August 1927

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1927
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April
May
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14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
28 29 30 31  
August 12, 1927: Sound effects introduced to moviegoers by Wings
August 23, 1927: Sacco and Vanzetti executed in the electric chair
August 10, 1927: Carving to begin at Mount Rushmore
August 7, 1927: Peace Bridge opened between U.S. and Canada

The following events occurred in August 1927:

August 1, 1927 (Monday)[edit]

August 2, 1927 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • While on an extended vacation in Rapid City, South Dakota, U.S. President Calvin Coolidge closed his weekly 9:30 am press conference with a directive to return at noon for a special announcement. When the newspapermen returned to Coolidge's office, located at Central High School, the President told them, "Will you please file past me? I have a little statement for you." Each reporter was handed a folded slip of paper with one typewritten statement: "I do not choose to run for President in nineteen twenty-eight." A reporter asked, "Does the president care to comment further?" The laconic Coolidge replied, "No", and left the room. The surprise had been timed so that it could not make the news until after the close of trade on the stock markets. Speculation about the Republican candidate for President in 1928 included Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, and former Illinois Governor Frank O. Lowden.[5]

August 3, 1927 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Sixteen miners were killed in an explosion at the West Kentucky Coal Company Mine Number 7 at Clay, Kentucky. The disaster occurred one day before the tenth anniversary of an explosion, on August 4, 1917, at the very same mine, which had killed 67 coal miners.[6]
  • Sacco-Vanzetti case: Massachusetts Governor Alvan T. Fuller denied a request for clemency for Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti after reviewing arguments concerning the fairness of their murder trial. Fuller wrote, "As a result of my investigation I find no sufficient justification for executive intervention. I believe with the jury, that those men, Sacco and Vanzetti, were guilty and they had a fair trial." The two men had been given a temporary reprieve on their execution, due to expire on August 10.[7] Whether Fuller actually investigated the case is doubted by some historians.[8]
  • The ill-fated ship SS Carl D. Bradley sailed for the first time. The freighter would sink in Lake Michigan in 1958.[9]

August 4, 1927 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Radio station WFAA in Dallas did the first "rebroadcast" of a news report, repeating NBC Radio's June 11 report of Charles Lindbergh's parade in Washington. Four phonograph records had been made from the broadcast by the RCA Victor company.[10]
  • Three days after the Carter Family had cut their debut single in the same studio, Jimmie Rodgers recorded his first country song. At Bristol, Tennessee, he sang the "yodeling lullaby", "Sleep, Baby, Sleep" and "The Soldier's Sweetheart"[11]
  • Born: Jess Thomas, American tenor, in Hot Springs, South Dakota (d. 1993); and Eddie Kamae, American singer who led music's Hawaiian Renaissance; in Honolulu (still alive in 2011)
  • Died: Eugène Atget, 70, French surrealist photographer

August 5, 1927 (Friday)[edit]

  • The U.S. Federal Reserve Board cut the prime lending rate at the same time that British Chancellor of the Exchequer Winston Churchill placed Britain back on to the gold standard. The action, taken in order to protect the British government from the possibility of the British pound being devalued against the U.S. dollar. This has been described as the first time in history "that one of the world's great economic powers altered its macroeconomic policy with the aim of supporting a minor currency".[12]
  • A previously unknown species of beetle, the Gehringia olympica, was discovered by Philip Darlington, who collected eight specimens at the Sol Duc River in the state of Washington. Darlington named the beetle in honor of J.G. Gehring, who had sponsored the expedition.[13]
  • Sacco-Vanzetti case: Following the denial of clemency to the condemned men, bombs exploded at two subway stations on New York City's 28th Street, seriously injuring two people and hurting many others.[14] The threat of violent protests put police on alert worldwide, including 14,000 in New York.[15]

August 6, 1927 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Harold Stephen Black invented the negative feedback amplifier. Four days earlier, he had come up with the idea while riding the Lackawanna Ferry across the Hudson River to his New York job.[16]
  • The forerunner of the breathalyzer was first demonstrated by Professor Rolla H. Harger of Indiana University, who showed how breath contained in a balloon could be dispersed into sulfuric acid and then accurately measured to calculate blood alcohol content.[17] Harger would patent the "Drunkometer in 1938 for use by police.[18]
  • Born: Richard Murphy, Irish poet, in County Mayo

