2006 transatlantic aircraft plot

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Police at the scene of one of the raids, on Forest Road, Walthamstow, London

The 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot was a terrorist plot to detonate liquid explosives, carried on board airliners travelling from the United Kingdom to the United States and Canada, disguised as soft drinks.[1] The plot was discovered by British police during an extensive surveillance operation. As a result of the plot, unprecedented security measures were initially put in place at airports. The measures were gradually relaxed in the following weeks, but passengers are still not allowed to carry liquid containers larger than 100 ml onto commercial aircraft in the UK and many other countries, as of 2018.

Of 24 suspects who were arrested in and around London on the night of 9 August 2006, eight were initially tried for terrorism offences in connection with the plot. The first trial took place from April to September 2008. The jury failed to reach a verdict on charges of conspiracy to kill by blowing up aircraft but did find three men guilty of conspiracy to murder and acquitted one other of all charges. In September 2009, a second trial (of the now seven originally accused but with the addition of another man) found three men guilty of conspiracy to kill by blowing up aircraft and one other guilty of conspiracy to murder, while the 'additional' man was cleared of all terrorism charges.[2]

In July 2010, a further three of the accused were found guilty at a third trial at Woolwich Crown Court of conspiracy to murder.[3] Thus, of the nine men tried, two were acquitted and seven found guilty of conspiracy charges.

Surveillance[edit]

In Pakistan, a British man from Birmingham named Rashid Rauf is believed to have put plotters in touch with al-Qaeda's leadership.[4] When Abdulla Ahmed Ali, who was under police surveillance, returned from Pakistan in June 2006, investigators covertly opened his baggage. Inside they found a powdered soft drink—Tang—and a large number of batteries, which raised suspicions; in the following weeks the police mounted the UK's largest surveillance operation, calling on an additional 220 officers from other forces.

Assad Sarwar (from High Wycombe) was seen buying items that did not appear to fit with his daily needs. On one occasion surveillance officers watched him dispose of empty hydrogen peroxide bottles at a recycling centre. Sarwar and Ali were seen meeting in an east London park. When MI5 covertly entered a flat being used by Ali, they found what appeared to be a bomb factory. They installed a camera and microphone and on 3 August, Ali and Tanvir Husain were filmed constructing devices out of drink bottles. Surveillance officers later watched Ali spend two hours in an Internet cafe researching flight timetables.[5]

Arrests[edit]

On 9 August 2006, British police arrested 24 people for questioning. The arrests were made in London, Birmingham, and High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, in an overnight operation. Two of the arrests were made in the Birmingham area and five were made in High Wycombe; firearms officers were not involved in the arrests.[6] The key suspects were British-born Muslims, some of Pakistani descent.[7][8][9] Three of the suspects were recent converts to Islam.[10]

Eight of the suspects were later charged with conspiracy to murder and commit acts of terrorism a further three with failing to disclose information about acts of terrorism and one youth with possession of articles related to a terrorist act. Others were released without charge.[11]

Police said they had been observing the plot evolve for months, and that the "investigation reached a critical point" on the night of 9 August 2006. when the decision was made to take urgent action in order to disrupt what was believed was being planned.[12] An undercover British agent had infiltrated the group, according to CNN sources.[13] According to Franco Frattini, the European Commissioner for Justice, Freedom & Security, "the plotters received a very short message to 'Go now'", while British officials denied any explicit message existed.[11] However, it was not clear when the attacks were planned to have been launched, and the New York Times has since reported that the plans were at an earlier stage than had been initially stated.[11]

British authorities carried out a total of 69 searches of residences, businesses, vehicles and open spaces, which netted possible bomb-making equipment and chemicals including hydrogen peroxide, Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke said on 21 August 2006. "As well as the bomb-making equipment, we have found more than 400 computers, 200 mobile telephones and 8,000 items of removable storage media such as memory sticks, CDs and DVDs," he said. "So far, from the computers alone, we have removed some 6,000 gigabytes of data." It will take "many months" for investigators to analyse all of the data, he said.[14] Police said they found a list of flights on a memory stick belonging to Mr. Ali following his arrest. The memory stick listed scheduled flights from three carriers – American Airlines, United Airlines and Air Canada.[15]

