August 1934

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The following events occurred in August 1934:

August 1, 1934 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • With Paul von Hindenburg on his death bed, the German government passed the Law on the Head of State of the German Reich, which abolished the title of President and merged its powers with those of Chancellor. Hitler was now to be known as Führer and Reich Chancellor. Passage of the law was not announced until noon the following day.[1][2]
  • Pope Pius XI traveled by automobile to the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo in the Alban Hills, a papal vacation retreat that no pope had visited since 1869. No popes left the Vatican between 1870 and the signing of the Lateran Treaty in 1929, and in the five years since then Pius XI had not left the immediate vicinity of Rome.[3]

August 2, 1934 (Thursday)[edit]

August 3, 1934 (Friday)[edit]

August 4, 1934 (Saturday)[edit]

August 5, 1934 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Adolf Hitler said in a Daily Mail interview that "If it rests with Germany, war will not come again. This country has a more profound impression than any other of the evil that war causes. Ninety-five percent of the members of the National Administration have had personal experiences of its horrors. They know that it is not a romantic adventure but a ghastly catastrophe."[8][9]
  • Born: Wendell Berry, writer, in Henry County, Kentucky; Gay Byrne, radio and television presenter, in Dublin, Ireland

August 6, 1934 (Monday)[edit]

August 7, 1934 (Tuesday)[edit]

August 8, 1934 (Wednesday)[edit]

August 9, 1934 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Adolf Hitler proclaimed a general amnesty for thousands of political prisoners, mostly affecting those incarcerated for lower-level crimes such as criticizing the government. The amnesty did not apply to those serving sentences for high treason, espionage or attempted murder. Hitler also ordered the dissolution of the Austrian Legion, the organization of Austrian Nazis who had crossed the border after Dollfuss had banned the Nazi Party there.[14][15]
  • The German Evangelical National Synod under Reichbischof Ludwig Müller passed a resolution requiring pastors and church officials to swear an oath to be "faithful and obedient to the Führer of the German people, Adolf Hitler."[16]
  • Some 10,000 banana workers went on strike in Costa Rica. The strike, led by Carlos Luis Fallas and other Communist Party organizers, was the largest strike in Costa Rican history at the time.[17]
  • The Bluebell Collision occurred in Newcastle, Australia when the harbour ferry Bluebell struck a coastal freighter and sank.
  • The 4th Women's World Games opened in London.

August 10, 1934 (Friday)[edit]

  • General Werner von Blomberg issued a decree ordering all German soldiers to refer to Hitler as "Mein Führer" instead of "Der Führer".[18]
  • Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees announced that the present season would be his last as a full-time player. "I really don't know what the future holds for me – only time will tell", Ruth said. "I would like to remain in the game as a manager and perhaps do a little pinch hitting on Saturdays and Sundays or days when I figured it would help the gate."[19]
  • Twenty-three-year-old American music student Isobel Lillian Steele was arrested in Berlin on suspicion of espionage. During her four months of captivity her case became a cause célèbre in the American media as the U.S. government worked to free her.[20][21]
  • Born: James Tenney, composer and musical theorist, in Silver City, New Mexico (d. 2006)
  • Died: George W. Hill, 39, American film director and cinematographer

August 11, 1934 (Saturday)[edit]

August 12, 1934 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Babe Ruth visited Fenway Park for the last time as the Yankees split a doubleheader against the Boston Red Sox. A then-Fenway record of 46,776 fans came out to cheer for the Babe in the ballpark where his major league career began in 1914. Ruth went 2-for-5 with a double in the first game and 0-for-1 with two walks in the second game.[24][25]

August 13, 1934 (Monday)[edit]

August 14, 1934 (Tuesday)[edit]

August 15, 1934 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The United States occupation of Haiti ended after 19 years, in accordance with President Roosevelt's Good Neighbor policy towards Latin America, as the last contingent of American troops departed.
  • Hindenburg's 'testament' was published in the German press, speaking highly of "my Chancellor Adolf Hitler and his movement".[1]
  • William Beebe and Otis Barton broke their own deep-sea diving record again, achieving a depth of 3,028 feet. Beebe attempted to take some motion picture film of the deep sea fish he first saw on Saturday, but the fish kept swimming away from the bathysphere's searchlight and the film proved inconclusive.[30]
  • Born: Nino Ferrer, singer, in Genoa, Italy (d. 1998)

August 16, 1934 (Thursday)[edit]

August 17, 1934 (Friday)[edit]

  • In Hamburg, Hitler made his lone campaign speech before the referendum, explaining that he arranged for the abolition of the presidency in order to prevent any attempts by foreign elements to stir up intrigues over the question of succession. Hitler also attacked the system of government under the old Weimar Republic as not being capable of action but "only of compromise."[34]
  • John Labatt was released by his kidnappers at Forest Hill, Toronto when they panicked over the ransom money not arriving fast enough while the police were closing in. Labatt promised his kidnappers he would deliver $25,000 to a place of their choosing in exchange for his release, but they did not try to contact him again and he never paid.[35]
  • The adventure film Treasure Island starring Wallace Beery and Jackie Cooper was released.