August 7, 1927 (Sunday)[edit]

Dr. Lysenko

August 8, 1927 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Manila Stock Exchange, first stock market in the Philippines, was established by five American businessmen. On March 4, 1994, the MSE and the rival Makati Stock Exchange would merge to create the Philippine Stock Exchange.[22]
  • Pilot Clarence Chamberlin demonstrated a method for speeding up the delivery of overseas mail, by flying his airplane from the deck of the cruise ship Leviathan, to New York for the first ship to shore delivery.[23]
  • Standard Oil of New Jersey President Walter C. Teagle announced a deal with German chemical cartel IG Farben to produce synthetic motor fuel at a lower price than that refined strictly from oil.[24] Manufacturing using the Bergius process proved to be more expensive than expected. By 1931, synthetic oil cost six times as much as natural petroleum, after both companies had lost millions on the investment.[25]
  • Born: Johnny Temple, American baseball player (d. 1994

August 9, 1927 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Sacco-Vanzetti case: A crowd of 100,000 protesters rallied at Union Square in New York on the eve of the scheduled execution of Sacco and Vanzetti. After the meeting, 2,000 of the protesters marched down Fifth Avenue, where police dispersed them. On the same day, at least 70,000 workers nationwide walked off their jobs.[26]
  • Born: Marvin Minsky, American computer scientist, philosopher and 1970 Turing Award winner; in New York City.

August 10, 1927 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Mount Rushmore was dedicated by President Calvin Coolidge, who promised national funding for the carving and praised, as described later, George Washington for founding America, Jefferson for expanding it, Lincoln for preserving it and Roosevelt for reaching out to the world. Coolidge then handed sculptor Gutzon Borglum a set of drills, and Borglum climbed to the top of the mountain and began drilling where Washington's head would one day be.[27]
  • The French Chamber of Deputies repealed a law that had previously taken away French citizenship from women who married foreigners. There had been no analogous law taking away citizenship of French men with foreign wives.[28]
  • Sacco-Vanzetti case: Forty minutes before they were scheduled to go to the electric chair, Sacco and Vanzetti, along with Celestino Madeiros, were given a twelve-day reprieve by Governor Fuller. The Governor had been notified by the Massachusetts Supreme Court that it would announce at noon Thursday whether it would reconsider the case. The condemned men were informed at 11:27 pm.[29]
  • Dole Air Race: Navy Lieutenants George Covell and R.W. Waggener crashed shortly after takeoff from San Diego, where they had planned to be part of the field for the air race. They were only the first of many casualties associated with the ill-fated competition.[30]
  • Born: Vainu Bappu, Indian astronomer, and co-discoverer of the Wilson–Bappu effect, which permits the judgment of the absolute magnitude of certain types of stars; in Madras (d. 1982); and Jimmy Martin, American musician known as "The King of Bluegrass"; in Sneedville, Tennessee (d.2005)
King Sisowath

August 11, 1927 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Members of the Irish independence party, Fianna Fáil, led by Éamon de Valera, decided to take their seats in the Parliament of the Irish Free State, the Dáil Éireann, even though it would require them to sign an oath of allegiance to the King. Witnesses would later report that de Valera solved the ethical dilemma by covering the written oath with his hand while applying his signature.[31]

August 12, 1927 (Friday)[edit]

  • The Bardo Thodol was first published in the United States as The Tibetan Book of the Dead.[32]
  • Dole Air Race: British pilot Arthur V. Rogers was killed while practicing at Los Angeles for the race to Honolulu, in the third plane crash in as many days for participants. After the deaths of Covell and Waggener on Wednesday, the triplane "Pride of Los Angeles" crashed in San Francisco Bay on Thursday and its crew of three narrowly escaped drowning. The crews of the nine remaining planes postponed the start of the race from Saturday to Tuesday.[33]
  • The film Wings was first presented. Starring Clara Bow and introducing Gary Cooper, the movie was accompanied by recorded sound effects of the various airplanes seen, but not spoken dialogue. It was the first, and only silent film to win the Academy Award for Best Picture.[34]
  • Born: Porter Wagoner, American country music singer, in West Plains, Missouri (d. 2007); and Howard Solomon, CEO of Forest Laboratories, in New York City

