Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment where the objects that reside in the real world are enhanced by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory and olfactory. AR can be defined as a system that incorporates three basic features: a combination of real and virtual worlds, real-time interaction, and accurate 3D registration of virtual and real objects. The overlaid sensory information can be constructive (i.e. additive to the natural environment), or destructive (i.e. masking of the natural environment). This experience is seamlessly interwoven with the physical world such that it is perceived as an immersive aspect of the real environment. In this way, augmented reality alters one's ongoing perception of a real-world environment, whereas virtual reality completely replaces the user's real-world environment with a simulated one. Augmented reality is related to two largely synonymous terms: mixed reality and computer-mediated reality.
The primary value of augmented reality is the manner in which components of the digital world blend into a person's perception of the real world, not as a simple display of data, but through the integration of immersive sensations, which are perceived as natural parts of an environment. The earliest functional AR systems that provided immersive mixed reality experiences for users were invented in the early 1990s, starting with the Virtual Fixtures system developed at the U.S. Air Force's Armstrong Laboratory in 1992. Commercial augmented reality experiences were first introduced in entertainment and gaming businesses. Subsequently, augmented reality applications have spanned commercial industries such as education, communications, medicine, and entertainment. In education, content may be accessed by scanning or viewing an image with a mobile device or by using markerless AR techniques.
Augmented reality is used to enhance natural environments or situations and offer perceptually enriched experiences. With the help of advanced AR technologies (e.g. adding computer vision, incorporating AR cameras into smartphone applications and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulated. Information about the environment and its objects is overlaid on the real world. This information can be virtual. Augmented Reality is any experience which is artificial and which adds to the already existing reality. or real, e.g. seeing other real sensed or measured information such as electromagnetic radio waves overlaid in exact alignment with where they actually are in space. Augmented reality also has a lot of potential in the gathering and sharing of tacit knowledge. Augmentation techniques are typically performed in real time and in semantic contexts with environmental elements. Immersive perceptual information is sometimes combined with supplemental information like scores over a live video feed of a sporting event. This combines the benefits of both augmented reality technology and heads up display technology (HUD).
Comparison with virtual reality
In virtual reality (VR), the users' perception of reality is completely based on virtual information. In augmented reality (AR) the user is provided with additional computer generated information within the data collected from real life that enhances their perception of reality. For example, in architecture, VR can be used to create a walk-through simulation of the inside of a new building; and AR can be used to show a building's structures and systems super-imposed on a real-life view. Another example is through the use of utility applications. Some AR applications, such as Augment, enable users to apply digital objects into real environments, allowing businesses to use augmented reality devices as a way to preview their products in the real world. Similarly, it can also be used to demo what products may look like in an environment for customers, as demonstrated by companies such as Mountain Equipment Co-op or Lowe's who use augmented reality to allow customers to preview what their products might look like at home through the use of 3D models.
Augmented reality (AR) differs from virtual reality (VR) in the sense that in AR part of the surrounding environment is actually 'real' and just adding layers of virtual objects to the real environment. On the other hand, in VR the surrounding environment is completely virtual. A demonstration of how AR layers objects onto the real world can be seen with augmented reality games. WallaMe is an augmented reality game application that allows users to hide messages in real environments, utilizing geolocation technology in order to enable users to hide messages wherever they may wish in the world. Such applications have many uses in the world, including in activism and artistic expression.
Hardware components for augmented reality are: a processor, display, sensors and input devices. Modern mobile computing devices like smartphones and tablet computers contain these elements, which often include a camera and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors such as an accelerometer, GPS, and solid state compass, making them suitable AR platforms. There are two technologies used in augmented reality: diffractive waveguides and reflective waveguides.
A head-mounted display (HMD) is a display device worn on the forehead, such as a harness or helmet-mounted. HMDs place images of both the physical world and virtual objects over the user's field of view. Modern HMDs often employ sensors for six degrees of freedom monitoring that allow the system to align virtual information to the physical world and adjust accordingly with the user's head movements. HMDs can provide VR users with mobile and collaborative experiences. Specific providers, such as uSens and Gestigon, include gesture controls for full virtual immersion.
AR displays can be rendered on devices resembling eyeglasses. Versions include eyewear that employs cameras to intercept the real world view and re-display its augmented view through the eyepieces and devices in which the AR imagery is projected through or reflected off the surfaces of the eyewear lens pieces.
A head-up display (HUD) is a transparent display that presents data without requiring users to look away from their usual viewpoints. A precursor technology to augmented reality, heads-up displays were first developed for pilots in the 1950s, projecting simple flight data into their line of sight, thereby enabling them to keep their "heads up" and not look down at the instruments. Near-eye augmented reality devices can be used as portable head-up displays as they can show data, information, and images while the user views the real world. Many definitions of augmented reality only define it as overlaying the information. This is basically what a head-up display does; however, practically speaking, augmented reality is expected to include registration and tracking between the superimposed perceptions, sensations, information, data, and images and some portion of the real world.
Contact lenses that display AR imaging are in development. These bionic contact lenses might contain the elements for display embedded into the lens including integrated circuitry, LEDs and an antenna for wireless communication. The first contact lens display was patented in 1999 by Steve Mann and was intended to work in combination with AR spectacles, but the project was abandoned, then 11 years later in 2010–2011. Another version of contact lenses, in development for the U.S. military, is designed to function with AR spectacles, allowing soldiers to focus on close-to-the-eye AR images on the spectacles and distant real world objects at the same time.
At CES 2013, a company called Innovega also unveiled similar contact lenses that required being combined with AR glasses to work.
Many scientists have been working on contact lenses capable of different technological feats. A patent filed by Samsung describes an AR contact lens, that, when finished, will include a built-in camera on the lens itself. The design is intended to control its interface by blinking an eye. It is also intended to be linked with the user's smartphone to review footage, and control it separately. When successful, the lens would feature a camera, or sensor inside of it. It is said that it could be anything from a light sensor, to a temperature sensor.
Virtual retinal display
A virtual retinal display (VRD) is a personal display device under development at the University of Washington's Human Interface Technology Laboratory under Dr. Thomas A. Furness III. With this technology, a display is scanned directly onto the retina of a viewer's eye. This results in bright images with high resolution and high contrast. The viewer sees what appears to be a conventional display floating in space.
Several of tests were done to analyze the safety of the VRD. In one test, patients with partial loss of vision—having either macular degeneration (a disease that degenerates the retina) or keratoconus—were selected to view images using the technology. In the macular degeneration group, five out of eight subjects preferred the VRD images to the cathode-ray tube (CRT) or paper images and thought they were better and brighter and were able to see equal or better resolution levels. The Keratoconus patients could all resolve smaller lines in several line tests using the VRD as opposed to their own correction. They also found the VRD images to be easier to view and sharper. As a result of these several tests, virtual retinal display is considered safe technology.
Virtual retinal display creates images that can be seen in ambient daylight and ambient room light. The VRD is considered a preferred candidate to use in a surgical display due to its combination of high resolution and high contrast and brightness. Additional tests show high potential for VRD to be used as a display technology for patients that have low vision.
The EyeTap (also known as Generation-2 Glass) captures rays of light that would otherwise pass through the center of the lens of the wearer's eye, and substitutes synthetic computer-controlled light for each ray of real light.
The Generation-4 Glass (Laser EyeTap) is similar to the VRD (i.e. it uses a computer-controlled laser light source) except that it also has infinite depth of focus and causes the eye itself to, in effect, function as both a camera and a display by way of exact alignment with the eye and resynthesis (in laser light) of rays of light entering the eye.
A Handheld display employs a small display that fits in a user's hand. All handheld AR solutions to date opt for video see-through. Initially handheld AR employed fiducial markers, and later GPS units and MEMS sensors such as digital compasses and six degrees of freedom accelerometer–gyroscope. Today simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) markerless trackers such as PTAM (parallel tracking and mapping) are starting to come into use. Handheld display AR promises to be the first commercial success for AR technologies. The two main advantages of handheld AR are the portable nature of handheld devices and the ubiquitous nature of camera phones. The disadvantages are the physical constraints of the user having to hold the handheld device out in front of them at all times, as well as the distorting effect of classically wide-angled mobile phone cameras when compared to the real world as viewed through the eye.
Projection mapping augments real-world objects and scenes, without the use of special displays such as monitors, head-mounted displays or hand-held devices. Projection mapping makes use of digital projectors to display graphical information onto physical objects. The key difference in projection mapping is that the display is separated from the users of the system. Since the displays are not associated with each user, projection mapping scales naturally up to groups of users, allowing for collocated collaboration between users.
Examples include shader lamps, mobile projectors, virtual tables, and smart projectors. Shader lamps mimic and augment reality by projecting imagery onto neutral objects. This provides the opportunity to enhance the object's appearance with materials of a simple unit—a projector, camera, and sensor.
Other applications include table and wall projections. One innovation, the Extended Virtual Table, separates the virtual from the real by including beam-splitter mirrors attached to the ceiling at an adjustable angle. Virtual showcases, which employ beam splitter mirrors together with multiple graphics displays, provide an interactive means of simultaneously engaging with the virtual and the real. Many more implementations and configurations make spatial augmented reality display an increasingly attractive interactive alternative.
A projection mapping system can display on any number of surfaces in an indoor setting at once. Projection mapping supports both a graphical visualization and passive haptic sensation for the end users. Users are able to touch physical objects in a process that provides passive haptic sensation.
Modern mobile augmented-reality systems use one or more of the following motion tracking technologies: digital cameras and/or other optical sensors, accelerometers, GPS, gyroscopes, solid state compasses, radio-frequency identification (RFID). These technologies offer varying levels of accuracy and precision. The most important is the position and orientation of the user's head. Tracking the user's hand(s) or a handheld input device can provide a 6DOF interaction technique.
Mobile augmented reality applications are gaining popularity because of the wide adoption of mobile and especially wearable devices. However, they often rely on computationally intensive computer vision algorithms with extreme latency requirements. To compensate for the lack of computing power, offloading data processing to a distant machine is often desired. Computation offloading introduces new constraints in applications, especially in terms of latency and bandwidth. Although there are a plethora of real-time multimedia transport protocols, there is a need for support from network infrastructure as well.
Techniques include speech recognition systems that translate a user's spoken words into computer instructions, and gesture recognition systems that interpret a user's body movements by visual detection or from sensors embedded in a peripheral device such as a wand, stylus, pointer, glove or other body wear. Products which are trying to serve as a controller of AR headsets include Wave by Seebright Inc. and Nimble by Intugine Technologies.
The computer analyzes the sensed visual and other data to synthesize and position augmentations. Computers are responsible for the graphics that go with augmented reality. Augmented reality uses a computer-generated image which has a striking effect on the way the real world is shown. With the improvement of technology and computers, augmented reality is going to lead to a drastic change on ones perspective of the real world. According to Time, in about 15–20 years it is predicted that augmented reality and virtual reality are going to become the primary use for computer interactions. Computers are improving at a very fast rate, leading to new ways to improve other technology. The more that computers progress, augmented reality will become more flexible and more common in society. Computers are the core of augmented reality.  The computer receives data from the sensors which determine the relative position of an objects' surface. This translates to an input to the computer which then outputs to the users by adding something that would otherwise not be there. The computer comprises memory and a processor. The computer takes the scanned environment then generates images or a video and puts it on the receiver for the observer to see. The fixed marks on an object's surface are stored in the memory of a computer. The computer also withdraws from its memory to present images realistically to the onlooker. The best example of this is of the Pepsi Max AR Bus Shelter.
Projectors can also be used to display AR contents. The projector can throw a virtual object on a projection screen and the viewer can interact with this virtual object. Projection surfaces can be many objects such as walls or glass panes.
Software and algorithms
A key measure of AR systems is how realistically they integrate augmentations with the real world. The software must derive real world coordinates, independent of camera, and camera images. That process is called image registration, and uses different methods of computer vision, mostly related to video tracking. Many computer vision methods of augmented reality are inherited from visual odometry. An augogram is a computer generated image that is used to create AR. Augography is the science and software practice of making augograms for AR.
Usually those methods consist of two parts. The first stage is to detect interest points, fiducial markers or optical flow in the camera images. This step can use feature detection methods like corner detection, blob detection, edge detection or thresholding, and other image processing methods. The second stage restores a real world coordinate system from the data obtained in the first stage. Some methods assume objects with known geometry (or fiducial markers) are present in the scene. In some of those cases the scene 3D structure should be calculated beforehand. If part of the scene is unknown simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) can map relative positions. If no information about scene geometry is available, structure from motion methods like bundle adjustment are used. Mathematical methods used in the second stage include: projective (epipolar) geometry, geometric algebra, rotation representation with exponential map, kalman and particle filters, nonlinear optimization, robust statistics.