Disagreement over when to make the arrests[edit]

NBC News reported disagreement between the United States and the United Kingdom over when to make the arrests. According to NBC News, a senior British official contended that an attack was not imminent, noting that the suspects had not yet purchased airline tickets and some did not even have passports; he had urged that the investigation continue to collect more evidence.[16]

The same source also told NBC News that the United States had threatened to use extraordinary rendition upon suspected ringleader Rashid Rauf in Pakistan, or to pressure the Pakistan government to arrest him. A United States official acknowledged disagreement over the timing of arrests and that British officials had believed that an attack was not imminent. However, Frances Townsend, Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, denied the report of a dispute: "There was no disagreement between US and UK officials."[16]

In Ron Suskind's The Way of the World (2008), Dick Cheney is reported to have "ordered" the arrest of Rauf in Pakistan in August 2006, apparently with a view to providing "good news" ahead of the US 2006 mid-term elections.[17]

The plot[edit]

The plotters planned to use peroxide-based liquid explosives,[9] the Metropolitan Police said that the plot involved acetone peroxide, (TATP),[18] which is sensitive to heat, shock, and friction, and can be initiated with fire or an electrical charge, and can also be used to produce improvised detonators.[19][20]

During the trial of the conspirators, the prosecution stated that each bomber would board a plane with the "necessary ingredients and equipment". They would then construct the devices mid-flight and detonate them. The hydrogen peroxide would be placed in 500 ml plastic bottles of the Oasis and Lucozade soft drinks. A sugary drink powder, Tang, would be mixed with the hydrogen peroxide to colour it to resemble a normal soft drink. Hydrogen peroxide is widely available for use as hair bleach and along with the other ingredients can become explosive if mixed to a specific strength. The mixture would be injected into the bottles with a syringe. The bottle's cap would not have been removed and the hole would have been resealed, thereby allowing the device to resemble a normal, unopened drink bottle when screened by airport security. The use of liquid explosives with dissolved powder is similar to the composition used in the 21 July 2005 London bombings, using hydrogen peroxide and chapatti flour, activated by a detonator.[21]

A second substance, a type of high explosive, would be hidden within an AA battery casing; this small explosive charge would detonate the main bomb. The charge would be detonated by linking the bottle of explosives to a light bulb and a disposable camera. The charge from the camera's flash unit would trigger the explosion.[15]

On 28 August 2006 the New York Times reported that seven martyrdom tapes made by six suspects were recovered.[11] This number was not confirmed by the prosecution during the subsequent trial.[citation needed]

Flights targeted[edit]

Prosecutors at the court hearing said that the suspects had talked about including 18 suicide bombers and that they had examined Denver, Boston, and Miami as possible flight destinations to target along with the following flights, details of which they had put on USB sticks.[22]

Targeted flights

All flights were departures from London Heathrow Airport, London.

Responsibility[edit]

There was speculation in the UK that the militant Islamic organisation al-Qaeda could be behind the plot, which, it was claimed, was scheduled to take place only weeks after the group threatened to attack British aviation.[not in citation given][23] United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Secretary Chertoff stated the plot, which was "getting close to the execution phase", was "suggestive of an al-Qaeda plot".[24]

Alleged Pakistani involvement[edit]

Press reports claimed that the bombers were funded by "charities" intended to help victims of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake.[25][unreliable source?] The FBI and Scotland Yard investigated links to militants and the flow of money to the conspirators.[26] Pakistan and international press also reported that Rashid Rauf had links with the Jaish-e-Mohammed, a Kashmir militant group banned by several countries.[27][28] Media reports state that he has close family ties to Maulana Masood Azhar, one of the most wanted criminals in India.[29]