August 13, 1927 (Saturday)[edit]

  • After the disaster at Nanchang, General Chiang Kai-shek resigned rather than be fired as Commander of the Kuomintang Army, and temporarily retired to his native village of Xikou.[35]
  • The first live sports broadcast on Japanese radio took place with the play-by-play on the national middle-school baseball tournament in Tokyo. Because of radio censorship rules requiring advance approval by the Ministry of Communication of scripts, permission was granted only on condition that a Ministry official sit next to the announcer to prevent any inappropriate statements. Radio broadcasting had begun on March 22, 1925.[36]
  • Born: (according to some sources) Fidel Castro, Cuban dictator from 1959 onward, in Birán (d. 2016). Although the official birthdate for Castro is August 13, 1926, several of his siblings in exile stated that their father lied about the year in order for him to enroll earlier in school.[37]
  • Died: James Oliver Curwood, 49, America novelist and conservationist. Curwood had been bitten by an insect while on a fishing trip in Florida, and died of blood poisoning on his return to his home in Owosso, Michigan

August 14, 1927 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The first tournament for the Mitropacup opened with eight teams drawn from the top finishers and the cup winners of the national soccer football leagues of Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. Sparta Praha would defeat Rapid Wien in the two game final to win the first cup.[38]
  • Herbert Lord, the Director of the U.S. Bureau of the Budget (now the OMB), announced that there was a surplus of more than two billion dollars in the federal budget. He gave the precise figure of $2,392,909,074.38 for the amount saved.[39]
  • Astronomer C.T. Elvey announced from the Yerkes Observatory in Chicago that the Sun could explode any minute, and added, "If the sun should explode, we would know of it in eight minutes and we would have 138 hours more to live. At that time the burning gases would reach the earth and we would be annihilated."[40]

August 15, 1927 (Monday)[edit]

  • Sacco-Vanzetti case: In East Milton, Massachusetts, the home of Lewis McHardy, who had been one of the jurors who had convicted the two men of murder, was destroyed by a bomb that went off at 3:30 in the morning. McHardy, his wife and three children survived with only cuts and bruises.[41] After the two men were put to death, the home of their executioner and of trial judge Webster Thayer were bombed on May 17, 1928, and September 27, 1932, respectively.[42]
  • Born: Patrick Galvin, Irish poet, in Cork City (d. 2011)
  • Died: Elbert H. Gary, 81, President of United States Steel Company. His death happened at 2:40 am, but was not announced until after the close of trading on Wall Street.[43]

August 16, 1927 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Dole Air Race: With three competitors already out because of crashes, the ill-fated race began with eight airplanes taking off from Oakland, California at noon to fly 2,400 miles to Honolulu, Hawaii. The stakes were a $25,000 first prize and a $10,000 second prize.[44] Two of the planes— El Encanto and the Pabeo Flyer— crashed on takeoff, weighed down by the gasoline. The Dallas Spirit and the Oklahoma both took to the air, but were forced to return with engine problems. Only four planes— Golden Eagle, Miss Doran, Aloha and Woolarac[45]
  • In an 8-1 win by his New York Yankees over the Chicago White Sox, slugger Babe Ruth hit a home run that cleared the roof of the right field grandstands at Comiskey Park by a considerable margin.[46] A contemporary account from the Chicago Tribune said that "Such a blow started from Wrigley Field would jeopardize the lives of golfers on the Lincoln Park course, it was estimated." [47]
  • Born: William Henry Thompson, first African-American recipient of Medal of Honor in the 20th Century; in New York City (killed in action 1950)
  • Died: J. Ogden Armour, 63, heir to the Armour Meat Packing fortune and former President of the company; he lost $130,000,000 in 1921 at his height, he was the world's second richest man, and still had a fortune of $20,000,000 at the time of his death.[48]

