city to its north and northeast suburbs surrounding and including the Waitemata Harbour.[31] Within New Zealand the volcanic hazard of the field is graded below that of Taupo Volcanic Zone volcano's but is likely to be perceived by the population affected as a greater potential nuisance if it occurs[32]

Various operative structures, plans and systems have been set up to prepare responses to volcanic activity within the urban areas, mainly coordinated in the Auckland Volcanic Field Contingency Plan[33] of the Auckland Regional Council, which provides a framework for interaction of civil defence and emergency services during an eruption. Auckland also has a seismic monitoring network comprising six seismometers—including one 250 metres (820 ft) deep at Riverhead—and three repeaters within the region that will detect the small tremors likely to precede any volcanic activity.[34] This is likely to give between a few hours and several days' warning of an impending eruption, and its approximate location.[30]

Auckland War Memorial Museum, itself built on the crater rim of Pukekawa, has an exhibition on the field, including the "Puia Street multi-sensory visitor experience", which simulates a grandstand view of an eruption in Auckland.[35]

List of volcanoes[edit]

The volcanoes within the field are:[5][36][37]

Volcanoes Age (thousand years)[38] Height Location (Coordinates) Refs Images
Albert Park Volcano 145.0 ± 4.0 Unclear 36°50′55″S 174°46′02″E / 36.8486°S 174.7673°E / -36.8486; 174.7673 [39]
Albert Park Volcano surrounded by city buildings
Ash Hill 31.8 ± 0.4 30 metres (98 ft) 37°00′10″S 174°52′03″E / 37.002754°S 174.867545°E / -37.002754; 174.867545
Boggust Park Crater 130+ 14 metres (46 ft) 36°57′19″S 174°48′49″E / 36.955413°S 174.813552°E / -36.955413; 174.813552 [2]
Oblique aerial view of Boggust Park explosion crater from the north, 2018.
Cemetery Crater Undated 33 metres (108 ft) 36°59′23″S 174°50′28″E / 36.989828°S 174.841082°E / -36.989828; 174.841082 [2]
Site of Cemetery Crater beneath houses in 2018.
Crater Hill 30.4 ± 0.8 36°59′12″S 174°49′38″E / 36.986546°S 174.827135°E / -36.986546; 174.827135
Crater Hill volcano in 2009
Crater Hill volcano
Grafton Volcano 106.5 82 metres (269 ft) 36°51′30″S 174°45′49″E / 36.858440°S 174.763624°E / -36.858440; 174.763624
Site of Grafton explosion crater and tuff ring in 2018, completely covered in houses and medical School except for Outhwaite Park
Hampton Park 57.0 ± 32.0 43 metres (141 ft) 36°57′03″S 174°53′44″E / 36.950925°S 174.89544°E / -36.950925; 174.89544
Hampton Park Volcano from north, 2009
Kohuora 33.7 ± 2.4 37 metres (121 ft) 36°58′43″S 174°50′34″E / 36.97873°S 174.842691°E / -36.97873; 174.842691
Kohuora Explosion Crater from northwest, 2009
Māngere Lagoon 59.5 20 metres (66 ft) 36°57′25″S 174°46′39″E / 36.95702°S 174.77763°E / -36.95702; 174.77763
Māngere Lagoon
Matanginui / Green Mount 19.6 ± 6.6 78 metres (256 ft) 36°56′24″S 174°53′54″E / 36.939911°S 174.898267°E / -36.939911; 174.898267
Rubbish heap replaces quarried away Matanginui / Green Mountain, 2009
Matukutureia / McLaughlins Mountain 48.2 ± 6.4 73 metres (240 ft) 37°00′49″S 174°50′46″E / 37.013511°S 174.845974°E / -37.013511; 174.845974
Matukutureia / McLaughlins Mt, 2018