In Pakistan, law enforcement authorities interrogated Rashid Rauf, a Briton of Pakistani descent, over his alleged key role in the plot. Pakistani Interior Minister Aftab Khan Sherpao said British police were conducting inquiries in Pakistan but were not involved in questioning Rauf.[30] The UK Foreign Office sought Rauf's extradition from Pakistan, and it was reported that Pakistan planned to accept the request.[31] However, in mid-December 2006, terrorism charges against Rauf were dropped by a Pakistani judge, who ruled there was a lack of evidence. Rauf's case was transferred from a terrorism court to a regular court where he faced lesser charges including forgery.[32] The charges were later dropped, and Rauf was reported killed in a US drone attack in Pakistan in November 2008.[citation needed]

Public announcement[edit]

On 10 August 2006, British Home Secretary John Reid, broke the news, along with Douglas Alexander, the Transport Secretary.[33] The same day, Deputy Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, Paul Stephenson, said that a plot, intended to destroy as many as ten aircraft in mid-flight from the United Kingdom to the United States using explosives brought on board in the suspects' hand luggage, had been disrupted.[9] News media reported that planned targets included American Airlines, British Airways, Continental Airlines, and United Airlines flights from London Heathrow and London Gatwick airports to Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles; Miami; Orlando; Boston; Newark; New York City; San Francisco; Cleveland and Washington, D.C.[34] Air Canada flights were also included, with destinations being Montreal and Toronto. BBC security correspondent Gordon Corera said the plot involved a series of simultaneous attacks, targeting three planes each time.[35] Reports vary regarding the number of planes involved, ranging from three to twelve.[36][37] In a press release, the United States Secretary of Homeland Security, Michael Chertoff, said "multiple commercial aircraft" were targeted.[38] Some reports say the attacks were planned for 16 August, but police said no evidence of any specific date had been found.[39][40] British officials later stated that the estimate of ten aircraft was "speculative and exaggerated."[11]

In the United States, the announcement was made during a joint press conference by the Secretary of Homeland Security, Michael Chertoff, the Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration Kip Hawley and the Director of the FBI Robert Mueller. Chertoff refused to be drawn on questions about the design of the devices or whether any bombs had actually been built.[38]

On the same day, President George W. Bush commented upon arrival in Wisconsin: "The recent arrests that our fellow citizens are now learning about are a stark reminder that this nation is at war with Islamic fascists who will use any means to destroy those of us who love freedom, to hurt our nation."[41]

Prior to the arrests, the plot had been discussed at the highest levels of government; Prime Minister Tony Blair had known about it for months, and had discussed it with President George W. Bush on a number of occasions.[42]

Responses[edit]

  • Prime Minister Tony Blair was on holiday during these events, but decided not to return to the UK. Blair had been notified of the raid prior to its occurrence, and kept in constant contact with officials. He briefed President George W. Bush about the raid overnight.[43]
  • Britain's Deputy Prime Minister, John Prescott, running the UK government during Tony Blair's holiday, paid tribute to the way the UK reacted to what he called an "extraordinary past 36 hours… in the efforts to protect this country". He expressed his "deepest appreciation" to the "real dedication" shown by security services, police, transport staff and aviation companies and praised Home Secretary, John Reid, and Transport Secretary Douglas Alexander. Prescott added that the British public had acted "calmly, sensitively and with great patience."[44]
  • On 12 August, British Muslim groups sent an open letter to the Prime Minister, stating that "current British government policy risks putting civilians at increased risk both in the UK and abroad."[45] The letter also stated "Attacking civilians is never justified", and encouraged the UK to reassess its foreign policy in order to maintain the safety of individuals both in the UK and abroad. In interviews with the BBC, John Reid described the letter as "a dreadful misjudgement", and former Conservative leader Michael Howard described it as "a form of blackmail".[46]

Scepticism in response to the arrests[edit]