August 17, 1927 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Dole Air Race: At 12:33 p.m., local time, Arthur Goebel and Lt. W.V. Davis won the $25,000 prize after being the first to arrive in Honolulu, 26 hours and 16 minutes after they had taken off in the Woolaroc. Coming in second was the Aloha, at 2:22 pm, with Martin Jensen and Paul Schluter capturing the $10,000 second place. Officials waited for the two remaining entrants, the Miss Doran, with Auggy Pedlar, V. R. Knope and Mildred Doran aboard, and the Golden Eagle (with Jack Frost and Gordon Scott), and none of them arrived. The five missing fliers, none of whom were seen again, would bring the number of deaths associated with the race to eight. No trace was found, despite a search of the Pacific route by rescue airplanes.[49] Out of his $10,000 winnings, pilot Jensen gave his navigator, Schulter, only $25.[50]
  • Born: Bernard Cornfeld, controversial American investor and financier who operated Investors Overseas Service in the 1970s; in Istanbul, Turkey (d. 1995)
  • Died: Ivar Fredholm, 61, Swedish mathematician who posed the problem and solution of the Fredholm integral equation

August 18, 1927 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The lowest barometric pressure ever measured at sea level was taken by the crew of the Dutch ship S.S. Sapoerea during a tropical cyclone in the Philippine Sea, at 26.185 inches or 88.673 kilopascals. On October 12, 1979, an estimate of 25.69 in (87.00 kPa) was made by dropsonde observation from an aircraft during Typhoon Tip.[51]
  • Born: Rosalynn Carter, American First Lady, 1977–81, as wife of U.S. President Jimmy Carter; in Plains, Georgia

August 19, 1927 (Friday)[edit]

  • Dole Air Race: On their way to Hawaii to search for five missing fliers Bill Erwin and Al Eichwaldt disappeared after sending a radio distress call. Their plane, the Dallas Spirit, had been forced out of the race three days earlier.[52] When the search for the three airplanes was called off, the final death toll of the race was ten.[53]
  • On his 20th birthday, Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarman was given full powers as the Maharaja of Tripura, one of the princely states of British India.[54]
  • In Cleveland, the Terminal Tower was topped off at 708 feet and 52 stories. At the time, it was the second tallest building in the world, dwarfed only by the 57 story, 792 foot Woolworth Building in New York.[55]
  • Born: L.Q. Jones, American character actor, producer and director; as Justice McQueen, Jr., in Beaumont, Texas

August 20, 1927 (Saturday)[edit]

Mao Zedong
  • Mao Zedong, a lower level member of the Chinese Communist Party, was approached in Hunan by an agent of the Soviet Union's Comintern, and advised that Moscow wanted the CCP to organize workers, peasants, and soldiers into Communist groups. "Mao's instinct for power," wrote on observer later, "led him to grasp immediately the potential of the message." Mao would later write that when he was offered the opportunity, he "jumped 300 chi" (roughly 328 feet) in spirit.[56]
  • Argentina returned to the gold standard, 13 years after suspending the export of gold during World War One. From then on, it was "a 'fair weather' adherent".[57]
  • Born: Peter Oakley, also known as "geriatric1927", former mechanic who gained fame at age 79 as a YouTube celebrity; in Leicester; , Jimmy Raney, American guitarist, in Louisville. and Yootha Joyce, English Actress.
  • Died: Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler, 64, Austrian-American pianist

August 21, 1927 (Sunday)[edit]

August 22, 1927 (Monday)[edit]

August 23, 1927 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Sacco-Vanzetti case: At Charlestown State Prison near Boston, Nicola Sacco, 36 and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, 39 were put to death in the electric chair despite worldwide public outcry. Preceding them in death was Celestino Madeiros, who was executed for an unrelated murder at 12:09 am, but who had sworn that he had committed the 1920 murder of Frederick A. Parmenter and Alexander Berardelli, for which Sacco and Vanzetti had been convicted. Sacco entered the death chamber at 12:11. After reportedly shouting, in Italian, "Long live anarchy!", he then said, in English, "Farewell, mother," and was pronounced dead at 12:19. Vanzetti went to the chair at 12:20 and reportedly said, "I wish to forgive some people for what they are now doing to me." He was pronounced dead at 12:26. All three men were put to death by state executioner Robert G. Elliott.[60]
  • Born: Dick Bruna, Dutch illustrator
  • Died: Saad Zaghlul, 68, Egyptian nationalist and one time Prime Minister of Egypt (in 1924)