In augmented reality, the distinction is made between two distinct modes of tracking, known as marker and markerless. Markers are visual cues which trigger the display of the virtual information. A piece of paper with some distinct geometries can be used. The camera recognizes the geometries by identifying specific points in the drawing. Markerless tracking, also called instant tracking, does not use markers. Instead, the user positions the object in the camera view preferably in a horizontal plane. It uses sensors in mobile devices to accurately detect the real-world environment, such as the locations of walls and points of intersection.
Augmented Reality Markup Language (ARML) is a data standard developed within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), which consists of Extensible Markup Language (XML) grammar to describe the location and appearance of virtual objects in the scene, as well as ECMAScript bindings to allow dynamic access to properties of virtual objects.
The implementation of augmented reality in consumer products requires considering the design of the applications and the related constraints of the technology platform. Since AR systems rely heavily on the immersion of the user and the interaction between the user and the system, design can facilitate the adoption of virtuality. For most augmented reality systems, a similar design guideline can be followed. The following lists some considerations for designing augmented reality applications:
Context Design focuses on the end-user's physical surrounding, spatial space, and accessibility that may play a role when using the AR system. Designers should be aware of the possible physical scenarios the end-user may be in such as:
- Public, in which the users use their whole body to interact with the software
- Personal, in which the user uses a smartphone in a public space
- Intimate, in which the user is sitting with a desktop and is not really moving
- Private, in which the user has on a wearable.
By evaluating each physical scenario, potential safety hazards can be avoided and changes can be made to greater improve the end-user's immersion. UX designers will have to define user journeys for the relevant physical scenarios and define how the interface reacts to each.
Especially in AR systems, it is vital to also consider the spatial and surrounding elements that change the effectiveness of the AR technology. Environmental elements such as lighting and sound can prevent the AR device sensor from detecting necessary data and ruin the immersion of the end-user.
Another aspect of context design involves the design of the system's functionality and its ability to accommodate user preferences. While accessibility tools are common in basic application design, some consideration should be made when designing time-limited prompts (to prevent unintentional operations), audio cues and overall engagement time. It is important to note that in some situations, the application's functionality may hinder the user's ability. For example, applications that is used for driving should reduce the amount of user interaction and use audio cues instead.
Interaction design in augmented reality technology centers on the user's engagement with the end product to improve the overall user experience and enjoyment. The purpose of interaction design is to avoid alienating or confusing the user by organizing the information presented. Since user interaction relies on the user's input, designers must make system controls easier to understand and accessible. A common technique to improve usability for augmented reality applications is by discovering the frequently accessed areas in the device's touch display and design the application to match those areas of control. It is also important to structure the user journey maps and the flow of information presented which reduce the system's overall cognitive load and greatly improves the learning curve of the application.
In interaction design, it is important for developers to utilize augmented reality technology that complement the system's function or purpose. For instance, the utilization of exciting AR filters and the design of the unique sharing platform in Snapchat enables users to augment their in-app social interactions. In other applications that require users to understand the focus and intent, designers can employ a reticle or raycast from the device. Moreover, augmented reality developers may find it appropriate to have digital elements scale or react to the direction of the camera and the context of objects that can are detected.
In general, visual design is the appearance of the developing application that engages the user. To improve the graphic interface elements and user interaction, developers may use visual cues to inform the user what elements of UI are designed to interact with and how to interact with them. Since navigating in an AR application may appear difficult and seem frustrating, visual cue design can make interactions seem more natural.
In some augmented reality applications that use a 2D device as an interactive surface, the 2D control environment does not translate well in 3D space making users hesitant to explore their surroundings. To solve this issue, designers should apply visual cues to assist and encourage users to explore their surroundings.
It is important to note the two main objects in AR when developing VR applications: 3D volumetric objects that are manipulated and realistically interact with light and shadow; and animated media imagery such as images and videos which are mostly traditional 2D media rendered in a new context for augmented reality. When virtual objects are projected onto a real environment, it is challenging for augmented reality application designers to ensure a perfectly seamless integration relative to the real-world environment, especially with 2D objects. As such, designers can add weight to objects, use depths maps, and choose different material properties that highlight the object's presence in the real world. Another visual design that can be applied is using different lighting techniques or casting shadows to improve overall depth judgment. For instance, a common lighting technique is simply placing a light source overhead at the 12 o’clock position, to create shadows on virtual objects.
Augmented reality has been explored for many applications, from gaming and entertainment to medicine, education and business. Example application areas described below include archaeology, architecture, commerce and education. Some of the earliest cited examples include augmented reality used to support surgery by providing virtual overlays to guide medical practitioners, to AR content for astronomy and welding.
AR has been used to aid archaeological research. By augmenting archaeological features onto the modern landscape, AR allows archaeologists to formulate possible site configurations from extant structures. Computer generated models of ruins, buildings, landscapes or even ancient people have been recycled into early archaeological AR applications. For example, implementing a system like, VITA (Visual Interaction Tool for Archaeology) will allow users to imagine and investigate instant excavation results without leaving their home. Each user can collaborate by mutually "navigating, searching, and viewing data". Hrvoje Benko, a researcher in the computer science department at Columbia University, points out that these particular systems and others like them can provide "3D panoramic images and 3D models of the site itself at different excavation stages" all the while organizing much of the data in a collaborative way that is easy to use. Collaborative AR systems supply multimodal interactions that combine the real world with virtual images of both environments.
AR can aid in visualizing building projects. Computer-generated images of a structure can be superimposed onto a real-life local view of a property before the physical building is constructed there; this was demonstrated publicly by Trimble Navigation in 2004. AR can also be employed within an architect's workspace, rendering animated 3D visualizations of their 2D drawings. Architecture sight-seeing can be enhanced with AR applications, allowing users viewing a building's exterior to virtually see through its walls, viewing its interior objects and layout.
With continual improvements to GPS accuracy, businesses are able to use augmented reality to visualize georeferenced models of construction sites, underground structures, cables and pipes using mobile devices. Augmented reality is applied to present new projects, to solve on-site construction challenges, and to enhance promotional materials. Examples include the Daqri Smart Helmet, an Android-powered hard hat used to create augmented reality for the industrial worker, including visual instructions, real-time alerts, and 3D mapping.
Following the Christchurch earthquake, the University of Canterbury released CityViewAR, which enabled city planners and engineers to visualize buildings that had been destroyed. This not only provided planners with tools to reference the previous cityscape, but it also served as a reminder of the magnitude of the resulting devastation, as entire buildings had been demolished.
Urban design and planning
AR systems are being used as collaborative tools for design and planning in the built environment. For example, AR can be used to create augmented reality maps, buildings and data feeds projected onto tabletops for collaborative viewing by built environment professionals. Outdoor AR promises that designs and plans can be superimposed on the real-world, redefining the remit of these professions to bring in-situ design into their process. Design options can be articulated on site, and appear closer to reality than traditional desktop mechanisms such as 2D maps and 3d models.
In educational settings, AR has been used to complement a standard curriculum. Text, graphics, video, and audio may be superimposed into a student's real-time environment. Textbooks, flashcards and other educational reading material may contain embedded "markers" or triggers that, when scanned by an AR device, produced supplementary information to the student rendered in a multimedia format. The 2015 Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality: 7th International Conference mentioned Google Glass as an example of augmented reality that can replace the physical classroom. First, AR technologies help learners engage in authentic exploration in the real world, and virtual objects such as texts, videos, and pictures are supplementary elements for learners to conduct investigations of the real-world surroundings.
As AR evolves, students can participate interactively and interact with knowledge more authentically. Instead of remaining passive recipients, students can become active learners, able to interact with their learning environment. Computer-generated simulations of historical events allow students to explore and learning details of each significant area of the event site.
In higher education, Construct3D, a Studierstube system, allows students to learn mechanical engineering concepts, math or geometry. Chemistry AR apps allow students to visualize and interact with the spatial structure of a molecule using a marker object held in the hand. Others have used HP Reveal, a free app, to create AR notecards for studying organic chemistry mechanisms or to create virtual demonstrations of how to use laboratory instrumentation. Anatomy students can visualize different systems of the human body in three dimensions. Using AR as a tool to learn anatomical structures has been shown to increase the learner knowledge and provide intrinsic benefits, such as increased engagement and learner immersion.
AR is used to substitute paper manuals with digital instructions which are overlaid on the manufacturing operator's field of view, reducing mental effort required to operate. AR makes machine maintenance efficient because it gives operators direct access to a machine's maintenance history. Virtual manuals help manufacturers adapt to rapidly-changing product designs, as digital instructions are more easily edited and distributed compared to physical manuals.
Digital instructions increase operator safety by removing the need for operators to look at a screen or manual away from the working area, which can be hazardous. Instead, the instructions are overlaid on the working area. The use of AR can increase operators' feeling of safety when working near high-load industrial machinery by giving operators additional information on a machine's status and safety functions, as well as hazardous areas of the workspace.
AR is used to integrate print and video marketing. Printed marketing material can be designed with certain "trigger" images that, when scanned by an AR-enabled device using image recognition, activate a video version of the promotional material. A major difference between augmented reality and straightforward image recognition is that one can overlay multiple media at the same time in the view screen, such as social media share buttons, the in-page video even audio and 3D objects. Traditional print-only publications are using augmented reality to connect different types of media.
AR can enhance product previews such as allowing a customer to view what's inside a product's packaging without opening it. AR can also be used as an aid in selecting products from a catalog or through a kiosk. Scanned images of products can activate views of additional content such as customization options and additional images of the product in its use.
By 2010, virtual dressing rooms had been developed for e-commerce.
In 2012, a mint used AR techniques to market a commemorative coin for Aruba. The coin itself was used as an AR trigger, and when held in front of an AR-enabled device it revealed additional objects and layers of information that were not visible without the device.
In 2018, Apple announced USDZ AR file support for iPhones and iPads with iOS12. Apple has created an AR QuickLook Gallery that allows masses to experience augmented reality on their own Apple device.
In 2018, Shopify, the Canadian e-commerce company, announced ARkit2 integration. Their merchants are able to use the tools to upload 3D models of their products. Users will be able to tap on the goods inside Safari to view in their real-world environments.
In 2018, Twinkl released a free AR classroom application. Pupils can see how York looked over 1,900 years ago. Twinkl launched the first ever multi-player AR game, Little Red and has over 100 free AR educational models.
Augmented reality is becoming more frequently used for online advertising. Retailers offer the ability to upload a picture on their website and "try on" various clothes which are overlaid on the picture. Even further, companies such as Bodymetrics install dressing booths in department stores that offer full-body scanning. These booths render a 3-D model of the user, allowing the consumers to view different outfits on themselves without the need of physically changing clothes. For example, JC Penney and Bloomingdale's use "virtual dressing rooms" that allow customers to see themselves in clothes without trying them on. Another store that uses AR to market clothing to its customers is Neiman Marcus. Neiman Marcus offers consumers the ability to see their outfits in a 360-degree view with their "memory mirror". Makeup stores like L'Oreal, Sephora, Charlotte Tilbury, and Rimmel also have apps that utilize AR. These apps allow consumers to see how the makeup will look on them. According to Greg Jones, director of AR and VR at Google, augmented reality is going to "reconnect physical and digital retail".
AR technology is also used by furniture retailers such as IKEA, Houzz, and Wayfair. These retailers offer apps that allow consumers to view their products in their home prior to purchasing anything. In 2017, Ikea announced the Ikea Place app. It contains a catalogue of over 2,000 products—nearly the company's full collection of sofas, armchairs, coffee tables, and storage units which one can place anywhere in a room with their phone. The app made it possible to have 3D and true-to-scale models of furniture in the customer's living space. IKEA realized that their customers are not shopping in stores as often or making direct purchases anymore. Shopify’s acquisition of Primer, an AR app aims to push small and medium sized sellers towards interactive AR shopping with easy to use AR integration and user experience for both merchants and consumers.
The first description of AR as it is known today was in Virtual Light, the 1994 novel by William Gibson. In 2011, AR was blended with poetry by ni ka from Sekai Camera in Tokyo, Japan. The prose of these AR poems come from Paul Celan, Die Niemandsrose, expressing the aftermath of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.
AR applied in the visual arts allows objects or places to trigger artistic multidimensional experiences and interpretations of reality.
Augmented reality can aid in the progression of visual art in museums by allowing museum visitors to view artwork in galleries in a multidimensional way through their phone screens. The Museum of Modern Art in New York has created an exhibit in their art museum showcasing AR features that viewers can see using an app on their smartphone. The museum has developed their personal app, called MoMAR Gallery, that museum guests can download and use in the augmented reality specialized gallery in order to view the museum's paintings in a different way. This allows individuals to see hidden aspects and information about the paintings, and to be able to have an interactive technological experience with artwork as well.
AR technology can also be used to place objects in the user's environment. A Danish artist, Olafur Eliasson, is placing objects like burning suns, extraterrestrial rocks, and rare animals, into the user's environment.