Several commentators expressed scepticism over the allegations.[47][48][49] Many mentioned the Forest Gate raid, the shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes and the Iraq War, all based on intelligence that turned out to be wrong, as reasons for their doubts.[50][51]

Former UK ambassador to Uzbekistan Craig Murray was sceptical of the account of the plot. He said that "None of the alleged terrorists had made a bomb. None had bought a plane ticket. Many did not have passports". He also suggested that suspected ringleader Rashid Rauf had invented the plot under torture in Pakistan.[52]

Technology website The Register explored the practicalities of producing TATP on board a plane from constituent liquids and concluded that, while theoretically possible, the chances of success would be extremely low. Later, following additional details revealed at the trial, The Register wrote that the plot and bombing method chosen were viable.[53][54]

Lieutenant-Colonel Nigel Wylde, a former senior British Army Intelligence Officer, declared the plot to be "fiction", an invention of the UK security services intended to justify new security measures that threatened to permanently curtail civil liberties. He said the explosives in question could not possibly have been produced on the plane.[55][56]

Security reaction[edit]

In the immediate aftermath of the first arrests, passengers were forbidden from carrying any liquids, apart from baby milk, onto flights between the United States and the United Kingdom. Since passengers could purchase beverages after passing airport security checkpoints in some American airports, gate checkpoints were also introduced at such airports.[57]

United Kingdom[edit]

Following the raids, the UK terror alert level was raised by the Joint Terrorist Analysis Centre from 'Severe' to 'Critical', signalling an attack was believed to be imminent.[34] On 14 August 2006 the threat level was reduced from 'Critical' to 'Severe'.[58]

Immediately following the raids, no hand luggage was allowed except for essentials such as travel documents and wallets. Limited hand baggage was reintroduced at some smaller airports on 14 August, but was not permitted at Heathrow and Gatwick Airports until 15 August.[59] Some restrictions were relaxed in September 2006,[60][61] and on 6 November 2006 restrictions were again relaxed to allow limited volumes of liquids to be carried into the cabin.[59]

United States[edit]

Following the operation, United States Homeland Security banned all liquids and gels except baby formula and prescription medicines in the name of the ticket holder in carry-on luggage on all flights.[62] The DHS level in the United States was raised to 'Severe' (red) for all flights from the UK.[63] The terror level for all other domestic or non-British international flights to the United States was raised to 'High' (orange).[63]

From 13 August 2006, airline passengers in the United States could take up to 3.4 US fl oz (101 ml) of non-prescription medicine, glucose gel for diabetics, solid lipstick, and baby food aboard flights. The TSA also began demanding that passengers remove their shoes so they could be X-rayed before boarding.[64] Eventually passengers were allowed to carry only 100 ml (3.5 imp fl oz; 3.4 US fl oz) of liquid in their hand luggage,[65] TSA standards required all non-medical liquids to be kept in a quart-sized plastic bag, with only one bag per passenger.[65]

Effects[edit]

Overall, an estimated 400,000 passengers were affected because of the alerts. It has been estimated that the first day of delays cost the airlines over £175 million.[66] As many as 20,000 bags are believed to have been misplaced at Heathrow.[67]

Flight cancellations[edit]

All international inbound flights to London Heathrow Airport were cancelled on the day of the arrests except those already en route. Some flights to and from London Gatwick Airport were also suspended.[68] Later on that evening, some flights had resumed, shorter flights were resumed around 6pm. However, passengers boarding planes were told they could only carry boarding passes and passports. All other belongings were to be checked in with the rest of their luggage.

Tents on the car park in front of terminal 4. Heathrow, 14 August. Erected to give people a place to stay while waiting for their flight to depart

A few hours after the beginning of the confusion, aircraft began to fly out of London Heathrow, although in reduced numbers. The situation remained chaotic with long queues of passengers waiting to check-in and get through the strengthened security procedures. Some aircraft were reportedly leaving Heathrow with only transit passengers aboard.