Maungakiekie / One Tree Hill 67.0 ± 12.0 182 metres (597 ft) 36°54′0″S 174°46′59″E / 36.90000°S 174.78306°E / -36.90000; 174.78306
Maungakiekie / One Tree Hill from the northwest, 2018
Maungakiekie / One Tree Hill and its obelisk
Maungarahiri / Little Rangitoto 24.6 ± 0.6 75 metres (246 ft) 36°52′31″S 174°48′35″E / 36.875407°S 174.809636°E / -36.875407; 174.809636
Maungarahiri / Little Rangitoto from the north over Benson Rd shops, 2019
Maungarei / Mount Wellington 10.0 ± 1.0 135 metres (443 ft) 36°53′35″S 174°50′47.6″E / 36.89306°S 174.846556°E / -36.89306; 174.846556
Maungarei / Mount Wellington, 2018
Te Tauoma / Purchas Hill
Maungarei / Mount Wellington from the quarried remnants of Te Tauoma
Maungataketake / Elletts Mountain 88.9 ± 4.8 76 metres (249 ft) 36°59′41″S 174°44′51″E / 36.994635°S 174.747548°E / -36.994635; 174.747548
Quarried out site of Maungataketake Volcano, 2018
Maungauika / North Head 87.5 ± 15.2 50 metres (160 ft) 36°49′40″S 174°48′43″E / 36.827751°S 174.81205°E / -36.827751; 174.81205
Maungauika / North Head Volcano, 2018
Maungauika / North Head (center) and Takarunga / Mount Victoria (left) scoria cones
Maungawhau / Mount Eden 28.0 ± 0.6 196 metres (643 ft) 36°52′37″S 174°45′50″E / 36.877°S 174.764°E / -36.877; 174.764
Maungawhau / Mount Eden, 2018
Crater of Maungawhau / Mount Eden
Motukorea / Browns Island 24.4 ± 0.6 68 metres (223 ft) 36°49′50″S 174°53′41″E / 36.8306°S 174.8948°E / -36.8306; 174.8948
Motukorea / Browns Island, 2009
Motukorea / Browns Island
Mount Robertson / Sturges Park 24.3 ± 0.8 78 metres (256 ft) 36°56′55″S 174°50′30″E / 36.948477°S 174.841726°E / -36.948477; 174.841726
Mount Robertson / Sturges Park from the north, 2018
Ōhinerau / Mount Hobson 34.2 ± 1.8 143 metres (469 ft) 36°52′40″S 174°47′10″E / 36.877814°S 174.786156°E / -36.877814; 174.786156
Ōhinerau / Mount Hobson
Ohuiarangi / Pigeon Mountain 23.4 ± 0.8 55 metres (180 ft) 36°53′20″S 174°54′11″E / 36.888846°S 174.903116°E / -36.888846; 174.903116
Ohuiarangi / Pigeon Mt, 2009
Ōrākei Basin 126.0 ± 6.0 54 metres (177 ft) 36°52′02″S 174°48′47″E / 36.867124°S 174.81308°E / -36.867124; 174.81308
Ōrākei Basin, 2018
Ōtāhuhu / Mount Richmond 30.2 ± 4.2 50 metres (160 ft) 36°55′57″S 174°50′22″E / 36.932562°S 174.839451°E / -36.932562; 174.839451
Ōtāhuhu / Mt Richmond, 2018
Ōtuataua 24.2 ± 1.8 64 metres (210 ft) 36°59′10″S 174°45′15″E / 36.98611°S 174.75417°E / -36.98611; 174.75417
Ōtuataua volcanic cone and lava flow field
Ōwairaka / Te Ahi-kā-a-Rakataura / Mount Albert 119.2 ± 5.6 135 metres (443 ft) 36°53′26″S 174°43′12″E / 36.890475°S 174.720097°E / -36.890475; 174.720097
Ōwairaka / Mt Albert, 2009
Puhinui Craters Undated 24 metres (79 ft) 37°00′53″S 174°49′59″E / 37.01465°S 174.83296°E / -37.01465; 174.83296 [2]
Puhinui Craters, 2018
Pukaki Lagoon 45+ 37 metres (121 ft) 36°58′59″S 174°48′37″E / 36.982998°S 174.810226°E / -36.982998; 174.810226
Pukaki explosion crater and tuff ring, 2018
Pukaki maar
Pukeiti 23.7 30 metres (98 ft) 36°59′02″S 174°45′26″E / 36.983756°S 174.757183°E / -36.983756; 174.757183
Pukeiti volcano, 2009
Pukekawa / Auckland Domain 106.0 ± 8.0 77 metres (253 ft) 36°51′33″S 174°46′33″E / 36.859158°S 174.775808°E / -36.859158; 174.775808
Pukekawa / Auckland Domain, 2018