AR hardware and software for use in fitness includes smart glasses made for biking and running, with performance analytics and map navigation projected onto the user's field of vision, and boxing, martial arts, and tennis, where users remain aware of their physical environment for safety. Fitness-related games and software include Pokemon Go and Jurassic World Alive.
Human Computer Interaction
Human Computer Interaction is an interdisciplinary area of computing that deals with design and implementation of systems that interact with people. Researchers in HCI come from a number of disciplines, including computer science, engineering, design, human factor, and social science, with a shared goal to solve problems in the design and the use of technology so that it can be used more easily, effectively, efficiently, safely, and with satisfaction.
Primary school children learn easily from interactive experiences. As an example, astronomical constellations and the movements of objects in the solar system were oriented in 3D and overlaid in the direction the device was held, and expanded with supplemental video information. Paper-based science book illustrations could seem to come alive as video without requiring the child to navigate to web-based materials.
In 2013, a project was launched on Kickstarter to teach about electronics with an educational toy that allowed children to scan their circuit with an iPad and see the electric current flowing around. While some educational apps were available for AR by 2016, it was not broadly used. Apps that leverage augmented reality to aid learning included SkyView for studying astronomy, AR Circuits for building simple electric circuits, and SketchAr for drawing.
AR would also be a way for parents and teachers to achieve their goals for modern education, which might include providing more individualized and flexible learning, making closer connections between what is taught at school and the real world, and helping students to become more engaged in their own learning.
Emergency management/search and rescue
As early as 2009, two articles from Emergency Management discussed AR technology for emergency management. The first was "Augmented Reality—Emerging Technology for Emergency Management", by Gerald Baron. According to Adam Crow,: "Technologies like augmented reality (ex: Google Glass) and the growing expectation of the public will continue to force professional emergency managers to radically shift when, where, and how technology is deployed before, during, and after disasters."
Another early example was a search aircraft looking for a lost hiker in rugged mountain terrain. Augmented reality systems provided aerial camera operators with a geographic awareness of forest road names and locations blended with the camera video. The camera operator was better able to search for the hiker knowing the geographic context of the camera image. Once located, the operator could more efficiently direct rescuers to the hiker's location because the geographic position and reference landmarks were clearly labeled.
AR can be used to facilitate social interaction. An augmented reality social network framework called Talk2Me enables people to disseminate information and view others' advertised information in an augmented reality way. The timely and dynamic information sharing and viewing functionalities of Talk2Me help initiate conversations and make friends for users with people in physical proximity. However, use of an AR headset can inhibit the quality of an interaction between two people if one isn't wearing one if the headset becomes a distraction.
Augmented reality also gives users the ability to practice different forms of social interactions with other people in a safe, risk-free environment. Hannes Kauffman, Associate Professor for Virtual Reality at TU Vienna, says: "In collaborative augmented reality multiple users may access a shared space populated by virtual objects, while remaining grounded in the real world. This technique is particularly powerful for educational purposes when users are collocated and can use natural means of communication (speech, gestures, etc.), but can also be mixed successfully with immersive VR or remote collaboration."[This quote needs a citation] Hannes cites education as a potential use of this technology.
The gaming industry embraced AR technology. A number of games were developed for prepared indoor environments, such as AR air hockey, Titans of Space, collaborative combat against virtual enemies, and AR-enhanced pool table games.
Augmented reality allowed video game players to experience digital game play in a real-world environment. Niantic released the augmented reality mobile game Pokémon Go. Disney has partnered with Lenovo to create the augmented reality game Star Wars: Jedi Challenges that works with a Lenovo Mirage AR headset, a tracking sensor and a Lightsaber controller, scheduled to launch in December 2017.
Augmented reality gaming (ARG) is also used to market film and television entertainment properties. On 16 March 2011, BitTorrent promoted an open licensed version of the feature film Zenith in the United States. Users who downloaded the BitTorrent client software were also encouraged to download and share Part One of three parts of the film. On 4 May 2011, Part Two of the film was made available on VODO. The episodic release of the film, supplemented by an ARG transmedia marketing campaign, created a viral effect and over a million users downloaded the movie.
AR allows industrial designers to experience a product's design and operation before completion. Volkswagen has used AR for comparing calculated and actual crash test imagery. AR has been used to visualize and modify car body structure and engine layout. It has also been used to compare digital mock-ups with physical mock-ups to find discrepancies between them.
Healthcare planning, practice and education
One of the first applications of augmented reality was in healthcare, particularly to support the planning, practice, and training of surgical procedures. As far back as 1992, enhancing human performance during surgery was a formally stated objective when building the first augmented reality systems at U.S. Air Force laboratories. Since 2005, a device called a near-infrared vein finder that films subcutaneous veins, processes and projects the image of the veins onto the skin has been used to locate veins. AR provides surgeons with patient monitoring data in the style of a fighter pilot's heads-up display, and allows patient imaging records, including functional videos, to be accessed and overlaid. Examples include a virtual X-ray view based on prior tomography or on real-time images from ultrasound and confocal microscopy probes, visualizing the position of a tumor in the video of an endoscope, or radiation exposure risks from X-ray imaging devices. AR can enhance viewing a fetus inside a mother's womb. Siemens, Karl Storz and IRCAD have developed a system for laparoscopic liver surgery that uses AR to view sub-surface tumors and vessels. AR has been used for cockroach phobia treatment. Patients wearing augmented reality glasses can be reminded to take medications. Augmented reality can be very helpful in the medical field. It could be used to provide crucial information to a doctor or surgeon without having them take their eyes off the patient. On 30 April 2015 Microsoft announced the Microsoft HoloLens, their first attempt at augmented reality. The HoloLens has advanced through the years and is capable of projecting holograms for near infrared fluorescence based image guided surgery. As augmented reality advances, it finds increasing applications in healthcare. Augmented reality and similar computer based-utilities are being used to train medical professionals. In healthcare, AR can be used to provide guidance during diagnostic and therapeutic interventions e.g. during surgery. Magee et al. for instance describe the use of augmented reality for medical training in simulating ultrasound guided needle placement. A very recent study by Akçayır, Akçayır, Pektaş, and Ocak (2016) revealed that AR technology both improves university students' laboratory skills and helps them to build positive attitudes relating to physics laboratory work. Recently, augmented reality began seeing adoption in neurosurgery, a field that requires heavy amounts of imaging before procedures.
Spatial immersion and interaction
Augmented reality applications, running on handheld devices utilized as virtual reality headsets, can also digitize human presence in space and provide a computer generated model of them, in a virtual space where they can interact and perform various actions. Such capabilities are demonstrated by Project Anywhere, developed by a postgraduate student at ETH Zurich, which was dubbed as an "out-of-body experience".
Building on decades of perceptual-motor research in experimental psychology, researchers at the Aviation Research Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign used augmented reality in the form of a flight path in the sky to teach flight students how to land an airplane using a flight simulator. An adaptive augmented schedule in which students were shown the augmentation only when they departed from the flight path proved to be a more effective training intervention than a constant schedule. Flight students taught to land in the simulator with the adaptive augmentation learned to land a light aircraft more quickly than students with the same amount of landing training in the simulator but with constant augmentation or without any augmentation.
An interesting early application of AR occurred when Rockwell International created video map overlays of satellite and orbital debris tracks to aid in space observations at Air Force Maui Optical System. In their 1993 paper "Debris Correlation Using the Rockwell WorldView System" the authors describe the use of map overlays applied to video from space surveillance telescopes. The map overlays indicated the trajectories of various objects in geographic coordinates. This allowed telescope operators to identify satellites, and also to identify and catalog potentially dangerous space debris.
Starting in 2003 the US Army integrated the SmartCam3D augmented reality system into the Shadow Unmanned Aerial System to aid sensor operators using telescopic cameras to locate people or points of interest. The system combined fixed geographic information including street names, points of interest, airports, and railroads with live video from the camera system. The system offered a "picture in picture" mode that allows it to show a synthetic view of the area surrounding the camera's field of view. This helps solve a problem in which the field of view is so narrow that it excludes important context, as if "looking through a soda straw". The system displays real-time friend/foe/neutral location markers blended with live video, providing the operator with improved situational awareness.
As of 2010, Korean researchers are looking to implement mine-detecting robots into the military. The proposed design for such a robot includes a mobile platform that is like a track which would be able to cover uneven distances including stairs. The robot's mine detection sensor would include a combination of metal detectors and ground-penetrating radar to locate mines or IEDs. This unique design would be immeasurably helpful in saving lives of Korean soldiers.
Researchers at USAF Research Lab (Calhoun, Draper et al.) found an approximately two-fold increase in the speed at which UAV sensor operators found points of interest using this technology. This ability to maintain geographic awareness quantitatively enhances mission efficiency. The system is in use on the US Army RQ-7 Shadow and the MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aerial Systems.
In combat, AR can serve as a networked communication system that renders useful battlefield data onto a soldier's goggles in real time. From the soldier's viewpoint, people and various objects can be marked with special indicators to warn of potential dangers. Virtual maps and 360° view camera imaging can also be rendered to aid a soldier's navigation and battlefield perspective, and this can be transmitted to military leaders at a remote command center. The combination of 360° view cameras visualization and AR can be use on board combat vehicles and tanks as circular review system.
AR can be very effective to virtually design out the 3D topologies of munition storages in the terrain with the choice of the munitions combination in stacks and distances between them with a visualization of risk areas. The scope of AR applications also includes visualization of data from embedded munitions monitoring sensors.
The NASA X-38 was flown using a hybrid synthetic vision system that overlaid map data on video to provide enhanced navigation for the spacecraft during flight tests from 1998 to 2002. It used the LandForm software which was useful for times of limited visibility, including an instance when the video camera window frosted over leaving astronauts to rely on the map overlays. The LandForm software was also test flown at the Army Yuma Proving Ground in 1999. In the photo at right one can see the map markers indicating runways, air traffic control tower, taxiways, and hangars overlaid on the video.
AR can augment the effectiveness of navigation devices. Information can be displayed on an automobile's windshield indicating destination directions and meter, weather, terrain, road conditions and traffic information as well as alerts to potential hazards in their path. Since 2012, a Swiss-based company WayRay has been developing holographic AR navigation systems that use holographic optical elements for projecting all route-related information including directions, important notifications, and points of interest right into the drivers' line of sight and far ahead of the vehicle. Aboard maritime vessels, AR can allow bridge watch-standers to continuously monitor important information such as a ship's heading and speed while moving throughout the bridge or performing other tasks.
Augmented reality may have a positive impact on work collaboration as people may be inclined to interact more actively with their learning environment. It may also encourage tacit knowledge renewal which makes firms more competitive. AR was used to facilitate collaboration among distributed team members via conferences with local and virtual participants. AR tasks included brainstorming and discussion meetings utilizing common visualization via touch screen tables, interactive digital whiteboards, shared design spaces and distributed control rooms.
In industrial environments, augmented reality is proving to have a substantial impact with more and more use cases emerging across all aspect of the product lifecycle, starting from product design and new product introduction (NPI) to manufacturing to service and maintenance, to material handling and distribution. For example, labels were displayed on parts of a system to clarify operating instructions for a mechanic performing maintenance on a system. Assembly lines benefited from the usage of AR. In addition to Boeing, BMW and Volkswagen were known for incorporating this technology into assembly lines for monitoring process improvements. Big machines are difficult to maintain because of their multiple layers or structures. AR permits people to look through the machine as if with an x-ray, pointing them to the problem right away.
As AR technology has evolved and second and third generation AR devices come to market, the impact of AR in enterprise continues to flourish. In the Harvard Business Review, Magid Abraham and Marco Annunziata discuss how AR devices are now being used to "boost workers' productivity on an array of tasks the first time they're used, even without prior training'. They contend that "these technologies increase productivity by making workers more skilled and efficient, and thus have the potential to yield both more economic growth and better jobs".
Broadcast and live events
Weather visualizations were the first application of augmented reality in television. It has now become common in weather casting to display full motion video of images captured in real-time from multiple cameras and other imaging devices. Coupled with 3D graphics symbols and mapped to a common virtual geospatial model, these animated visualizations constitute the first true application of AR to TV.
AR has become common in sports telecasting. Sports and entertainment venues are provided with see-through and overlay augmentation through tracked camera feeds for enhanced viewing by the audience. Examples include the yellow "first down" line seen in television broadcasts of American football games showing the line the offensive team must cross to receive a first down. AR is also used in association with football and other sporting events to show commercial advertisements overlaid onto the view of the playing area. Sections of rugby fields and cricket pitches also display sponsored images. Swimming telecasts often add a line across the lanes to indicate the position of the current record holder as a race proceeds to allow viewers to compare the current race to the best performance. Other examples include hockey puck tracking and annotations of racing car performance and snooker ball trajectories.
AR has been used to enhance concert and theater performances. For example, artists allow listeners to augment their listening experience by adding their performance to that of other bands/groups of users.