August 18, 1934 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Manchukuo severed all relations with the Soviet Union due to a variety of border incidents including soldiers firing on each other. The two states did not have formal diplomatic relations but had been communicating unofficially due to shared borders and commercial interests.[36]
  • Born: Vincent Bugliosi, attorney and author, in Hibbing, Minnesota (d. 2015); Roberto Clemente, baseball player, in San Juan, Puerto Rico (d. 1972)

August 19, 1934 (Sunday)[edit]

August 20, 1934 (Monday)[edit]

August 21, 1934 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • An international Jewish conference in Geneva declared that the boycotting of Nazi Germany would be redoubled until the rights of German Jews were fully restored. Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise said that the boycott would not be abandoned until the Nazi regime canceled every law or practice "violating human freedom, political equality and the ideals of civilization."[40]
  • The Minneapolis general strike ended after three months. Martial law was ordered lifted from the city.[41]
  • Benito Mussolini met with Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg in Florence.[42]

August 22, 1934 (Wednesday)[edit]

August 23, 1934 (Thursday)[edit]

August 24, 1934 (Friday)[edit]

  • Eugenics officials in Nazi Germany issued Ten Commandments for marriage.[46] Number 5 proclaimed, "As a German choose only a spouse of the same or Nordic blood", while Number 10 said, "You should want to have as many children as possible."[47]
  • American journalist Dorothy Thompson received a letter from the Gestapo ordering her to leave Germany, citing what it called "numerous anti-German articles in the American press."[48]
  • The U.S. and Cuban governments signed a reciprocal trade agreement to strengthen economic ties between the two countries.[39]

August 25, 1934 (Saturday)[edit]

August 26, 1934 (Sunday)[edit]

August 27, 1934 (Monday)[edit]

August 28, 1934 (Tuesday)[edit]

August 29, 1934 (Wednesday)[edit]

August 30, 1934 (Thursday)[edit]

August 31, 1934 (Friday)[edit]