August 24, 1927 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • During night maneuvers of Japan's Combined Fleet, the battle cruiser Jintsu struck the starboard side of the Warabi and cut it into two, sinking it immediately with 92 of her crew on board. To avoid the collision, the Naka turned sharply and struck the Ashi, killing 27 of its crew.[61]
  • The Geneva Naval Conference came to an end after nine weeks, with no agreement on reduction of warship construction, and an increase in tension between the United States and the United Kingdom.[62]
  • Ludwig Mies van der Rohe received a patent for a process that allowed the mass production of steel chairs that were both lightweight and strong.[63]
  • Born: Harry Markowitz, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • Died Manuel Díaz Rodríguez, 56, Venezuelan author and politician

August 25, 1927 (Thursday)[edit]

August 26, 1927 (Friday)[edit]

  • British scientist Frederick Griffith submitted the first paper ever describing the transforming principle in genetics. "The Significance of Pneumococcal Types" was published in the January issue of the Journal of Hygiene. The search for the cause of the transformation of pneumococcal bacteria would yield the identification of DNA.[65]
  • The first radio station in Calcutta (Kolkata), and only the second, after Bombay (Mumbai), in India, began broadcasting. There was not a third station until eight years later.[66]
  • 1927 Nova Scotia hurricane: The American racing schooner Columbia sank off of the coast of Sable Island, along with its entire crew of 22 people, along with four other fishing vessels caught up in a sudden storm. In all, 184 people, mostly fishermen, died in the storm.[67]
  • Chinese warlord Sun Chuanfang led an attack on the city of Nanjing, cutting the electric wires and railroad traffic between that city and Shanghai. Sun was later defeated at the Battle of Lung-tan, after radio broadcasting was used to reopen communications.[68]

August 27, 1927 (Saturday)[edit]

August 28, 1927 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Sacco-Vanzetti case: The remains of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were cremated in order to prevent their graves from becoming a shrine. Boston authorities permitted mourners to march in a memorial service.[70]
  • Died: Jimmy Clements, 80, Australian Aboriginal elder presented to royalty on the opening of the first Federal Parliament

August 29, 1927 (Monday)[edit]

  • Near Folsom, New Mexico, Carl Schwachheim found a man-made spearhead imbedded in the skeleton of an ancient bison, proving that human beings had arrived in North America at the end of the last Ice Age, earlier than believed. Carbon dating later determined that the bison had been killed more than 10,000 years earlier.[71]
  • The first World Population Conference opened in Geneva, after having been arranged by Albert Thomas, director of the International Labour Office, and Raymond Pearl, the five-day meeting on population growth did not reach a consensus.[72]
  • Born: Marion Williams, African-American gospel singer, in Miami (d. 1994)

August 30, 1927 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Princes' Gates, with a stone archway, pillars and a statue of The Winged Victory, were dedicated in Toronto to mark the 60th anniversary of the 1867 independence of Canada. The gateway to Exhibition Place was named for the two visiting British princes, the future kings Edward VIII and George VI.[73]
  • Born: Bill Daily, American comedian and TV actor, in Des Moines