Tourism and sightseeing
Travelers may use AR to access real-time informational displays regarding a location, its features, and comments or content provided by previous visitors. Advanced AR applications include simulations of historical events, places, and objects rendered into the landscape.
AR systems such as Word Lens can interpret the foreign text on signs and menus and, in a user's augmented view, re-display the text in the user's language. Spoken words of a foreign language can be translated and displayed in a user's view as printed subtitles.
Leeds College of Music teams have developed an AR app that can be used with Audient desks and allow students to use their smartphone or tablet to put layers of information or interactivity on top of an Audient mixing desk.
ARmony is a software package that makes use of augmented reality to help people to learn an instrument.
In a proof-of-concept project Ian Sterling, an interaction design student at California College of the Arts, and software engineer Swaroop Pal demonstrated a HoloLens app whose primary purpose is to provide a 3D spatial UI for cross-platform devices—the Android Music Player app and Arduino-controlled Fan and Light—and also allow interaction using gaze and gesture control.
AR Mixer is an app that allows one to select and mix between songs by manipulating objects—such as changing the orientation of a bottle or can.
In a video, Uriel Yehezkel demonstrates using the Leap Motion controller and GECO MIDI to control Ableton Live with hand gestures and states that by this method he was able to control more than 10 parameters simultaneously with both hands and take full control over the construction of the song, emotion and energy.[better source needed]
A novel musical instrument that allows novices to play electronic musical compositions, interactively remixing and modulating their elements, by manipulating simple physical objects has been proposed.
A system using explicit gestures and implicit dance moves to control the visual augmentations of a live music performance that enable more dynamic and spontaneous performances and—in combination with indirect augmented reality—leading to a more intense interaction between artist and audience has been suggested.
Research by members of the CRIStAL at the University of Lille makes use of augmented reality to enrich musical performance. The ControllAR project allows musicians to augment their MIDI control surfaces with the remixed graphical user interfaces of music software. The Rouages project proposes to augment digital musical instruments to reveal their mechanisms to the audience and thus improve the perceived liveness. Reflets is a novel augmented reality display dedicated to musical performances where the audience acts as a 3D display by revealing virtual content on stage, which can also be used for 3D musical interaction and collaboration.
Snapchat users have access to augmented reality in the company's instant messaging app through use of camera filters. In September 2017, Snapchat updated its app to include a camera filter that allowed users to render an animated, cartoon version of themselves called "Bitmoji". These animated avatars would be projected in the real world through the camera, and can be photographed or video recorded. In the same month, Snapchat also announced a new feature called "Sky Filters" that will be available on its app. This new feature makes use of augmented reality to alter the look of a picture taken of the sky, much like how users can apply the app's filters to other pictures. Users can choose from sky filters such as starry night, stormy clouds, beautiful sunsets, and rainbow.
The dangers of AR
In a paper titled "Death by Pokémon GO", researchers at Purdue University's Krannert School of Management claim the game caused "a disproportionate increase in vehicular crashes and associated vehicular damage, personal injuries, and fatalities in the vicinity of locations, called PokéStops, where users can play the game while driving." Using data from one municipality, the paper extrapolates what that might mean nationwide and concluded "the increase in crashes attributable to the introduction of Pokémon GO is 145,632 with an associated increase in the number of injuries of 29,370 and an associated increase in the number of fatalities of 256 over the period of 6 July 2016, through 30 November 2016." The authors extrapolated the cost of those crashes and fatalities at between $2bn and $7.3 billion for the same period. Furthermore, more than one in three surveyed advanced Internet users would like to edit out disturbing elements around them, such as garbage or graffiti. They would like to even modify their surroundings by erasing street signs, billboard ads, and uninteresting shopping windows. So it seems that AR is as much a threat to companies as it is an opportunity. Although, this could be a nightmare to numerous brands that do not manage to capture consumer imaginations it also creates the risk that the wearers of augmented reality glasses may become unaware of surrounding dangers. Consumers want to use augmented reality glasses to change their surroundings into something that reflects their own personal opinions. Around two in five want to change the way their surroundings look and even how people appear to them.
Next, to the possible privacy issues that are described below, overload and over-reliance issues are the biggest danger of AR. For the development of new AR-related products, this implies that the user-interface should follow certain guidelines as not to overload the user with information while also preventing the user from over-relying on the AR system such that important cues from the environment are missed. This is called the virtually-augmented key. Once the key is ignored, people might not desire the real world anymore.
The concept of modern augmented reality depends on the ability of the device to record and analyze the environment in real time. Because of this, there are potential legal concerns over privacy. While the First Amendment to the United States Constitution allows for such recording in the name of public interest, the constant recording of an AR device makes it difficult to do so without also recording outside of the public domain. Legal complications would be found in areas where a right to a certain amount of privacy is expected or where copyrighted media are displayed.
In terms of individual privacy, there exists the ease of access to information that one should not readily possess about a given person. This is accomplished through facial recognition technology. Assuming that AR automatically passes information about persons that the user sees, there could be anything seen from social media, criminal record, and marital status.
The Code of Ethics on Human Augmentation, which was originally introduced by Steve Mann in 2004 and further refined with Ray Kurzweil and Marvin Minsky in 2013, was ultimately ratified at the Virtual Reality Toronto conference on 25 June 2017.
- Ivan Sutherland invented the first VR head-mounted display at Harvard University.
- Steve Mann formulated an earlier concept of mediated reality in the 1970s and 1980s, using cameras, processors, and display systems to modify visual reality to help people see better (dynamic range management), building computerized welding helmets, as well as "augmediated reality" vision systems for use in everyday life. He is also an adviser to Meta.
- Louis Rosenberg developed one of the first known AR systems, called Virtual Fixtures, while working at the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Labs in 1991, and published the first study of how an AR system can enhance human performance. Rosenberg's subsequent work at Stanford University in the early 90s, was the first proof that virtual overlays when registered and presented over a user's direct view of the real physical world, could significantly enhance human performance.
- Mike Abernathy pioneered one of the first successful augmented video overlays (also called hybrid synthetic vision) using map data for space debris in 1993, while at Rockwell International. He co-founded Rapid Imaging Software, Inc. and was the primary author of the LandForm system in 1995, and the SmartCam3D system. LandForm augmented reality was successfully flight tested in 1999 aboard a helicopter and SmartCam3D was used to fly the NASA X-38 from 1999 to 2002. He and NASA colleague Francisco Delgado received the National Defense Industries Association Top5 awards in 2004.
- Steven Feiner, Professor at Columbia University, is the author of a 1993 paper on an AR system prototype, KARMA (the Knowledge-based Augmented Reality Maintenance Assistant), along with Blair MacIntyre and Doree Seligmann. He is also an advisor to Meta.
- S. Ravela, B. Draper, J. Lim and A. Hanson developed a marker/fixture-less augmented reality system with computer vision in 1994. They augmented an engine block observed from a single video camera with annotations for repair. They use model-based pose estimation, aspect graphs and visual feature tracking to dynamically register model with the observed video.
- Ronald Azuma is a scientist and author of significant AR works, including A survey of augmented reality - the most cited article in the AR field and one of the most influential MIT Press papers of all time.
- Francisco Delgado is a NASA engineer and project manager specializing in human interface research and development. Starting 1998 he conducted research into displays that combined video with synthetic vision systems (called hybrid synthetic vision at the time) that we recognize today as augmented reality systems for the control of aircraft and spacecraft. In 1999 he and colleague Mike Abernathy flight-tested the LandForm system aboard a US Army helicopter. Delgado oversaw integration of the LandForm and SmartCam3D systems into the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle. In 2001, Aviation Week reported NASA astronaut's successful use of hybrid synthetic vision (augmented reality) to fly the X-38 during a flight test at Dryden Flight Research Center. The technology was used in all subsequent flights of the X-38. Delgado was co-recipient of the National Defense Industries Association 2004 Top 5 software of the year award for SmartCam3D.
- Bruce H. Thomas and Wayne Piekarski developed the Tinmith system in 1998. They along with Steve Feiner with his MARS system pioneer outdoor augmented reality.
- Mark Billinghurst is Professor of Human Computer Interaction at the University of South Australia and a notable AR researcher. He has produced over 250 technical publications and presented demonstrations and courses at a wide variety of conferences.
- Reinhold Behringer performed important early work (1998) in image registration for augmented reality, and prototype wearable testbeds for augmented reality. He also co-organized the First IEEE International Symposium on Augmented Reality in 1998 (IWAR'98), and co-edited one of the first books on augmented reality.
- Felix G. Hamza-Lup, Larry Davis and Jannick Rolland developed the 3D ARC display with optical see-through head-warned display for AR visualization in 2002.
- Dieter Schmalstieg and Daniel Wagner developed a marker tracking systems for mobile phones and PDAs in 2009.
- Tracy McSheery, of Phasespace, developer in 2009 of wide field of view AR lenses as used in Meta 2 and others.
- Jeri Ellsworth headed a research effort for the Valve on augmented reality (AR), later taking that research to her own start-up CastAR. The company, founded in 2013, eventually shuttered. Later, she created another start-up based on the same technology called Tilt Five; another AR start-up formed by her with the purpose of creating a device for digital board games.
- John Tinnell, Associate Professor at University of Denver, is the author of Actionable Media: Digital Communication Beyond the Desktop (2018) and the co-editor (with Sean Morey, Associate Professor at University of Tennessee-Knoxville) of Augmented Reality: Innovative Perspectives Across Art, Industry, and Academia (2017). Both works explore the applications of AR technology to humanities-based disciplines such as visual art, history, and public/professional writing.
- 1901: L. Frank Baum, an author, first mentions the idea of an electronic display/spectacles that overlays data onto real life (in this case 'people'). It is named a 'character marker'.
- 1957–62: Morton Heilig, a cinematographer, creates and patents a simulator called Sensorama with visuals, sound, vibration, and smell.
- 1968: Ivan Sutherland invents the head-mounted display and positions it as a window into a virtual world.
- 1975: Myron Krueger creates Videoplace to allow users to interact with virtual objects.
- 1980: The research by Gavan Lintern of the University of Illinois is the first published work to show the value of a heads up display for teaching real-world flight skills.
- 1980: Steve Mann creates the first wearable computer, a computer vision system with text and graphical overlays on a photographically mediated scene. See EyeTap. See Heads Up Display.
- 1981: Dan Reitan geospatially maps multiple weather radar images and space-based and studio cameras to earth maps and abstract symbols for television weather broadcasts, bringing a precursor concept to augmented reality (mixed real/graphical images) to TV.
- 1986: Within IBM, Ron Feigenblatt describes the most widely experienced form of AR today (viz. "magic window," e.g. smartphone-based Pokémon Go), use of a small, "smart" flat panel display positioned and oriented by hand.
- 1987: Douglas George and Robert Morris create a working prototype of an astronomical telescope-based "heads-up display" system (a precursor concept to augmented reality) which superimposed in the telescope eyepiece, over the actual sky images, multi-intensity star, and celestial body images, and other relevant information.
- 1990: The term augmented reality is attributed to Thomas P. Caudell, a former Boeing researcher.
- 1992: Louis Rosenberg developed one of the first functioning AR systems, called Virtual Fixtures, at the United States Air Force Research Laboratory—Armstrong, that demonstrated benefit to human perception.
- 1992: Steven Feiner, Blair MacIntyre and Doree Seligmann present an early paper on an AR system prototype, KARMA, at the Graphics Interface conference.
- 1993: CMOS active-pixel sensor, a type of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) image sensor, developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. CMOS sensors are later widely used for optical tracking in AR technology.
- 1993: Mike Abernathy, et al., report the first use of augmented reality in identifying space debris using Rockwell WorldView by overlaying satellite geographic trajectories on live telescope video.
- 1993: A widely cited version of the paper above is published in Communications of the ACM – Special issue on computer augmented environments, edited by Pierre Wellner, Wendy Mackay, and Rich Gold.
- 1993: Loral WDL, with sponsorship from STRICOM, performed the first demonstration combining live AR-equipped vehicles and manned simulators. Unpublished paper, J. Barrilleaux, "Experiences and Observations in Applying Augmented Reality to Live Training", 1999.
- 1994: Julie Martin creates first 'Augmented Reality Theater production', Dancing in Cyberspace, funded by the Australia Council for the Arts, features dancers and acrobats manipulating body–sized virtual object in real time, projected into the same physical space and performance plane. The acrobats appeared immersed within the virtual object and environments. The installation used Silicon Graphics computers and Polhemus sensing system.
- 1995: S. Ravela et al. at University of Massachusetts introduce a vision-based system using monocular cameras to track objects (engine blocks) across views for augmented reality.
- 1998: Spatial augmented reality introduced at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill by Ramesh Raskar, Welch, Henry Fuchs.
- 1999: Frank Delgado, Mike Abernathy et al. report successful flight test of LandForm software video map overlay from a helicopter at Army Yuma Proving Ground overlaying video with runways, taxiways, roads and road names.