  • The German press office announced that 65,000 Jews had emigrated from Germany since Hitler became chancellor on January 30, 1933. 21,000 of them had gone to France, 10,000 to Palestine, 8,000 to Poland and 4,000 to Czechoslovakia.[60]
  • The Nightmare of 1934 painting was vandalized by an illegal immigrant who set it on fire because he found it offensive to the Roosevelt family.[61]
  • Born: Heinz Goll, sculptor, in Klagenfurt, Austria (d. 1999)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Winkler, Heinrich August (2000). Germany: 1933–1990. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-19-926598-5. 
  2. ^ a b Mercer, Derrik (1989). Chronicle of the 20th Century. London: Chronicle Communications Ltd. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-582-03919-3. 
  3. ^ "Pope at Summer Castle; First to Leave Vatican". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 2, 1934. p. 8. 
  4. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (August 3, 1934). "Hitler Supreme in Germany". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  5. ^ Evans, Arthur (August 4, 1934). "Outlines U. S. Power Plans". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  6. ^ Blevins, Dave (2012). The Sports Hall of Fame Encyclopedia. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. p. 738. ISBN 978-0-8108-6130-5. 
  7. ^ "Runs Scored Records". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  8. ^ "'War Means Ruin' – Hitler". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 6, 1934. p. 1. 
  9. ^ "Germany Will Never Start Another War Says Hitler; Intention of Annexing Austria Denied by Chancellor". Deseret News. Salt Lake City: 2. August 6, 1934. 
  10. ^ "Sound Tattoo for Hindenburg on Last March". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 7, 1934. pp. 1, 13. 
  11. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (August 8, 1934). "200,000 Mourn at Final Rites for Hindenburg". Chicago Daily Tribune. pp. 1, 4. 
  12. ^ Ettlinger, Harold (August 9, 1934). "Austria Hurls New Defiance at German Nazis". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 5. 
  13. ^ "12 Drowned as Motorbus Slides Into Polish River". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 9, 1934. p. 5. 
  14. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (August 10, 1934). "Hitler Amnesty to Open Prisons for Thousands". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 9. 
  15. ^ Mason, Kevin (2007). Building an Unwanted Nation: The Anglo-American Partnership and Austrian Proponents of a Separate Nationhood, 1918–1934. Ann Arbor: ProQuest. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-549-32486-7. 
  16. ^ Bonhoeffer, Dietrich (2003). Discipleship. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-8006-8324-5. 
  17. ^ Paige, Jeffrey M. (1997). Coffee and Power: Revolution and the Rise of Democracy in Central America. Harvard University Press. pp. 135–136. ISBN 978-0-674-13649-6. 
  18. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (August 11, 1934). "Hitler Decrees Army Must Call Him "My Leader"". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 3. 
  19. ^ ""My Final Year as a Regular", Says Babe Ruth". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 11, 1934. p. 13. 
  20. ^ "American Anti-Nazi Films Rediscovered". Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  21. ^ "Germany: Steel Case". Time. November 19, 1934. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  22. ^ "Dives 2,510 Ft. Under Ocean". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 12, 1934. p. 1. 
  23. ^ "Beebe Finds Fish with Headlights at 2,510 Ft. Depth". Chicago Daily Tribune: 11. August 13, 1934. 
  24. ^ "46,000 at Ruth's Last Roundup in Boston Stands". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 13, 1934. p. 21. 
  25. ^ Redmount, Robert (1998). The Red Sox Encyclopedia. Champaign, Illinois: Sports Publishing. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-58261-012-2. 
  26. ^ Green, Diana. "Li'l Abner." Comics through Time: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas. Ed. M. Keith Booker. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2014. 230. ISBN 978-0-313-39751-6.
  27. ^ Ettlinger, Harold (August 14, 1934). "Four Policemen Hanged for Part in Dollfuss Raid". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 2. 
  28. ^ "Kidnapers Ask $150,000 for Canada Brewer". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 15, 1934. p. 1. 
  29. ^ "Goering in Road Accident". The Advertiser. Adelaide: 15. August 16, 1934. 
  30. ^ "Dr. Beebe Sees a Monster on 3,028 Ft. Dive". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 16, 1934. p. 1. 
  31. ^ "Italy Removes Huge Army from Austrian Border". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 17, 1934. p. 5. 
  32. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (August 17, 1934). "Jails Pour Out Hordes Freed by Hitler Amnesty". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 5. 
  33. ^ "Calendar of Current Releases". Variety. New York: Variety, Inc.: 23 August 28, 1934. 
  34. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (August 18, 1934). "My Coup Saved Nation! Hitler Tells Germany". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
  35. ^ Booth, J.D. (December 30, 2011). "'Voices from Lambton's Past': the Labatt kidnapping, part 3". Lambton Shield. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  36. ^ "All Ties With Russia Broken by Manchukuo". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 19, 1934. p. 2. 
  37. ^ Limbach, Raymond D. "Loyalty Oath to Hitler (August 2, 1934)." Germany at War: 500 Years of Military History. Ed. David T. Zabecki. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC. 2014. 786. ISBN 978-1-59884-981-3.
  38. ^ "Hindenburg's Real Will Named Kaiser, Paris Soir Claims". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 21, 1934. p. 6. 
  39. ^ a b "Chronology 1934". indiana.edu. 2002. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  40. ^ "Jews Urged to Double Boycott on Nazi Goods". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 22, 1934. p. 3. 
  41. ^ "Truck Drivers' Strike Ends in Minneapolis". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 22, 1934. p. 1. 
  42. ^ "Austria Must Be Kept Free, Il Duce Warns". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 22, 1934. p. 13. 
  43. ^ "Al Capone and 42 Prison Pals Locked in New Island Cells". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 23, 1934. p. 2. 
  44. ^ Day, Donald (August 23, 1934). "Polish-French Row Brings Duel; Editor Wounded". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 6. 
  45. ^ "Canada to Move 40,000 Families to New Farms". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 24, 1934. p. 10. 
  46. ^ "Hitler Writes German Creed on Marriage". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 25, 1934. p. 1. 
  47. ^ "Women in Nazi Germany". German Culture. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  48. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (August 26, 1934). "Sinclair Lewis' Wife Banished from Germany". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1. 
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  52. ^ "Irish Blue Shirt Chief Forbidden to Enter Ulster". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 28, 1934. p. 7. 
  53. ^ "Honor Cartier in Canada; Stone Cross Unveiled". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 28, 1934. p. 7. 
  54. ^ "Herb Pennock 1934 Pitching Gamelogs". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  55. ^ "Life Begins at 8:40". Playbill Vault. Archived from the original on July 1, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  56. ^ Bruce, Brendan (2013). On the Origin of Spin. CreateSpace. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4905-7135-5. 
  57. ^ "PWA Artists Roasts New Dealers in Oil". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 29, 1934. p. 1. 
  58. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (August 31, 1934). "Germany Fires Youths; Family Heads Get Jobs". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 4. 
  59. ^ "Policies of Hitler Win O.K. of Queen Victoria's Grandson". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 31, 1934. p. 4. 
  60. ^ "65,000 Jews Have Left Germany, Nazi Press Office Claims". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 1, 1934. p. 5. 
  61. ^ "Hurls Acid on Mural Painting of Roosevelts". Chicago Daily Tribune. September 1, 1934. p. 5.