Gordon music learning theory

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Audiation)
Jump to: navigation, search

Music Learning Theory is a model for music education based on Edwin Gordon's research on musical aptitude and achievement in the greater field of music learning theory.[1][2] The theory is an explanation of music learning, based on audiation and students' individual musical differences. The theory uses the concepts of discrimination and inference learning to explain tonal, rhythmic, and harmonic patterns.[3][4]

Audiation[edit]

Audiation is a term Gordon coined in 1975 to refer to comprehension and internal realization of music, or the sensation of an individual hearing or feeling sound when it is not physically present.[5] Musicians previously used terms such as aural perception or aural imagery to describe this concept, though aural imagery would imply a notational component while audiation does not necessarily do so.[6] Gordon suggests that "audiation is to music what thought is to language,"[7] his research based on similarities between how individuals learn language and how they learn to make and understand music.[8] Gordon specifies that audiation potential is an element of music aptitude, arguing that to demonstrate music aptitude one must use audiation.[9]

Audiation and language[edit]

Gordon describes that audiation occurs when an individual is "listening to, recalling, performing, interpreting, creating, improvising, reading, or writing music."[10] Audiation while listening to music, he describes, is analogous to simultaneous translation of languages, giving meaning to sound and music based on individual knowledge and experience.[11]

Gordon also emphasizes that music itself is not a language as it has no words or grammar, but rather has syntax, an "orderly arrangement of sounds, and context." [12]

Types of audiation[edit]

Gordon differentiates different varieties of audiation and categorizes them into 8 types and 6 stages.[13]

  • Type 1 Listening to familiar or unfamiliar music
  • Type 2 Reading familiar or unfamiliar music
  • Type 3 Writing familiar or unfamiliar music from dictation
  • Type 4 Recalling and performing familiar music from memory
  • Type 5 Recalling and writing familiar music from memory
  • Type 6 Creating and improvising unfamiliar music while performing or in silence
  • Type 7 Creating and improvising unfamiliar music while reading
  • Type 8 Creating and improvising unfamiliar music while writing

Stages of audiation[edit]

In addition to outlining types of audiation, Gordon also differentiates between stages of audiation [14]

  • Stage 1 Momentary retention
  • Stage 2 Imitating and audiating tonal patterns and rhythm patterns and recognizing and identifying a tonal center and macrobeats
  • Stage 3 Establishing objective or subjective tonality and meter
  • Stage 4 Retaining in audiation tonal patterns and rhythm patterns that have been organized
  • Stage 5 Recalling tonal patterns and rhythm patterns organized and audiated in other pieces of music
  • Stage 6 Anticipating and predicting tonal patterns and rhythm processes

Learning sequences[edit]

To describe how students learn music, Gordon outlines two main categories of learning based on his research on audiation: discrimination learning and inference learning.[15]

Discrimination learning[edit]

Discrimination learning is defined as the ability to determine whether two elements are same or not the same. Gordon describes five sequential levels of discrimination: aural/oral, verbal association, partial synthesis, symbolic association, and composite synthesis.

Aural/oral[edit]

Gordon describes that the most basic type of discrimination being aural/oral, where students hear tonal and rhythm patterns and imitate by singing, moving, and chanting patterns back to the instructor. Students listen in the aural portion of discrimination learning, while performing represents the oral portion. At this stage, students use neutral syllables to perform tonal and rhythm patterns.

Verbal association[edit]

After students are more able to audiate and perform basic rhythm and tonal patterns and become comfortable with imitating songs and chants in introduced tonalities and meters, Gordon explains the next step is verbal association, where contextual meaning is given to what the students are audiating and imitating through tonal or rhythm syllables (such as solfege or the names of concepts students may be audiating through tonal patterns such as tonic and dominant).[16]

Partial synthesis[edit]

At both aural/oral and the verbal association level, students identify familiar tonal and rhythm patterns performed on neutral syllables by their verbal association.

Symbolic association[edit]

Symbolic association is the point at which students are introduced to notation, learning to associate written symbols and notation describing familiar tonal and rhythm patterns that had been introduced in the aural/oral and verbal association level of the skill learning sequence. [17]

Composite synthesis[edit]

At the composite synthesis level, students give context to familiar tonal or rhythm patterns by reading and writing them and identifying their tonality or meter as introduced in the symbolic association stage.[18]

Inference learning[edit]

At the inference learning level, students take an active role in their own education and learn to identify, create, and improvise unfamiliar patterns. Similar to discrimination learning, Gordon delineates separate categories of inference learning that students logically follow in the course of music learning: generalization, creativity/improvisation, and theoretical understanding.