- 1999: The US Naval Research Laboratory engages on a decade-long research program called the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS) to prototype some of the early wearable systems for dismounted soldier operating in urban environment for situation awareness and training.
- 1999: NASA X-38 flown using LandForm software video map overlays at Dryden Flight Research Center.
- 2000: Rockwell International Science Center demonstrates tetherless wearable augmented reality systems receiving analog video and 3-D Audio over radio-frequency wireless channels. The systems incorporate outdoor navigation capabilities, with digital horizon silhouettes from a terrain database overlain in real time on the live outdoor scene, allowing visualization of terrain made invisible by clouds and fog.
- 2004: Outdoor helmet-mounted AR system demonstrated by Trimble Navigation and the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (HIT lab).
- 2006: Outland Research develops AR media player that overlays virtual content onto a users view of the real world synchronously with playing music, thereby providing an immersive AR entertainment experience.
- 2008: Wikitude AR Travel Guide launches on 20 Oct 2008 with the G1 Android phone.
- 2009: ARToolkit was ported to Adobe Flash (FLARToolkit) by Saqoosha, bringing augmented reality to the web browser.
- 2010: Design of mine detection robot for Korean mine field.
- 2012: Launch of Lyteshot, an interactive AR gaming platform that utilizes smart glasses for game data
- 2013: Mina Luna Created the first fashion film with augmented reality.
- 2015: Microsoft announces Windows Holographic and the HoloLens augmented reality headset. The headset utilizes various sensors and a processing unit to blend high definition "holograms" with the real world.
- 2016: Niantic released Pokémon Go for iOS and Android in July 2016. The game quickly became one of the most popular smartphone applications and in turn spikes the popularity of augmented reality games.
- 2017: Magic Leap announces the use of Digital Lightfield technology embedded into the Magic Leap One headset. The creators edition headset includes the glasses and a computing pack worn on your belt.
- 2019: Microsoft announces HoloLens 2 with significant improvements in terms of field of view and ergonomics.
- Alternate reality game – Alternate storytelling in media
- Browser extension, also known as Augmented browsing – Program that extends the functionality of a web browser
- Augmented reality-based testing
- Augmented web
- Automotive head-up display – Advanced driver assistance system
- Bionic contact lens
- Brain in a vat – Philosophical thought experiment
- Computer-mediated reality – Ability to manipulate one's perception of reality through the use of a computer
- Cyborg – Being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts
- Head-mounted display – Type of display device
- Holography – Recording to reproduce a three-dimensional light field
- Lifelike experience
- List of augmented reality software – Wikipedia list article
- Magic Leap
- Mixed reality – Merging of real and virtual worlds to produce new environments
- Optical head-mounted display – Type of wearable device
- Simulated reality – Hypothesis that reality could be simulated
- Smartglasses – Wearable computers that may be used instead of regular glasses
- Structure from motion
- Transreality game
- Projection mapping
- Virtual reality – Computer-simulated environment simulating physical presence in real or imagined worlds
- Visuo-haptic mixed reality
- Wearable computer – Small computing devices worn with clothing
- "The Lengthy History of Augmented Reality". Huffington Post. 15 May 2016.
- Schueffel, Patrick (2017). The Concise Fintech Compendium. Fribourg: School of Management Fribourg/Switzerland. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Liang, Jyh-Chong (March 2013). "Current status, opportunities and challenges of augmented reality in education...". Computers & Education. 62: 41–49. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.024.
- Rosenberg, Louis B. (1992). "The Use of Virtual Fixtures as Perceptual Overlays to Enhance Operator Performance in Remote Environments".
- Steuer,"Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2018., Department of Communication, Stanford University. 15 October 1993.
- Introducing Virtual Environments Archived 21 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois.
- Rosenberg, L.B. (1993). "Virtual fixtures: Perceptual tools for telerobotic manipulation". Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium. pp. 76–82. doi:10.1109/VRAIS.1993.380795. ISBN 0-7803-1363-1. S2CID 9856738.
- Dupzyk, Kevin (6 September 2016). "I Saw the Future Through Microsoft's Hololens". Popular Mechanics.
- "How to Transform Your Classroom with Augmented Reality - EdSurge News". 2 November 2015.
- Crabben, Jan van der (16 October 2018). "Why We Need More Tech in History Education". ancient.eu. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
- Hegde, Naveen (11 June 2021). "What is Augmented Reality". ANT Developers. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
- Chen, Brian (25 August 2009). "If You're Not Seeing Data, You're Not Seeing". Wired. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- Maxwell, Kerry. "Augmented Reality". macmillandictionary.com. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- "Augmented Reality (AR)". augmentedrealityon.com. Archived from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- Azuma, Ronald (August 1997). "A Survey of Augmented Reality" (PDF). Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. MIT Press. 6 (4): 355–385. doi:10.1162/pres.19220.127.116.115. S2CID 469744. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
- Phenomenal Augmented Reality, IEEE Consumer Electronics, Volume 4, No. 4, October 2015, cover+pp92-97
- Time-frequency perspectives, with applications, in Advances in Machine Vision, Strategies and Applications, World Scientific Series in Computer Science: Volume 32, C Archibald and Emil Petriu, Cover + pp 99–128, 1992.
- Mann, Steve; Feiner, Steve; Harner, Soren; Ali, Mir Adnan; Janzen, Ryan; Hansen, Jayse; Baldassi, Stefano (15 January 2015). "Wearable Computing, 3D Aug* Reality, Photographic/Videographic Gesture Sensing, and Veillance". Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction - TEI '14. ACM. pp. 497–500. doi:10.1145/2677199.2683590. ISBN 9781450333054. S2CID 12247969.
- Carmigniani, Julie; Furht, Borko; Anisetti, Marco; Ceravolo, Paolo; Damiani, Ernesto; Ivkovic, Misa (1 January 2011). "Augmented reality technologies, systems and applications". Multimedia Tools and Applications. 51 (1): 341–377. doi:10.1007/s11042-010-0660-6. ISSN 1573-7721. S2CID 4325516.
- Ma, Minhua; C. Jain, Lakhmi; Anderson, Paul (2014). Virtual, Augmented Reality and Serious Games for Healthcare 1. Springer Publishing. p. 120. ISBN 978-3-642-54816-1.
- Dudhee, Vishak; Vukovic, Vladimir (2021). Mporas, Iosif; Kourtessis, Pandelis; Al-Habaibeh, Amin; Asthana, Abhishek; Vukovic, Vladimir; Senior, John (eds.). "Integration of Building Information Modelling and Augmented Reality for Building Energy Systems Visualisation". Energy and Sustainable Futures. Springer Proceedings in Energy. Cham: Springer International Publishing: 83–89. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-63916-7_11. ISBN 978-3-030-63916-7.
- Dudhee, Vishak; Vukovic, Vladimir (2021). "Building information model visualisation in augmented reality". Smart and Sustainable Built Environment. ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print). doi:10.1108/SASBE-02-2021-0021. ISSN 2046-6099.
- Marvin, Rob (16 August 2016). "Augment Is Bringing the AR Revolution to Business". PC Mag. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
- Stamp, Jimmy (30 August 2019). "Retail is getting reimagined with augmented reality". The Architect's Newspaper. Archived from the original on 15 November 2019.
- Mahmood 2019-04-12T11:30:27Z, Ajmal. "The future is virtual - why AR and VR will live in the cloud". TechRadar. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
- Aubrey, Dave. "Mural Artists Use Augmented Reality To Highlight Effects Of Climate Change". VRFocus. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
- Metz, Rachael (2 August 2012). "Augmented Reality Is Finally Getting Real". technologyreview.com. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- "Fleet Week: Office of Naval Research Technology". eweek.com. 28 May 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- Rolland, Jannick; Baillott, Yohan; Goon, Alexei.A Survey of Tracking Technology for Virtual Environments, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, University of Central Florida.
- Klepper, Sebastian. "Augmented Reality - Display Systems" (PDF). campar.in.tum.de. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- Rolland, Jannick P.; Biocca, Frank; Hamza-Lup, Felix; Ha, Yanggang; Martins, Ricardo (October 2005). "Development of Head-Mounted Projection Displays for Distributed, Collaborative, Augmented Reality Applications". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. 14 (5): 528–549. doi:10.1162/105474605774918741. S2CID 5328957.
- "Gestigon Gesture Tracking – TechCrunch Disrupt". TechCrunch. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
- Matney, Lucas. "uSens shows off new tracking sensors that aim to deliver richer experiences for mobile VR". TechCrunch. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- Grifatini, Kristina. Augmented Reality Goggles, Technology Review 10 November 2010.
- Arthur, Charles. UK company's 'augmented reality' glasses could be better than Google's, The Guardian, 10 September 2012.
- Gannes, Liz. "Google Unveils Project Glass: Wearable Augmented-Reality Glasses". allthingsd.com. Retrieved 4 April 2012., All Things D.
- Benedetti, Winda. Xbox leak reveals Kinect 2, augmented reality glasses NBC News. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "Augmented Reality". merriam-webster.com. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
an enhanced version of reality created by the use of technology to overlay digital information on an image of something being viewed through a device (such as a smartphone camera) also : the technology used to create augmented reality
- "Augmented Reality". oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
A technology that superimposes a computer-generated image on a user's view of the real world, thus providing a composite view.
- "What is Augmented Reality (AR): Augmented Reality Defined, iPhone Augmented Reality Apps and Games and More". Digital Trends. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Full Page Reload". IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- "Patent CA2280022A1 – Contact lens for the display of information such as text, graphics, or pictures".
- Greenemeier, Larry. Computerized Contact Lenses Could Enable In-Eye Augmented Reality. Scientific American, 23 November 2011.
- Yoneda, Yuka. Solar Powered Augmented Contact Lenses Cover Your Eye with 100s of LEDs. inhabitat, 17 March 2010.
- Rosen, Kenneth (8 December 2012). "Contact Lenses Can Display Your Text Messages". Mashable.com. Mashable.com. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- O'Neil, Lauren. "LCD contact lenses could display text messages in your eye". CBC News. Archived from the original on 11 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Anthony, Sebastian. US military developing multi-focus augmented reality contact lenses. ExtremeTech, 13 April 2012.
- Bernstein, Joseph. 2012 Invention Awards: Augmented-Reality Contact Lenses Popular Science, 5 June 2012.
- Robertson, Adi (10 January 2013). "Innovega combines glasses and contact lenses for an unusual take on augmented reality". The Verge. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- Robot Genius (24 July 2012). "Sight". vimeo.com. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- Kosner, Anthony Wing (29 July 2012). "Sight: An 8-Minute Augmented Reality Journey That Makes Google Glass Look Tame". Forbes. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- O'Dell, J. (27 July 2012). "Beautiful short film shows a frightening future filled with Google Glass-like devices". Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- "Samsung Just Patented Smart Contact Lenses With a Built-in Camera". sciencealert.com. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- "Full Page Reload". IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- "Mojo Vision's AR contact lenses are very cool, but many questions remain". TechCrunch. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- "Mojo Vision is developing AR contact lenses". TechCrunch. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- Viirre, E.; Pryor, H.; Nagata, S.; Furness, T. A. (1998). "The virtual retinal display: a new technology for virtual reality and augmented vision in medicine". Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 50 (Medicine Meets Virtual Reality): 252–257. doi:10.3233/978-1-60750-894-6-252. ISSN 0926-9630. PMID 10180549.
- Tidwell, Michael; Johnson, Richard S.; Melville, David; Furness, Thomas A.The Virtual Retinal Display – A Retinal Scanning Imaging System Archived 13 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Human Interface Technology Laboratory, University of Washington.
- "GlassEyes": The Theory of EyeTap Digital Eye Glass, supplemental material for IEEE Technology and Society, Volume Vol. 31, Number 3, 2012, pp. 10–14.
- "Intelligent Image Processing", John Wiley and Sons, 2001, ISBN 0-471-40637-6, 384 p.
- Marker vs Markerless AR Archived 28 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Dartmouth College Library.
- Feiner, Steve (3 March 2011). "Augmented reality: a long way off?". AR Week. Pocket-lint. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- Borge, Ariel (11 July 2016). "The story behind 'Pokémon Go's' impressive mapping". Mashable. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- Bimber, Oliver; Encarnação, L. Miguel; Branco, Pedro (2001). "The Extended Virtual Table: An Optical Extension for Table-Like Projection Systems". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. 10 (6): 613–631. doi:10.1162/105474601753272862. S2CID 4387072.
- Ramesh Raskar, Greg Welch, Henry Fuchs Spatially Augmented Reality, First International Workshop on Augmented Reality, Sept 1998.
- Knight, Will. Augmented reality brings maps to life 19 July 2005.
- Sung, Dan. Augmented reality in action – maintenance and repair. Pocket-lint, 1 March 2011.