Sports grounds within Pukekawa volcano
Pukewīwī / Puketāpapa / Mount Roskill 105.3 ± 6.2 110 metres (360 ft) 36°54′44″S 174°44′15″E / 36.912286°S 174.737371°E / -36.912286; 174.737371
Pukewīwī / Puketāpapa / Mt Roskill, 2018
Pukewairiki 130+ 35 metres (115 ft) 36°56′39″S 174°51′57″E / 36.944078°S 174.865887°E / -36.944078; 174.865887
Pukewairiki explosion crater and tuff ring, 2009
Pupuke 193.2 ± 5.6 34 metres (112 ft) 36°46′48″S 174°45′58″E / 36.780115°S 174.766184°E / -36.780115; 174.766184
Pupuke crater from space in 2006
Rangitoto Island 0.62 (first eruption) 260 metres (850 ft) 36°47′12″S 174°51′36″E / 36.786742°S 174.860115°E / -36.786742; 174.860115
Rangitoto Island on the horizon
Rarotonga / Mount Smart 20.1 ± 0.2 87 metres (285 ft) (quarried) 36°55′6″S 174°48′45″E / 36.91833°S 174.81250°E / -36.91833; 174.81250
The quarried out cone of Rarotonga / Mt Smart is now Mt Smart Stadium, 2018
Styaks Swamp 19.1 16 metres (52 ft) 36°56′10″S 174°54′01″E / 36.936138°S 174.900155°E / -36.936138; 174.900155
Site of Styaks Swamp buried beneath buildings and road, 2009
Takaroro / Mount Cambria 42.3 ± 22.0 30 metres (98 ft) (quarried) 36°49′28″S 174°48′07″E / 36.824444°S 174.801933°E / -36.824444; 174.801933
Site of quarried away Takaroro / Mt Cambria, 2018
Takarunga / Mount Victoria 34.8 ± 4.0 87 metres (285 ft) 36°49′36″S 174°47′56″E / 36.8266°S 174.7990°E / -36.8266; 174.7990
Takarunga / Mount Victoria, 2018
Taurere / Taylors Hill 30.2 ± 0.2 56 metres (184 ft) 36°51′51″S 174°52′12″E / 36.864223°S 174.869943°E / -36.864223; 174.869943
Taurere / Taylors Hill, 1994
Te Apunga-o-Tainui / McLennan Hills 41.3 ± 2.4 45 metres (148 ft) (quarried) 36°55′45″S 174°50′47″E / 36.929208°S 174.846468°E / -36.929208; 174.846468
Te Apunga-o-Tainui / McLennan Hills, Painting by G.H. Cooper, 1861, Auckland Art Gallery
Te Hopua-a-Rangi / Gloucester Park 31.0 12 metres (39 ft) 36°55′46″S 174°47′05″E / 36.9295°S 174.784734°E / -36.9295; 174.784734
Te Hopua, 2018
Te Kopua Kai-a-Hiku / Panmure Basin 25.2 ± 1.8 35 metres (115 ft) 36°54′18″S 174°50′58″E / 36.90495°S 174.849343°E / -36.90495; 174.849343 [40]
Panmure Basin, 2009
Te Kopua Kai-a-Hiku / Panmure Basin with Maungarei / Mount Wellington behind
Te Kopua-o-Matakamokamo / Tank Farm / Tuff Crater 181.0 ± 2.0 46 metres (151 ft) 36°48′07″S 174°45′12″E / 36.8020°S 174.7533°E / -36.8020; 174.7533
Te Kopua-o-Matokamokamo / Tank Farm, 2009
Onepoto 187.6 46 metres (151 ft) 36°48′29″S 174°45′03″E / 36.80818°S 174.75085°E / -36.80818; 174.75085
Onepoto explosion crater and tuff ring, 2009
Te Kōpuke / Tītīkōpuke / Mount St John 75.3 ± 3.4 126 metres (413 ft) 36°53′00″S 174°46′49″E / 36.883431°S 174.780196°E / -36.883431; 174.780196
Te Kōpuke / Tītīkōpuke / Mount St John, 2009
Crater of Te Kōpuke / Tītīkōpuke / Mount St John
Te Motu-a-Hiaroa / Puketutu 29.8 ± 4.4 65 metres (213 ft) 36°57′55″S 174°44′50″E / 36.965186°S 174.747248°E / -36.965186; 174.747248
Te Motu-a-Hiaroa / Puketutu Island Volcano, 2918
Te Pane-o-Mataaho / Māngere Mountain 59.0 ± 20.0 106 metres (348 ft) 36°56′59″S 174°46′59″E / 36.9496°S 174.7831°E / -36.9496; 174.7831 [41]
Te Pane-o-Mataaho / Māngere Mountain, 2009
Te Pane-o-Mataaho / Māngere Mountain from the east