Generalization[edit]

As aural/oral learning is the most basic element of discrimination learning, generalization is the basic element of inference learning. Generalization consists aural/oral learning, verbal learning, symbolic reading, and writing. At the generalization level of learning, students may listen to sets of familiar and unfamiliar tonal or rhythmic patterns and determine whether the patterns are the same or different, ultimately reading familiar and unfamiliar patterns, as well. [19]

Creativity/improvisation[edit]

The creativity/improvisation level of the above learning sequences has aural/oral and symbolic levels. At the aural/oral level, teachers present familiar or unfamiliar patterns and have students respond with patterns of their own, first on neutral syllables and later with verbal association. At the symbolic level, students learn to recognize and sing patterns within written chord symbols, as well as learn to write their own responses to tonal patterns and rhythm patterns.[20]

Theoretical understanding[edit]

The final level of inference learning is theoretical understanding, in which students gain further understanding of music theory concepts in aural/oral, verbal, and symbolic contexts. Students may learn concepts such as pitch letter-names, intervals, key-signature names, or concepts such as cadences and learn to recognize and perform patterns that apply such concepts.[21]

Jump right in[edit]

Jump Right In is an instrumental methods book with accompanying teacher editions that applies Gordon's music learning theory, co-written by Eastman School of Music music education faculty Richard F. Grunow and Christopher D Azzara alongside Gordon. The series for Winds and Percussion was first published in 1989–90, three years after the recorder edition.[22] The collection also includes a strings methods edition.

Gordon music learning theory and music aptitude[edit]

Gordon's music learning theory is based on his research on music aptitude in line with cognitive theories regarding the organization of incoming stimuli.[23] Gordon's research suggests that music aptitude is normally distributed in the general population similar to intellectual aptitude.[24] His research also suggests that music aptitude that a child is born with can only be maintained with repeated positive exposure to musical experiences soon after (or even before) birth, up until approximately age 9 where a child reaches "stabilized" music aptitude.[25]

The 1920s and 30s heralded the creation of aptitude and achievement tests by Carl Seashore, E. Thayer Gaston, H.D. Wing, Arnold Bentley, and Edwin Gordon in an effort to identify students who were most likely to benefit from private instruction.[26] Gordon created a number of tests to determine music aptitude for various age groups; he developed his first music aptitude test, the Musical Aptitude Profile, in 1965 for children in 4th to 12th grade. Later tests include Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA), published in 1979 for children ages 5 to 8, Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation(IMMA) for children ages 6 to 9,[27] and Audie [28] for children ages 3 to 4.[29] Gordon describes that these tests of musical aptitude are meant to allow teachers to adapt their instruction to individual students' needs and to target students with high musical aptitude who may not otherwise be receiving advanced musical instruction.[30]

Criticism of the theory[edit]

Criticisms of music learning theory include Paul Woodford's concerns that the theory itself is a misnomer, and rather than a learning theory it is a "taxonomy of musical preconditions for critical thinking",[31] and that "rather than overwhelming younger students in the beginning stages of instruction by focusing only on the complexities of music, teachers should use approaches such as Gordon's along with Kodaly, Orff, and other methodologies, to help students master basic musical skills and knowledge that are prerequisites to more independent kinds of thinking."[32] Gordon responded to these claims, arguing that Woodford misunderstood elements of Gordon's methodology, erroneously associating Gordon with "clapping of rhythms", as well as misunderstanding the difference between chronological and musical age, the difference explaining why tonal and rhythm patterns should be taught independently in order to create a foundation for "complex cognition and independent musical thinking that relates to larger musical forms".[32] Gordon also agrees with Woodford's comment that Gordon's approach should be taught alongside other methodologies, also asserting that he agrees with Woodford's suggestion that "students should introduced to the full range of real-life kinds of musical thinking including less conventional, and even atypical, musical practices."[32]

Similar criticisms include accusations that Gordon's skills-based programs of applying Music Learning Theory are "probably too narrow and limited in scope to provide students access to diversity of musical belief systems, practices, and groups that exists", a concern of writer Paul G. Woodford and music education theorist Bennett Reimer.[33] Woodford credits Gordon for his highly developed system about the nature of music teaching and learning, but cautions that Gordon's system is too prescriptive and proscriptive to students and teachers, and that music educators should also be aware of the diversity of practices and strive to not exert pressure on students to conform to conventional musical thought and behavior.[31] Gordon's 1997 response responds to this indirectly, arguing that his methodology leaves room for other methodologies to be taught alongside it.[32]