On Sunday 13 August, 30% of flights out of Heathrow were cancelled to reduce pressure on screeners.[69] By 15 August flight cancellations had fallen to 47 flights at Heathrow, and 8 Ryanair flights from Stansted. It was reported by BA that 10,000 items of baggage belonging to their passengers had gone missing. It was anticipated that cancellations would reduce on 16 August, with 90% of flights expected to depart as scheduled.[70]

Controversy over the alert[edit]

On 12 August a public argument broke out between BAA, the operator of Heathrow and other airports, and British Airways, with Willie Walsh, BA's Chief Executive, accusing BAA of not being able to cope with the increased security and baggage checks. Ryanair also called on the British government to employ police and military reservists to speed up the full body searches which were now mandated.[71]

Three days later on 12 August 2006 the owner and operator of London Heathrow, BAA ordered airlines using the airport to make a 30 per cent reduction in departing passenger flights (something BA was already having to do as many passengers missed flights due to the extra time it took to clear security), to help reduce delays and cancellations.[72]

On 18 August Ryanair's CEO, Michael O'Leary delivered an ultimatum to the British government demanding the resumption of normal hand baggage dimensions and hand screening one passenger in four instead of one in two within one week, otherwise Ryanair would sue the Government for compensation under section 93 of the Transport Act 2000. The government responded that the actions were taken under the Aviation Security Act 1982, and no compensation was payable.[73]

Several pilots complained about the "ridiculous" luggage restrictions that were thought up by "utter morons".[74] Carolyn Evans, head of flight safety at the British Airline Pilots Association, said that "the procedures put in place are not sustainable long-term, and unless the passengers are treated more reasonably, we will not have an industry left".[74]

The British government was criticised for scare mongering as a result of its response to the alert[75] and for using it to drive through unpopular reforms.[76]

Economic effects[edit]

The Times commented on the day after the arrests, that the economic effects were minor. It observed that the real commercial risk is that "people may stop travelling ... because they are tired of complying with necessary security measures."[77]

British Airways cancelled 1280 flights, at an estimated cost of £40 million.[78] Ryanair had to cancel 500 flights at an estimated cost of £3.3 million.[79] EasyJet had to cancel 469 flights, at a cost of about £4 million.[80] BAA said the alert cost them £13 million.[81] In November 2006, BA also claimed the increased security measures since August had cost it £100 million.[82]

Air passengers also switched to other means of travel, including ferries operating from Dover to Calais, and Eurostar.[83]

On 13 August 2006, Michael O'Leary, chief executive of Ryanair, claimed that the chaos at airports meant that the terrorists were achieving their aims.[84]

Trials and sentencing[edit]

Following the August 2006 arrests, The New York Times blocked IP addresses in Britain from accessing a story titled "Details Emerge in British Terror Case." This arose as a result of a requirement in British law that prejudicial information about a defendant may not be published before a trial. Using software technology designed for targeted advertising, The New York Times was able to comply with the UK's stricter laws.[85]

In 2008, eight men (Ahmed Abdullah Ali, Assad Sarwar, Tanvir Hussain, Ibrahim Savant, Arafat Khan, Waheed Zaman, Umar Islam, Mohammed Gulzar) were tried in connection with the plot. The trial began in April 2008,[86] with the exhibition of what were described as 'suicide videos' made by Ali, Hussain, Savant, Khan, Zaman, and Islam.[87] and the allegation that the suspects had bought chemicals.[88] Intercepted emails and phone calls were not allowed as evidence at the first trial.[17]

In their defence, the seven men, six of whom had recorded videos denouncing Western foreign policy, said they had only planned to cause a political spectacle and not to kill anyone. Ali told the court that he intended to make a political statement by letting off a small device at Heathrow and scaring people and that the plot did not involve attacking planes.[89] All the accused, except for Gulzar, admitted plotting to cause a public nuisance. Ali, Sarwar and Hussein also pleaded guilty to conspiracy to cause explosions.[90]