Te Pou Hawaiki 28.0+ 95 metres (312 ft) (quarried) 36°52′57″S 174°46′00″E / 36.88247°S 174.766726°E / -36.88247; 174.766726
Site of Te Pou Hawaiki is now a three storey concrete carpark building, 2018
Te Puke ō Tara / Otara Hill 56.5 89 metres (292 ft) (quarried) 36°56′50″S 174°53′54″E / 36.947105°S 174.898363°E / -36.947105; 174.898363
The buildings in the middle of the photo are on the site of quarried away Te Puke ō Tara / Otara Hill volcano, 2009
Te Tātua-a-Riukiuta / Three Kings 31.0 ± 1.8 133 metres (436 ft) 36°54′11″S 174°45′17″E / 36.902926°S 174.754651°E / -36.902926; 174.754651
The entire crater and tuff ring of Te Tātua-a-Riukiuta / Three Kings
Quarrying has removed two of the Tātua-a-Riukiuta / Three Kings
Te Tauoma / Purchas Hill 10.9 ± 0.2 50 metres (160 ft) (quarried) 36°53′14″S 174°50′51″E / 36.887138°S 174.847476°E / -36.887138; 174.847476
The site of Te Tauoma / Purchas Hill, 2018
Waitomokia / Mt Gabriel 20.3 ± 0.2 22 metres (72 ft) (quarried) 36°58′37″S 174°46′13″E / 36.976981°S 174.770336°E / -36.976981; 174.770336
Waitomokia explosion crater and tuff ring, 2018
Whakamuhu / Saint Heliers / Glover Park – see Achilles Point 161.0 ± 36.0 65 metres (213 ft) 36°50′49″S 174°52′04″E / 36.846911°S 174.867662°E / -36.846911; 174.867662
Whakamuhu / St Heliers Volcano, 2009
The Glover Park sports ground at lower right of this photo is situated within the Whakamuhu tuff ring. Over the water in the distance on the right is the scoria cone of Maungauika / North Head and in the left middle is the tuff crater filled in by the sea of Ōrākei Basin. Beyound Ōrākei Basin in the middle distance are several vegetation covered scoria cones.
Wiri Mountain / Matukutūruru 30.1–31.0 80 metres (260 ft) (quarried) 37°00′26″S 174°51′30″E / 37.007334°S 174.858441°E / -37.007334; 174.858441
Site of quarried away Matukutururu / Wiri Mt, 2018

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Leonard, Graham S.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Hopkins, Jenni L.; Wilson, Colin J. N.; Smid, Elaine R.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Champion, Duane E. (1 September 2017). "High-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of Quaternary basalts from Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand, with implications for eruption rates and paleomagnetic correlations". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 343: 60–74. Bibcode:2017JVGR..343...60L. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.05.033. ISSN 0377-0273.
  2. ^ a b c d Hayward, Bruce W.; Kenny, Jill A.; Grenfell, Hugh R. (2011). "More volcanoes recognised in Auckland Volcanic Field" (PDF). Geoscience Society of New Zealand Newsletter (5): 11–16. Retrieved 19 April 2013.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ a b Shane, Phil; Gehrels, Maria; Zawalna-Geer, Aleksandra; Augustinus, Paul; Lindsay, Jan; Chaillou, Isabelle (2013). "Longevity of a small shield volcano revealed by crypto-tephra studies (Rangitoto volcano, New Zealand): Change in eruptive behavior of a basaltic field". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 257: 174–183. Bibcode:2013JVGR..257..174S. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.03.026. ISSN 0377-0273.
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]