- Stationary systems can employ 6DOF track systems such as Polhemus, ViCON, A.R.T, or Ascension.
- Solinix Company (Spanish Language) Mobile Marketing based on Augmented Reality, Archived 28 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine First Company that revolutionizes the concept Mobile Marketing based on Augmented Reality, January 2015.
- Braud, T. "Future Networking Challenges: The Case of Mobile Augmented Reality" (PDF). cse.ust.hk. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- Marshall, Gary.Beyond the mouse: how input is evolving, Touch, voice and gesture recognition and augmented realityTechRadar.computing\PC Plus 23 August 2009.
- Simonite, Tom. Augmented Reality Meets Gesture Recognition, Technology Review, 15 September 2011.
- Chaves, Thiago; Figueiredo, Lucas; Da Gama, Alana; de Araujo, Christiano; Teichrieb, Veronica. Human Body Motion and Gestures Recognition Based on Checkpoints. SVR '12 Proceedings of the 2012 14th Symposium on Virtual and Augmented Reality pp. 271–278.
- Barrie, Peter; Komninos, Andreas; Mandrychenko, Oleksii.A Pervasive Gesture-Driven Augmented Reality Prototype using Wireless Sensor Body Area Networks.
- Bosnor, Kevin (19 February 2001). "How Augmented Reality Works". howstuffworks.
- Bajarin, Tim. "This Technology Could Replace the Keyboard and Mouse". time.com. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
- Meisner, Jeffrey; Donnelly, Walter P.; Roosen, Richard (6 April 1999). "Augmented reality technology".
- Krevelen, Poelman, D.W.F, Ronald (2010). A Survey of Augmented Reality Technologies, Applications and Limitations. International Journal of Virtual Reality. pp. 3, 6.
- Pepsi Max (20 March 2014), Unbelievable Bus Shelter | Pepsi Max. Unbelievable #LiveForNow, retrieved 6 March 2018
- Jung, Timothy; Claudia Tom Dieck, M. (4 September 2017). Augmented reality and virtual reality : empowering human, place and business. Jung, Timothy,, Dieck, M. Claudia tom. Cham, Switzerland. ISBN 9783319640273. OCLC 1008871983.
- Azuma, Ronald; Balliot, Yohan; Behringer, Reinhold; Feiner, Steven; Julier, Simon; MacIntyre, Blair. Recent Advances in Augmented Reality Computers & Graphics, November 2001.
- Maida, James; Bowen, Charles; Montpool, Andrew; Pace, John. Dynamic registration correction in augmented-reality systems Archived 18 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Space Life Sciences, NASA.
- State, Andrei; Hirota, Gentaro; Chen, David T; Garrett, William; Livingston, Mark. Superior Augmented Reality Registration by Integrating Landmark Tracking and Magnetic Tracking, Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
- Bajura, Michael; Neumann, Ulrich. Dynamic Registration Correction in Augmented-Reality Systems Archived 13 July 2012, University of North Carolina, University of Southern California.
- "What are augmented reality markers ?". anymotion.com. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
- "Markerless Augmented Reality is here". Marxent | Top Augmented Reality Apps Developer. 9 May 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- "ARML 2.0 SWG". Open Geospatial Consortium website. Open Geospatial Consortium. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "Top 5 AR SDKs". Augmented Reality News. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "Top 10 AR SDKs". Augmented World Expo. Archived from the original on 23 November 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- Wilson, Tyler (30 January 2018). ""The Principles of Good UX for Augmented Reality – UX Collective." UX Collective". Retrieved 19 June 2019.
- Haller, Michael; Billinghurst, Mark; Thomas, Bruce (2007). Emerging Technologies of Augmented Reality: Interfaces and Design. igi-global.com. IGI Global. ISBN 9781599040660.
- "Best Practices for Mobile AR Design- Google". blog.google. 13 December 2017.
- "Human Computer Interaction with Augmented Reality" (PDF). eislab.fim.uni-passau.de. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2018.
- "Basic Patterns of Mobile Navigation". theblog.adobe.com. 9 May 2017. Archived from the original on 13 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
- "Principles of Mobile App Design: Engage Users and Drive Conversions". thinkwithgoogle.com. Archived from the original on 13 April 2018.
- "Inside Out: Interaction Design for Augmented Reality-UXmatters". uxmatters.com.
- "Don't be blind on wearable cameras insists AR genius". SlashGear. 20 July 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
- Stuart Eve (2012). "Augmenting Phenomenology: Using Augmented Reality to Aid Archaeological Phenomenology in the Landscape" (PDF). Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory. 19 (4): 582–600. doi:10.1007/s10816-012-9142-7. S2CID 4988300.
- Dähne, Patrick; Karigiannis, John N. (2002). Archeoguide: System Architecture of a Mobile Outdoor Augmented Reality System. ISBN 9780769517810. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
- LBI-ArchPro (5 September 2011). "School of Gladiators discovered at Roman Carnuntum, Austria". Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- Papagiannakis, George; Schertenleib, Sébastien; O'Kennedy, Brian; Arevalo-Poizat, Marlene; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Stoddart, Andrew; Thalmann, Daniel (1 February 2005). "Mixing virtual and real scenes in the site of ancient Pompeii". Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds. 16 (1): 11–24. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.64.8781. doi:10.1002/cav.53. ISSN 1546-427X. S2CID 5341917.
- Benko, H.; Ishak, E.W.; Feiner, S. (2004). "Collaborative Mixed Reality Visualization of an Archaeological Excavation". Third IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality. pp. 132–140. doi:10.1109/ISMAR.2004.23. ISBN 0-7695-2191-6. S2CID 10122485.
- Divecha, Devina.Augmented Reality (AR) used in architecture and design Archived 14 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. designMENA 8 September 2011.
- Architectural dreams in augmented reality. University News, University of Western Australia. 5 March 2012.
- Outdoor AR. TV One News, 8 March 2004.
- Churcher, Jason. "Internal accuracy vs external accuracy". Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "Augment for Architecture & Construction". Archived from the original on 8 November 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "App gives a view of city as it used to be". Stuff. 10 December 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Lee, Gun (2012). "CityViewAR outdoor AR visualization". Proceedings of the 13th International Conference of the NZ Chapter of the ACM's Special Interest Group on Human-Computer Interaction - CHINZ '12. Chinz '12. ACM. p. 97. doi:10.1145/2379256.2379281. hdl:10092/8693. ISBN 978-1-4503-1474-9. S2CID 34199215.
- Lock, Oliver (25 February 2020). "HoloCity". doi:10.1145/3359997.3365734.
- Groundbreaking Augmented Reality-Based Reading Curriculum Launches, PRweb, 23 October 2011.
- Stewart-Smith, Hanna. Education with Augmented Reality: AR textbooks released in Japan, ZDnet, 4 April 2012.
- Augmented reality in education smarter learning.
- Shumaker, Randall; Lackey, Stephanie (20 July 2015). Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality: 7th International Conference, VAMR 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2–7 August 2015, Proceedings. Springer. ISBN 9783319210674.
- Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Liang, Jyh-Chong (March 2013). "Current status, opportunities and challenges of augmented reality in education". Computers & Education. 62: 41–49. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.024.
- Lubrecht, Anna. Augmented Reality for Education Archived 5 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Digital Union, The Ohio State University 24 April 2012.
- "Augmented reality, an evolution of the application of mobile devices" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- Maier, Patrick; Tönnis, Marcus; Klinker, Gudron. Augmented Reality for teaching spatial relations, Conference of the International Journal of Arts & Sciences (Toronto 2009).
- Plunkett, Kyle (27 September 2018). "A Simple and Practical Method for Incorporating Augmented Reality into the Classroom and Laboratory". Figshare. doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.7137827.v1. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "Anatomy 4D". Qualcomm. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Moro, Christian; Štromberga, Zane; Raikos, Athanasios; Stirling, Allan (November 2017). "The effectiveness of virtual and augmented reality in health sciences and medical anatomy: VR and AR in Health Sciences and Medical Anatomy". Anatomical Sciences Education. 10 (6): 549–559. doi:10.1002/ase.1696. PMID 28419750. S2CID 25961448.
- Birt, James; Stromberga, Zane; Cowling, Michael; Moro, Christian (31 January 2018). "Mobile Mixed Reality for Experiential Learning and Simulation in Medical and Health Sciences Education". Information. 9 (2): 31. doi:10.3390/info9020031. ISSN 2078-2489.
- Mourtzis, Dimitris; Zogopoulos, Vasilios; Xanthi, Fotini (11 June 2019). "Augmented reality application to support the assembly of highly customized products and to adapt to production re-scheduling". The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 105 (9): 3899–3910. doi:10.1007/s00170-019-03941-6. ISSN 0268-3768. S2CID 189904235.
- Boccaccio, A.; Cascella, G. L.; Fiorentino, M.; Gattullo, M.; Manghisi, V. M.; Monno, G.; Uva, A. E. (2019), Cavas-Martínez, Francisco; Eynard, Benoit; Fernández Cañavate, Francisco J.; Fernández-Pacheco, Daniel G. (eds.), "Exploiting Augmented Reality to Display Technical Information on Industry 4.0 P&ID", Advances on Mechanics, Design Engineering and Manufacturing II, Springer International Publishing, pp. 282–291, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-12346-8_28, ISBN 978-3-030-12345-1
- Mourtzis, Dimitris; Zogopoulos, Vasilios; Katagis, Ioannis; Lagios, Panagiotis (2018). "Augmented Reality based Visualization of CAM Instructions towards Industry 4.0 paradigm: a CNC Bending Machine case study". Procedia CIRP. 70: 368–373. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2018.02.045.
- Michalos, George; Kousi, Niki; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gkournelos, Christos; Dimoulas, Konstantinos; Koukas, Spyridon; Mparis, Konstantinos; Papavasileiou, Apostolis; Makris, Sotiris (November 2018). "Seamless human robot collaborative assembly – An automotive case study". Mechatronics. 55: 194–211. doi:10.1016/j.mechatronics.2018.08.006. ISSN 0957-4158.
- Katts, Rima. Elizabeth Arden brings new fragrance to life with augmented reality Mobile Marketer, 19 September 2012.
- Meyer, David. Telefónica bets on augmented reality with Aurasma tie-in gigaom, 17 September 2012.
- Mardle, Pamela.Video becomes reality for Stuprint.com Archived 12 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. PrintWeek, 3 October 2012.
- Giraldo, Karina.Why mobile marketing is important for brands? Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. SolinixAR, Enero 2015.
- "Augmented reality could be advertising world's best bet". The Financial Express. 18 April 2015. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015.
- Humphries, Mathew. Archived 26 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine.Geek.com 19 September 2011.
- Netburn, Deborah.Ikea introduces augmented reality app for 2013 catalog Archived 2 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Los Angeles Times, 23 July 2012.
- van Krevelen, D.W.F.; Poelman, R. (November 2015). "A Survey of Augmented Reality Technologies, Applications and Limitations". International Journal of Virtual Reality. 9 (2): 1–20. doi:10.20870/IJVR.2010.9.2.2767.
- Alexander, Michael.Arbua Shoco Owl Silver Coin with Augmented Reality, Coin Update 20 July 2012.
- Royal Mint produces revolutionary commemorative coin for Aruba Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Today 7 August 2012.
- "This small iOS 12 feature is the birth of a whole industry". Jonny Evans. 19 September 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- "Shopify is bringing Apple's latest AR tech to their platform". Lucas Matney. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "History re-made: New AR classroom application lets pupils see how York looked over 1,900 years ago". QA Education. 4 September 2018. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- "Sheffield's Twinkl claims AR first with new game". Prolific North. 19 September 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- "Technology from Twinkl brings never seen before objects to the classroom". The Educator UK. 21 September 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
- Pavlik, John V., and Shawn McIntosh. "Augmented Reality." Converging Media: a New Introduction to Mass Communication, 5th ed., Oxford University Press, 2017, pp. 184–185.
- Dacko, Scott G. (November 2017). "Enabling smart retail settings via mobile augmented reality shopping apps" (PDF). Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 124: 243–256. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.09.032.
- "How Neiman Marcus is turning technology innovation into a 'core value'". Retail Dive. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- Arthur, Rachel. "Augmented Reality Is Set To Transform Fashion And Retail". Forbes. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "IKEA's new app flaunts what you'll love most about AR". Wired. 20 September 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
- IKEA Highlights 2017
- Archived 26 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine
- "How Shopify is setting the future of AR shopping and what it means for sellers". Retrieved 29 June 2021.
- "ＡＲ詩 ｜ にかにかブログ！ （おぶんがく＆包丁＆ちぽちぽ革命）". にかにかブログ！ （おぶんがく＆包丁＆ちぽちぽ革命） (in Japanese). Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "10.000 Moving Cities – Same but Different, AR (Augmented Reality) Art Installation, 2018". Marc Lee. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
- tom Dieck, M. Claudia; Jung, Timothy; Han, Dai-In (July 2016). "Mapping requirements for the wearable smart glasses augmented reality museum application". Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology. 7 (3): 230–253. doi:10.1108/JHTT-09-2015-0036. ISSN 1757-9880.