August 31, 1927 (Wednesday)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Xiaobing Li, A History of the Modern Chinese Army (University Press of Kentucky, 2007) p47; Sharron Gu, Law and Politics in Modern China (Cambria Press, 2009) p98-101
  2. ^ Wayne Erbsen, Rural Roots of Bluegrass: Songs, Stories and History (Mel Bay Publications, 2003) p54
  3. ^ Eric Lacroix and Linton Wells, Japanese Cruisers of the Pacific War (Naval Institute Press, 1997) p220
  4. ^ The Territories of the Russian Federation 2002 (Europa Publications, 2002) p178
  5. ^ "Not a Candidate - Coolidge", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 3, 1927, p1
  6. ^ "Kentucky Mine Blast Kills 16", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 4, 1927, p3
  7. ^ "Vanzetti and Sacco to Die, Fuller Says", Montreal Gazette, August 4, 1927, p1
  8. ^ Lloyd Chiasson, Illusive Shadows: Justice, Media, and Socially Significant American Trials (Greenwood Publishing, 2003) p115
  9. ^ Michael Schumacher, Wreck of the Carl D.: A True Story of Loss, Survival, and Rescue at Sea (Indiana University Press, 2010) p10
  10. ^ Stephen Taylor, Fats Waller on the Air: The Radio Broadcasts and Discography (Scarecrow Press, 2006) p155
  11. ^ Nick Tosches, Country: The Twisted Roots of Rock 'n' Roll (Da Capo Press, 1996) p110
  12. ^ Daniel A. Bell, East meets West: Human Rights and Democracy in East Asia (Princeton University Press, 2000) p123
  13. ^ George E. Ball, Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Zoogeography of Beetles and Ants: A Volume Dedicated to the Memory of Philip Jackson Darlington, Jr., 1904–1983 (Springer, 1985) p35
  14. ^ "Bomb New York Subways!", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 6, 1927, p1
  15. ^ John F. Neville, Twentieth-century Cause Cèlébre: Sacco, Vanzetti, and the Press, 1920–1927 (Greenwood Publishing, 2004) p119
  16. ^ William H. Middendorf, What Every Engineer Should Know about Inventing (CRC Press, 1981) p21
  17. ^ "Breath Tester Answers Query Of How Drunk", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 7, 1927, p3
  18. ^ "Rolla N. Harger Dies; Invented Drunkometer", New York Times, August 9, 1983
  19. ^ William L. Tung, The Political Institutions of Modern China (Springer, 1968) p155; Stephen Uhalley, A History of the Chinese Communist Party (Hoover Press, 1988) p35
  20. ^ "Party Attends Dedication of Peace Bridge", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 8, 1927, p2
  21. ^ Peter Pringle, The Mmurder of Nikolai Vavilov: The Story of Stalin's Persecution of One of the Great Scientists of the Twentieth Century (Simon and Schuster, 2008) p130
  22. ^ Donald Kirk, The Business Guide to the Philippines (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998) p225
  23. ^ "Air Mail Across the Atlantic", by Clarence Chamberlin, The Rotarian (January 1935) p7
  24. ^ "Standard to Sell Synthetic 'Gas' - at 10 Cents a Gallon", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 9, 1927, p1
  25. ^ Diarmuid Jeffreys, Hell's Cartel: IG Farben and the Making of Hitler's War Machine (Macmillan, 2008) PP 139-142
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  27. ^ "Coolidge Dedicates Mighty Shrine to Four Presidents", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 11, 1927, p2; Peter H. Gibbon, A Call to Heroism: Renewing America's Vision of Greatness (Grove Press, 2003) p118
  28. ^ Jennifer Ngaire Heuer, The Family and the Nation: Gender and Citizenship in Revolutionary France, 1789–1830 (Cornell University Press, 2005) p202
  29. ^ "Reprieve Sacco, Vanzetti!- Lives Spared By Governor Till Aug. 22 For Appeals- Condemned Men Get News 40 Minutes Before Hour for Death", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 11, 1927, p1
  30. ^ "Dole Air Racers Killed", The News (San Jose), August 11, 1927, p1
  31. ^ Thomas E. Hachey and Lawrence J. McCaffrey, The Irish Experience Since 1800: A Concise History (M.E. Sharpe, 2010) p153; Peter Berresford Ellis, Eyewitness to Irish History (John Wiley and Sons, 2007) p262
  32. ^ Peter Bishop, The Myth of Shangri-La: Tibet, Travel Writing, and the Western Creation of Sacred Landscape (University of California Press, 1989) p237
  33. ^ "Tragedy Once Again Takes a Part in Derby Preparations", Schenectady Gazette, August 13, 1927, p1
  34. ^ Donald Crafton, The Talkies: American Cinema's Transition to Sound, 1926–1931 (University of California Press, 1999) p134