Further reading[edit]

  • Runfola, M. & C. Taggart. (Eds.) The development and practical application of music learning theory. (Chicago: GIA, 2005)
  • Walters, D.L., and C.C. Taggart. Readings in music learning theory. (Chicago: GIA, 1989)
  • Grunow, R.F. Music Learning Theory: A catalyst for change in beginning instrumental music instruction. The Development and Practical Application of Music Learning Theory. Ed. Maria Runfola and Cynthia Crump Taggart. (Chicago: GIA Publications, INC, 2005)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007) 3. ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8
  2. ^ Richard F. Grunow, Music Learning Theory: A Catalyst for Change in Beginning Instrumental Music Instruction (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2005): 195.
  3. ^ R.C. Gerhardstein: A Biographical and Historical Account of an American Music Educator and Researcher (diss., Temple U., 2001), 200–259
  4. ^ Jere T. Humphreys, Music Learning Theory. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Oxford University Press. Web. September 29, 2015 http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.A2267268
  5. ^ Gerhardstein, R. C. (2002). The historical roots and development of audiation: A process for musical understanding. In Hanley, B. & Goolsby, T.W. (Eds.) Musical understanding: Perspectives in theory and practice. [Canada] : Canadian Music Educators Association.
  6. ^ James M. Jordan, "The Pedagogy of Choral Intonation: Efficient Pedagogy to Approach an Old Problem," The Choral Journal Vol. 27, No. 9 (1987): 9–13, 15–16. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23547288
  7. ^ Christopher Azzara, Audiation, Improvisation, and Music Learning Theory. (1991, The Quarterly, 2(1–2), 106–109.
  8. ^ Edwin Gordon, Rhythm: Contrasting the Implications of Audiation and Notation (Chicago: GIA Publications, 2000): 111. ISBN 1579990983.
  9. ^ Edwin Gordon, All About Audiation and Music Aptitudes (September 1999, Music Educators Journal)
  10. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007) 3. ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8
  11. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007) 4–5. ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8
  12. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007) 5. ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8
  13. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007) 15. ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8
  14. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007) 20. ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8
  15. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007): 101. ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8
  16. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007): 106–107. ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8
  17. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007): 122–130. ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8
  18. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007): 130–133. ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8
  19. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007): 137–140. ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8
  20. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007): 141–145. ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8
  21. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007): 145–150. ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8
  22. ^ Christopher D. Azzara, Edwin E, and Gordon, Richard F. Grunow. Jump Right In: the instrumental series teacher's guide book one and two, revised edition. (Chicago, IL: GIA Publications, Inc., 2001) 3.
  23. ^ Robert A. Cutietta, Edwin Gordon's Impact on the Field of Music Aptitude (Fall 1991: Philosophy in Music Education, Volume II, Number 1 & 2): 73
  24. ^ Robert A. Cutietta, Edwin Gordon's Impact on the Field of Music Aptitude (Fall 1991: Philosophy in Music Education, Volume II, Number 1 & 2):74
  25. ^ Robert A. Cutietta, Edwin Gordon's Impact on the Field of Music Aptitude (Fall 1991: Philosophy in Music Education, Volume II, Number 1 & 2):74
  26. ^ Richard Colwell, et al. "Music education." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, accessed September 29, 2015, http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.A2267268
  27. ^ Edwin Gordon, Intermediate Measures of music audiation.(Chicago: G.I.A. Publications, 1982)
  28. ^ Edwin Gordon, Audie: A game for understanding and analyzing your child's music potential. (Chicago: G.I.A. Publications, 1989)
  29. ^ Robert A. Cutietta, Edwin Gordon's Impact on the Field of Music Aptitude (Fall 1991: Philosophy in Music Education, Volume II, Number 1 & 2):73
  30. ^ Edwin Gordon, All About Audiation and Music Aptitudes (September 1999, Music Educators Journal) 43
  31. ^ a b Paul G. Woodford, Evaluating Edwin Gordon's Music Learning Theory from a Critical Thinking Perspective. (Philosophy of Music Education Review 4, no. 2: Fall 1996):83–95
  32. ^ a b c d Edwin Gordon, "Edwin Gordon Responds," Philosophy of Music Education Review, Vol. 5, No. 1 (1997): 57–58. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40495414
  33. ^ Edwin Gordon, Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Learning Theory (Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc, 2007) ISBN 978-1-57999-688-8

External links[edit]