On 8 November 2008 after more than 50 hours of deliberations, the jury did not find any of the defendants guilty of conspiring to target aircraft. The jury found Ali, Sarwar and Hussein guilty of conspiracy to murder charges but were unable to reach verdicts on charges relating to the plot to blow up aircraft.[90]

Mohammad Gulzar was acquitted on all counts.[91]

On 7 September 2009, the second jury at Woolwich Crown Court found Ali, Sarwar and Hussain guilty of "conspiracy to murder involving liquid bombs" and that the targets of the conspiracy were airline passengers.[2] The plot was said at court to have been discovered by MI5 using covert listening devices in a flat in east London. The jurors were unable to reach verdicts on the charges against Savant, Khan, Zaman or Islam. Islam was however convicted on a separate charge of conspiracy to murder.[92]

Ali, described as 'the ringleader', was sentenced to at least 40 years in prison, Sarwar was sentenced to at least 36 years, while Hussain was jailed for at least 32 years. Islam, convicted of the more general 'conspiracy to murder' charge, was given a sentence of a minimum of 22 years in prison.[93]

At the same 2009 Woolwich trial, Donald Stewart-Whyte, who had not been charged at the 2008 trial, pleaded guilty to possession of a loaded gun, but was cleared of all terrorism offences.[94]

At the third trial in July 2010 at Woolwich Crown Court, Savant, Khan and Zaman were found guilty and sentenced to life in prison for the lesser charge of conspiracy to murder. They were all three sentenced to a minimum of 20 years in prison before being eligible for release.[3]

Timeline[edit]

Mid August[edit]

10 August[edit]

Arrests
  • During the night of 9–10 August, British authorities arrested 24 suspects in a suspected plot to blow up as many as 10 passenger jets leaving Britain for New York City, Washington D.C. and California. The plot allegedly involved Continental Airlines, United Airlines, and American Airlines, according to an administration official who noted that this list was not exclusive.[95] Government officials said the primary players were in custody. The men detained had not bought plane tickets, the officials said, but they had been perusing the Internet to find flights to various cities that had similar departure times. The British suspects planned to mix a "British version of Gatorade"[95] with a gel-like substance to create an explosive that could then be triggered with an iPod or cell phone, a senior congressional source told. All of those items could have been carried on board without raising suspicions. The original information about the plan came from the Muslim community in Britain, according to a British intelligence official.[96]
  • Paul Stephenson said 21 people had been arrested by London, Birmingham and Thames Valley police overnight in an ongoing operation. "This is about people who are desperate ... who want to do things that no right-minded citizen of this country or any other country would want to tolerate," Stephenson said.[95]
  • Britain's Home Secretary John Reid said police were confident the main players involved in the plot had been accounted for, adding the operation was ongoing and further arrests might be made. Asked if Britain's Muslim community was involved in the investigation, Reid would not comment. "We are involved in a long wide and deep struggle against very evil people," Reid said. "This is not a case of one civilization against another, one religion against another."[95]
  • The Metropolitan Police confirmed they evacuated an undisclosed number of houses in High Wycombe, north of London, in connection with the raids. Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke, Head of the Metropolitan Police Service Anti-Terrorist Branch, said the arrests followed an "unprecedented level of surveillance" over several months involving meetings, movements, travel, spending and the aspirations of a large group of people.[95]
  • Among those arrested were a Muslim charity worker and a Heathrow Airport employee with an all-area access pass, according to Britain's Channel 4. The suspected terrorists had been under surveillance in Britain since December 2005, the channel reported. Information gathered after the arrests in Pakistan convinced British investigators to act urgently, sources said. Two of the suspects left "martyrdom tapes," according to sources familiar with the details of the British investigation.[96]
  • Two of the suspects held in connection with the alleged plot to blow up jetliners had contact with a Pakistani suspected of being an al Qaeda operative, U.S. and British officials said. The officials allege that Matiur Rehman, described as an explosives expert in Pakistan who is now at large, met two of the British suspects in Pakistan. Officials said they do not know whether Rehman was involved. However, the officials said the suspected plot displays signs of al Qaeda participation, and investigations into that angle continue.[96]
  • Speaking on the tarmac of an airport in Green Bay, George W. Bush thanked British Prime Minister Tony Blair and his government for "busting this plot." Bush and Blair had conversations concerning the terror plot investigation 12 and 13 August and the leaders have spoken several times since, including overnight when the arrests were made, officials say. In a statement, Blair said: "I would like to pay tribute to the immense effort made by the police and security services who for a long period of time have tracked this situation and been involved in an extraordinary amount of hard work. I thank them for the great job they are doing in protecting our country. "There have been an enormous amount of co-operation with the U.S. authorities which has been of great value and underlines the threat we face and our determination to counter it."[95]
British Airports
  • Queues logjammed British airports.
  • In Britain, airline passengers were not allowed to take hand luggage onto planes.[96]