  35. ^ Hannah Pakula, The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China (Simon and Schuster, 2009) p177
  36. ^ Allen Guttmann and Lee Austin Thompson, Japanese Sports: A History (University of Hawaii Press, 2001) p134
  37. ^ Robert E. Quirk, Fidel Castro (W. W. Norton & Company, 1995) p3
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  40. ^ "Explosion of Sun Is Seen As Inevitable By Scientists", St. Petersburg (FL) Times, August 15, 1927, p1
  41. ^ "Sacco Juror and Family Escape Death by Bomb Blast", Miami News, August 16, 1927, p1
  42. ^ Philip V. Cannistraro and Gerald Meyer, The Lost World of Italian American Radicalism: Politics, Labor, and Culture (Greenwood Publishing, 2003) p167
  43. ^ "Elbert Gary is Dead", Spokane Daily Chronicle, August 15, 1927, p1
  44. ^ "9 off on Hawaii Hop Today!- Planes Ready for Start at Noon in Race", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 16, 1927, p1
  45. ^ "4 Planes Race to Hawaii; 2 Crash, 2 Forced Back", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 17, 1927, p1
  46. ^ "Long Distance Home Runs", by William J. Jenkinson, Baseball-Almanac.com
  47. ^ "Cub Fans Scout Yankees as They Trim Sox, 8 to 1", Chicago Tribune, August 17, 1927, p19
  48. ^ "Armour Death Reveals Shrunken Fortune- Million a Day for 130 Days Packer's Loss at One Stage", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 17, 1927, p1
  49. ^ "2 Planes Reach Hawaii; Mildred Doran Missing", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 18, 1927, p1
  50. ^ "Winner of $10,000 in Dole Race Gives Only $25 to His Navigator", Boston Daily Globe, August 25, 1927, p8
  51. ^ Pauline Riordan, World Weather Extremes (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1985) p64
  52. ^ "Rescue Plane Sends S.O.S.!", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 21, 1927, p1
  53. ^ John Tayman, The Colony: The Harrowing True Story of the Exiles of Molokai (Simon and Schuster, 2007) pp217-219
  54. ^ N. R. Madhava Menon, Criminal Justice India Series, Volume 12: Tripura, 2003 (Kolkata: Allied Publishers Ltd., 2004) p8
  55. ^ Joseph J. Korom, The American Skyscraper, 1850–1940: A Celebration of Height (Branden Books, 2008) p419
  56. ^ Xiaoyuan Liu, Frontier Passages: Ethnopolitics and the Rise of Chinese Communism, 1921–1945 (Stanford University Press, 2004) p59
  57. ^ World Almanac and Book of Facts 1928 (Newspaper Enterprise Association, 1928) p589; Nissan Liviatan, Proceedings of a Conference on Currency Substitution and Currency Boards, Parts 63-207 (World Bank Publications, 1993) p19
  58. ^ Detlef Mühlberger, Hitler's Voice: The Völkischer Beobachter, 1920–1933 (Volume 2) (Peter Lang, 2004) p246
  59. ^ Joyce Milton, Tramp: The Life of Charlie Chaplin (Da Capo Press, 1998) p276
  60. ^ "Sacco, Vanzetti Die!", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 23, 1927, p1
  61. ^ Eric Lacroix and Linton Wells, Japanese Cruisers of the Pacific War (Naval Institute Press, 1997) pp184-185
  62. ^ Stephen Howarth, To Shining Sea: A History of the United States Navy, 1775–1998 (University of Oklahoma Press, 1999) p347
  63. ^ Michael Farr, Design in British Industry: A Mid-century Survey (Cambridge University Press, 1955) p145
  64. ^ "Redfern Down in Sea or Jungle, Milwaukee Sentinel, August 28, 1927, p1; E. Randall Floyd, Great Southern Mysteries (Barnes & Noble Publishing, 2000) p86
  65. ^ Maclyn McCarty, The Transforming Principle: Discovering That Genes Are Made of DNA (W. W. Norton & Company, 1986) pp 76-77
  66. ^ B.K. Prasad, Media and Social Life in India (Anmol Publications, 2005) p277
  67. ^ Joseph E. Garland, Down to the Sea: The Fishing Schooners of Gloucester (David R. Godine Publisher, 2000) p212
  68. ^ Chʻen Li-fu, The Storm Clouds Clear over China: The Memoir of Chʻen Li-fu, 1900–1993 (Hoover Press, 1994) p69
  69. ^ Merna Forster, 100 Canadian Heroines: Famous and Forgotten Faces (Dundurn Press Ltd., 2004) p193
  70. ^ "Vanzetti and Sacco Bodies Are Cremated", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 29, 1927, p1
  71. ^ David J. Meltzer and Meena Balakrishnan, Folsom: New Archaeological Investigations of a Classic Paleoindian Bison Kill (University of California Press, 2006) p37
  72. ^ Matthew James Connelly, Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population (Harvard University Press, 2008) p70
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  74. ^ Kathleen C. Winters, Amelia Earhart: The Turbulent Life of an American Icon (Macmillan, 2010) p55