- Kipper, Greg; Rampolla, Joseph (31 December 2012). Augmented Reality: An Emerging Technologies Guide to AR. Elsevier. ISBN 9781597497343.
- "Augmented Reality Is Transforming Museums". WIRED. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- Vankin, Deborah (28 February 2019). "With a free phone app, Nancy Baker Cahill cracks the glass ceiling in male-dominated land art". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
- "In the Vast Beauty of the Coachella Valley, Desert X Artists Emphasize the Perils of Climate Change". artnet News. 12 February 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- Webley, Kayla. The 50 Best Inventions of 2010 – EyeWriter Time, 11 November 2010.
- "Olafur Eliasson creates augmented-reality cabinet of curiosities". 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- "Augmented Reality (AR) vs. Virtual Reality (VR): What's the Difference?". PCMAG. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- Sandee LaMotte. "The very real health dangers of virtual reality". CNN. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- Thier, Dave. "'Jurassic World Alive' Makes Two Big Improvements Over 'Pokémon GO'". Forbes. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- "Research Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Virtual and Augmented Reality, Wearable Technologies". cs.nycu.edu.tw. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- "LightUp - An award-winning toy that teaches kids about circuits and coding". LightUp. Archived from the original on 29 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- "Terminal Eleven: SkyView – Explore the Universe". www.terminaleleven.com. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- "AR Circuits – Augmented Reality Electronics Kit". arcircuits.com. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- "SketchAR - start drawing easily using augmented reality". sketchar.tech. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "Augmented Reality—Emerging Technology for Emergency Management", Emergency Management 24 September 2009.
- "What Does the Future Hold for Emergency Management?", Emergency Management Magazine, 8 November 2013
- Cooper, Joseph (15 November 2007). "Supporting Flight Control for UAV-Assisted Wilderness Search and Rescue Through Human Centered Interface Design". Theses and Dissertations.
- Shu, Jiayu; Kosta, Sokol; Zheng, Rui; Hui, Pan (2018). "Talk2Me: A Framework for Device-to-Device Augmented Reality Social Network". 2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (Per Com). pp. 1–10. doi:10.1109/PERCOM.2018.8444578. ISBN 978-1-5386-3224-6. S2CID 44017349.
- "Effects of Augmented Reality on Social Interactions". Electronics Diary.
- Hawkins, Mathew. Augmented Reality Used To Enhance Both Pool And Air Hockey Game Set Watch15 October 2011.
- One Week Only – Augmented Reality Project Archived 6 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine Combat-HELO Dev Blog 31 July 2012.
- "Best VR, Augmented Reality apps & games on Android". Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Swatman, Rachel (10 August 2016). "Pokémon Go catches five new world records". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
- "'Star Wars' augmented reality game that lets you be a Jedi launched". 31 August 2017.
- "ZENITH: crowdfunded, BitTorrent science fiction thriller". Boing Boing. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- "Daily Dose Pick: Zenith". Flavorwire. 18 December 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- Macaulay, Scott (4 May 2011). "Zenith Creator Vladan Nikolic". Filmmaker Magazine. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- Kohn, Eric (18 January 2011). "Toolkit Case Study: The Transmedia Conspiracy of Vladan Nikolic's "Zenith"". IndieWire. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- Noelle, S. (2002). "Stereo augmentation of simulation results on a projection wall by combining two basic ARVIKA systems". Proceedings. International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality. pp. 271–322. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.121.1268. doi:10.1109/ISMAR.2002.1115108. ISBN 0-7695-1781-1. S2CID 24876142.
- Verlinden, Jouke; Horvath, Imre. "Augmented Prototyping as Design Means in Industrial Design Engineering". Delft University of Technology. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- Pang, Y.; Nee, Andrew Y. C.; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal; Ong, S. K.; Yuan, M. L. (January 2005). "Assembly Design and Evaluation in an Augmented Reality Environment". hdl:1721.1/7441.
- Miyake RK, et al. (2006). "Vein imaging: a new method of near infrared imaging, where a processed image is projected onto the skin for the enhancement of vein treatment". Dermatol Surg. 32 (8): 1031–8. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4725.2006.32226.x. PMID 16918565. S2CID 8872471.
- "Reality_Only_Better". The Economist. 8 December 2007.
- Mountney, Peter; Giannarou, Stamatia; Elson, Daniel; Yang, Guang-Zhong (2009). "Optical Biopsy Mapping for Minimally Invasive Cancer Screening". Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2009. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 5761. pp. 483–490. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-04268-3_60. ISBN 978-3-642-04267-6. PMID 20426023.
- on YouTube
- Loy Rodas, Nicolas; Padoy, Nicolas (2014). "3D Global Estimation and Augmented Reality Visualization of Intra-operative X-ray Dose". Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2014. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 8673. pp. 415–422. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-10404-1_52. ISBN 978-3-319-10403-4. PMID 25333145.
- on YouTube
- "UNC Ultrasound/Medical Augmented Reality Research". Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
- Mountney, Peter; Fallert, Johannes; Nicolau, Stephane; Soler, Luc; Mewes, Philip W. (2014). "An Augmented Reality Framework for Soft Tissue Surgery". Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2014. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 8673. pp. 423–431. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-10404-1_53. ISBN 978-3-319-10403-4. PMID 25333146.
- Botella, Cristina; Bretón-López, Juani; Quero, Soledad; Baños, Rosa; García-Palacios, Azucena (September 2010). "Treating Cockroach Phobia With Augmented Reality". Behavior Therapy. 41 (3): 401–413. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2009.07.002. PMID 20569788.
- "Augmented Reality Revolutionizing Medicine". Health Tech Event. 6 June 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- Thomas, Daniel J. (December 2016). "Augmented reality in surgery: The Computer-Aided Medicine revolution". International Journal of Surgery. 36 (Pt A): 25. doi:10.1016/j.ijsu.2016.10.003. ISSN 1743-9159. PMID 27741424.
- Cui, Nan; Kharel, Pradosh; Gruev, Viktor (8 February 2017). "Augmented reality with Microsoft Holo Lens holograms for near infrared fluorescence based image guided surgery". In Pogue, Brian W; Gioux, Sylvain (eds.). Augmented reality with Microsoft HoloLens holograms for near infrared fluorescence based image guided surgery. Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications III. 10049. International Society for Optics and Photonics. pp. 100490I. doi:10.1117/12.2251625. S2CID 125528534.
- Barsom, E. Z.; Graafland, M.; Schijven, M. P. (1 October 2016). "Systematic review on the effectiveness of augmented reality applications in medical training". Surgical Endoscopy. 30 (10): 4174–4183. doi:10.1007/s00464-016-4800-6. ISSN 0930-2794. PMC 5009168. PMID 26905573.
- Magee, D.; Zhu, Y.; Ratnalingam, R.; Gardner, P.; Kessel, D. (1 October 2007). "An augmented reality simulator for ultrasound guided needle placement training" (PDF). Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. 45 (10): 957–967. doi:10.1007/s11517-007-0231-9. ISSN 1741-0444. PMID 17653784. S2CID 14943048.
- Akçayır, Murat; Akçayır, Gökçe (February 2017). "Advantages and challenges associated with augmented reality for education: A systematic review of the literature". Educational Research Review. 20: 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2016.11.002.
- Tagaytayan, Raniel; Kelemen, Arpad; Sik-Lanyi, Cecilia (2018). "Augmented reality in neurosurgery". Archives of Medical Science. 14 (3): 572–578. doi:10.5114/aoms.2016.58690. ISSN 1734-1922. PMC 5949895. PMID 29765445.
- Davis, Nicola (7 January 2015). "Project Anywhere: digital route to an out-of-body experience". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- "Project Anywhere: an out-of-body experience of a new kind". Euronews. 25 February 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- Project Anywhere at studioany.com
- Lintern, Gavan (1980). "Transfer of landing skill after training with supplementary visual cues". Human Factors. 22 (1): 81–88. doi:10.1177/001872088002200109. PMID 7364448. S2CID 113087380.
- Lintern, Gavan; Roscoe, Stanley N; Sivier, Jonathon (1990). "Display principles, control dynamics, and environmental factors in pilot training and transfer". Human Factors. 32 (3): 299–317. doi:10.1177/001872089003200304. S2CID 110528421.
- Abernathy, M., Houchard, J., Puccetti, M., and Lambert, J,"Debris Correlation Using the Rockwell WorldView System", Proceedings of 1993 Space Surveillance Workshop 30 March to 1 April 1993, pages 189-195
- Kang, Seong Pal; Choi, Junho; Suh, Seung-Beum; Kang, Sungchul (October 2010). Design of mine detection robot for Korean mine field. 2010 IEEE Workshop on Advanced Robotics and its Social Impacts. pp. 53–56. doi:10.1109/ARSO.2010.5679622.
- Calhoun, G. L., Draper, M. H., Abernathy, M. F., Delgado, F., and Patzek, M. "Synthetic Vision System for Improving Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operator Situation Awareness," 2005 Proceedings of SPIE Enhanced and Synthetic Vision, Vol. 5802, pp. 219–230.
- Cameron, Chris. Military-Grade Augmented Reality Could Redefine Modern Warfare ReadWriteWeb 11 June 2010.
- Slyusar, Vadym (19 July 2019). "Augmented reality in the interests of ESMRM and munitions safety".[unreliable source?]
- Delgado, F., Abernathy, M., White J., and Lowrey, B. Real-Time 3-D Flight Guidance with Terrain for the X-38, SPIE Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1999, Orlando Florida, April 1999, Proceedings of the SPIE Vol. 3691, pages 149–156
- Delgado, F., Altman, S., Abernathy, M., White, J. Virtual Cockpit Window for the X-38, SPIE Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 2000, Orlando Florida, Proceedings of the SPIE Vol. 4023, pages 63–70
- GM's Enhanced Vision System. Techcrunch.com (17 March 2010). Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- Couts, Andrew. New augmented reality system shows 3D GPS navigation through your windshield Digital Trends,27 October 2011.
- Griggs, Brandon. Augmented-reality' windshields and the future of driving CNN Tech, 13 January 2012.
- "WayRay's AR in-car HUD convinced me HUDs can be better". TechCrunch. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- Walz, Eric (22 May 2017). "WayRay Creates Holographic Navigation: Alibaba Invests $18 Million". FutureCar. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Cheney-Peters, Scott (12 April 2012). "CIMSEC: Google's AR Goggles". Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- Stafford, Aaron; Piekarski, Wayne; Thomas, Bruce H. "Hand of God". Archived from the original on 7 December 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2009.
- Benford, Steve; Greenhalgh, Chris; Reynard, Gail; Brown, Chris; Koleva, Boriana (1 September 1998). "Understanding and constructing shared spaces with mixed-reality boundaries". ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction. 5 (3): 185–223. doi:10.1145/292834.292836. S2CID 672378.
- Office of Tomorrow Media Interaction Lab.
- The big idea:Augmented Reality. Ngm.nationalgeographic.com (15 May 2012). Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- Henderson, Steve; Feiner, Steven. "Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR)". Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
- Sandgren, Jeffrey. The Augmented Eye of the Beholder Archived 21 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, BrandTech News 8 January 2011.
- Cameron, Chris. Augmented Reality for Marketers and Developers, ReadWriteWeb.
- Dillow, Clay BMW Augmented Reality Glasses Help Average Joes Make Repairs, Popular Science September 2009.
- King, Rachael. Augmented Reality Goes Mobile, Bloomberg Business Week Technology 3 November 2009.
- Abraham, Magid; Annunziata, Marco (13 March 2017). "Augmented Reality Is Already Improving Worker Performance". Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- Arti AR highlights at SRX -- the first sports augmented reality live from a moving car!, retrieved 14 July 2021
- Marlow, Chris. Hey, hockey puck! NHL PrePlay adds a second-screen experience to live games, digitalmediawire 27 April 2012.
- Pair, J.; Wilson, J.; Chastine, J.; Gandy, M. (2002). "The Duran Duran project: The augmented reality toolkit in live performance". The First IEEE International Workshop Agumented Reality Toolkit. p. 2. doi:10.1109/ART.2002.1107010. ISBN 0-7803-7680-3. S2CID 55820154.
- Broughall, Nick. Sydney Band Uses Augmented Reality For Video Clip. Gizmodo, 19 October 2009.
- Pendlebury, Ty. Augmented reality in Aussie film clip. c|net 19 October 2009.
- Saenz, Aaron Augmented Reality Does Time Travel Tourism SingularityHUB 19 November 2009.
- Sung, Dan Augmented reality in action – travel and tourism Pocket-lint 2 March 2011.
- Dawson, Jim Augmented Reality Reveals History to Tourists Life Science 16 August 2009.
- Bartie, Phil J.; MacKaness, William A. (2006). "Development of a Speech-Based Augmented Reality System to Support Exploration of Cityscape". Transactions in Gis. 10: 63–86. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9671.2006.00244.x. S2CID 13325561.
- Benderson, Benjamin B. Audio Augmented Reality: A Prototype Automated Tour Guide Archived 1 July 2002 at the Wayback Machine Bell Communications Research, ACM Human Computer in Computing Systems Conference, pp. 210–211.
- Jain, Puneet and Manweiler, Justin and Roy Choudhury, Romit. OverLay: Practical Mobile Augmented Reality ACM MobiSys, May 2015.
- Tsotsis, Alexia. Word Lens Translates Words Inside of Images. Yes Really. TechCrunch (16 December 2010).
- N.B. Word Lens: This changes everything The Economist: Gulliver blog 18 December 2010.
- Borghino, Dario Augmented reality glasses perform real-time language translation. gizmag, 29 July 2012.
- "Music Production in the Era of Augmented Reality". Medium. 14 October 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- "Augmented Reality music making with Oak on Kickstarter – gearnews.com". gearnews.com. 3 November 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- Clouth, Robert (1 January 2013). "Mobile Augmented Reality as a Control Mode for Real-time Music Systems". Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- Farbiz, Farzam; Tang, Ka Yin; Wang, Kejian; Ahmad, Waqas; Manders, Corey; Jyh Herng, Chong; Kee Tan, Yeow (2007). "A multimodal augmented reality DJ music system". 2007 6th International Conference on Information, Communications & Signal Processing. pp. 1–5. doi:10.1109/ICICS.2007.4449564. ISBN 978-1-4244-0982-2. S2CID 17807179.
- Stampfl, Philipp (1 January 2003). "Augmented Reality Disk Jockey: AR/DJ". ACM SIGGRAPH 2003 Sketches & Applications: 1. doi:10.1145/965400.965556. S2CID 26182835.
- "GROUND-BREAKING AUGMENTED REALITY PROJECT Supporting music production through new technology". Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- "ARmony – Using Augmented Reality to learn music". YouTube. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- "HoloLens concept lets you control your smart home via augmented reality". Digital Trends. 26 July 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- "Hololens: Entwickler zeigt räumliches Interface für Elektrogeräte" (in German). MIXED. 22 July 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- "Control Your IoT Smart Devices Using Microsoft HoloLen (video) – Geeky Gadgets". Geeky Gadgets. 27 July 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- "Experimental app brings smart home controls into augmented reality with HoloLens". Windows Central. 22 July 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- "This app can mix music while you mix drinks, and proves augmented reality can be fun". Digital Trends. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- Sterling, Bruce (6 November 2013). "Augmented Reality: Controlling music with Leapmotion Geco and Ableton (Hands Control)". Wired. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- "Controlling Music With Leap Motion Geco & Ableton". Synthtopia. 4 November 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- "Augmented Reality Interface for Electronic Music Performance". S2CID 7847478. Cite journal requires
- "Expressive Control of Indirect Augmented Reality During Live Music Performances" (PDF). Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- Berthaut, Florent; Jones, Alex (2016). "ControllAR". ControllAR : Appropriation of Visual Feedback on Control Surfaces (PDF). pp. 271–277. doi:10.1145/2992154.2992170. ISBN 9781450342483. S2CID 7180627.
- "Rouages: Revealing the Mechanisms of Digital Musical Instruments to the Audience". May 2013. pp. 6 pages.
- "Reflets: Combining and Revealing Spaces for Musical Performances". May 2015.
- Wagner, Kurt. "Snapchat's New Augmented Reality Feature Brings Your Cartoon Bitmoji into the Real World." Recode, Recode, 14 Sept. 2017, www.recode.net/2017/9/14/16305890/snapchat-bitmoji-ar-Facebook.
- Miller, Chance. "Snapchat's Latest Augmented Reality Feature Lets You Paint the Sky with New Filters." 9to5Mac, 9to5Mac, 25 Sept. 2017, 9to5mac.com/2017/09/25/how-to-use-snapchat-sky-filters/.
- Faccio, Mara; McConnell, John J. (2017). "Death by Pokémon GO". doi:10.2139/ssrn.3073723. SSRN 3073723.
- Peddie, J., 2017, Agumented Reality, Springer[page needed]
- Roesner, Franziska; Kohno, Tadayoshi; Denning, Tamara; Calo, Ryan; Newell, Bryce Clayton (2014). "Augmented reality". Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing Adjunct Publication - UbiComp '14 Adjunct. pp. 1283–1288. doi:10.1145/2638728.2641709. ISBN 978-1-4503-3047-3. S2CID 15190154.
- "The Code of Ethics on Human Augmentation - Augmented Reality : Where We Will All Live -". m.ebrary.net. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- Damiani, Jesse (18 July 2016). "The Future of Tech Just Changed at VRTO--Here's Why That Matters to You". HuffPost. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- "VRTO Spearheads Code of Ethics on Human Augmentation". VRFocus. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- "The Code of Ethics on Human Augmentation". www.eyetap.org. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- Mann, S. (1997). "Wearable computing: a first step toward personal imaging". Computer. 30 (2): 25–32. doi:10.1109/2.566147.
- Rosenberg, Louis B. (1993). "Virtual fixtures as tools to enhance operator performance in telepresence environments". In Kim, Won S (ed.). Telemanipulator Technology and Space Telerobotics. 2057. pp. 10–21. doi:10.1117/12.164901. S2CID 111277519.
- Rosenberg, Louis B. (1995). "Virtual haptic overlays enhance performance in telepresence tasks". In Das, Hari (ed.). Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies. 2351. pp. 99–108. doi:10.1117/12.197302. S2CID 110971407.
- Rosenberg, Louis B (1994). 'Virtual fixtures': perceptual overlays enhance operator performance in telepresence tasks. OCLC 123253939.[page needed]
- C. Segura E. George F. Doherty J. H. Lindley M. W. Evans "SmartCam3D Provides New Levels of Situation Awareness Archived 23 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine", CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 18, Number 9, pages 10–11.
- Feiner, Steven; MacIntyre, Blair; Seligmann, Dorée (July 1993). "Knowledge-based augmented reality". Communications of the ACM. 36 (7): 53–62. doi:10.1145/159544.159587. S2CID 9930875.
- Ravela, S.; Draper, B.; Lim, J.; Weiss, R. (1995). "Adaptive tracking and model registration across distinct aspects". Proceedings 1995 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. Human Robot Interaction and Cooperative Robots. 1. pp. 174–180. doi:10.1109/IROS.1995.525793. ISBN 0-8186-7108-4. S2CID 17175543.
- Azuma, Ronald (August 1997). "A Survey of Augmented Reality" (PDF). Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. MIT Press. 6 (4): 355–385. doi:10.1162/pres.1918.104.22.1685. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
- Azuma, Ronald (2016). "The most important challenge facing augmented reality". Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. MIT Press. 25 (3): 234–238. doi:10.1162/PRES_a_00264. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
- Piekarski, W.; Thomas, B.H. (2001). "Tinmith-Metro: New outdoor techniques for creating city models with an augmented reality wearable computer". Proceedings Fifth International Symposium on Wearable Computers. pp. 31–38. doi:10.1109/ISWC.2001.962093. ISBN 0-7695-1318-2. S2CID 64380.
- Behringer, R.;Improving the Registration Precision by Visual Horizon Silhouette Matching.[dead link] Rockwell Science Center.
- Behringer, R.; Tam, C.; McGee, J.; Sundareswaran, S.; Vassiliou, M. (2000). "Two wearable testbeds for augmented reality: ItWARNS and WIMMIS". Digest of Papers. Fourth International Symposium on Wearable Computers. pp. 189–190. doi:10.1109/ISWC.2000.888495. ISBN 0-7695-0795-6. S2CID 13459308.
- R. Behringer, G. Klinker,. D. Mizell. Augmented Reality – Placing Artificial Objects in Real Scenes. Proceedings of IWAR '98. A.K. Peters, Natick, 1999. ISBN 1-56881-098-9.
- Felix, Hamza-Lup (30 September 2002). "The ARC Display: An Augmented Reality Visualization Center". CiteSeer. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.89.5595.
- Wagner, Daniel (29 September 2009). First Steps Towards Handheld Augmented Reality. ACM. ISBN 9780769520346. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
- "SBIR STTR Development of Low-Cost Augmented Reality Head Mounted Display".
- Markoff, John (24 October 2019). "Always Building, From the Garage to Her Company". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
- Johnson, Joel. "The Master Key": L. Frank Baum envisions augmented reality glasses in 1901 Mote & Beam 10 September 2012.
- "3050870 – Google Search". google.com. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Sutherland, Ivan E. (1968). "A head-mounted three dimensional display". Proceedings of the December 9-11, 1968, fall joint computer conference, part I on - AFIPS '68 (Fall, part I). p. 757. doi:10.1145/1476589.1476686. S2CID 4561103.
- Mann, Steve (2 November 2012). "Eye Am a Camera: Surveillance and Sousveillance in the Glassage". Techland.time.com. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- "Google Glasses Project". Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Absolute Display Window Mouse/Mice". Archived from the original on 6 November 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2020. (context & abstract only) IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin 1 March 1987
- "Absolute Display Window Mouse/Mice". Archived from the original on 19 October 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2020. (image of anonymous printed article) IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin 1 March 1987
- George, Douglas B.; Morris, L. Robert (1989). "A computer-driven astronomical telescope guidance and control system with superimposed star field and celestial coordinate graphics display". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 83: 32. Bibcode:1989JRASC..83...32G.
- Lee, Kangdon (7 February 2012). "Augmented Reality in Education and Training". TechTrends. 56 (2): 13–21. doi:10.1007/s11528-012-0559-3. S2CID 40826055.
- Louis B. Rosenberg. "The Use of Virtual Fixtures As Perceptual Overlays to Enhance Operator Performance in Remote Environments." Technical Report AL-TR-0089, USAF Armstrong Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson AFB OH, 1992.
- Eric R. Fossum (1993), "Active Pixel Sensors: Are CCD's Dinosaurs?" Proc. SPIE Vol. 1900, p. 2–14, Charge-Coupled Devices and Solid State Optical Sensors III, Morley M. Blouke; Ed.
- Schmalstieg, Dieter; Hollerer, Tobias (2016). Augmented Reality: Principles and Practice. Addison-Wesley Professional. pp. 209–10. ISBN 978-0-13-315320-0.
- Wellner, Pierre; Mackay, Wendy; Gold, Rich (1 July 1993). "Back to the real world". Communications of the ACM. 36 (7): 24–27. doi:10.1145/159544.159555. S2CID 21169183.
- Barrilleaux, Jon. Experiences and Observations in Applying Augmented Reality to Live Training.
- NRL BARS Web page
- AviationNow.com Staff, "X-38 Test Features Use of Hybrid Synthetic Vision" AviationNow.com, 11 December 2001
- Behringer, R.; Tam, C.; McGee, J.; Sundareswaran, S.; Vassiliou, M. (2000). "A wearable augmented reality testbed for navigation and control, built solely with commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware". Proceedings IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR 2000). pp. 12–19. doi:10.1109/ISAR.2000.880918. ISBN 0-7695-0846-4. S2CID 18892611.
- Behringer, R.; Tam, C.; McGee, J.; Sundareswaran, S.; Vassiliou, M. (2000). "Two wearable testbeds for augmented reality: ItWARNS and WIMMIS". Digest of Papers. Fourth International Symposium on Wearable Computers. pp. 189–190. doi:10.1109/ISWC.2000.888495. ISBN 0-7695-0795-6. S2CID 13459308.
- 7732694, "United States Patent: 7732694 - Portable music player with synchronized transmissive visual overlays", published 9 Aug 2006, issued 8 June 2010
- Slawski, Bill (4 September 2011). "Google Picks Up Hardware and Media Patents from Outland Research". SEO by the Sea ⚓.
- Wikitude AR Travel Guide. YouTube.com. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- Cameron, Chris. Flash-based AR Gets High-Quality Markerless Upgrade, ReadWriteWeb 9 July 2010.
- "Meta plans true augmented reality with Epson-powered wearable". SlashGear. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
- Lang, Ben (13 August 2013). "Meta 01 Augmented Reality Glasses Available for Pre-order for $667". Road to VR. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
- Sheri, Gill (24 June 2021). "FASHION ICON IT'S MINA LUNA VINCENT!". Fashion-res.
- Microsoft Channel, YouTube , 23 January 2015.
- Bond, Sarah (17 July 2016). "After the Success of Pokémon Go, How Will Augmented Reality Impact Archaeological Sites?". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- C|NET , 20 December 2017.
- Official Blog, Microsoft , 24 February 2019.
Media related to Augmented reality at Wikimedia Commons