11 August[edit]

The arrested
  • The Financial Sanctions Unit of the Bank of England froze the accounts of 19 suspects who were arrested in connection with the plot, a British Treasury spokesman said. While police have not identified any of those arrested, 19 of them were identified by the Bank.[96]
  • Mudassar Irani, the lawyer for two of the suspects, was only able to meet with her clients for five minutes. The men—who are 22 and 23 years old—told her they are being held in cold cells, and requests for blankets were refused.[96]
  • One of those arrested in the overnight raids 10 August was released "with no further action by police," according to the Metropolitan Police Service. The police said it is common to release someone who has been arrested and keep others in custody, especially "in large and complex criminal enquiries where a number of arrests have taken place."[96]
British airports
  • Flight schedules in Britain were improving.[96]
  • Still several cancellations, including 30 percent of all short-haul flights out of London Heathrow Airport, said Transport Secretary Douglas Alexander.[96]
  • Air passengers across Europe faced a second day of delays. However, the situation had improved since the previous day, when London's Heathrow Airport was closed to many incoming flights.[96]
Threat
  • The United Kingdom remained at its highest threat level.[96]
  • Home Secretary John Reid said the government wanted to "err on the side of caution," according to Britain's Home Office. Reid, the home secretary, said Britons faced a "common threat" and appealed for tolerance and resilience.[96]
Pakistan
  • Reid acknowledged the Pakistani role in breaking the case. "We are very grateful for all the help and cooperation we have received from our international partners, including Pakistan, and I would like to thank them for the assistance they have given us," he said.[96]

12 August[edit]

The arrested
  • The lawyer for two of the suspects criticised their treatment at the hands of British police. Mudassar Irani listed a series of complaints, including the allegation that one of her clients had not received food and water for 26 hours.[97]
  • Matiur Rehman, who remains at large, has not been linked to the plot, the Government officials said. He was not one of the seven individuals arrested on 10 August in Pakistan.[97]
  • U.S. and British sources said one of the men in custody in Pakistan, Rashid Rauf, had a key operational role in the alleged plot. Rauf, a British citizen, appeared before a magistrate, according to Pakistan's Interior Ministry. Rauf is believed to have left the UK after his uncle was killed in 2002. He was not charged over the murder, which has never been solved.[97]
  • In the U.S., a Department of Homeland Security memo said that a message was intercepted in the days before police made their arrests which advised the alleged plotters to "do your attacks now", which British officials said originated in Pakistan.[97]
  • The U.S. security memo also shed light on the backgrounds of the 23 suspects being held by British police: All were born in Britain, and most were of Pakistani descent. They had good reputations in their neighbourhood and did not express radical sentiments. Among those arrested were a biochemistry student, a worker at Heathrow Airport and a 17-year-old who recently converted to Islam. While the teen had grown a beard and started wearing traditional Muslim clothes, he did not appear to be radicalised. British police believe the key players are in custody but cannot be sure that "unknown or unexpected elements do not exist." A tip from a member of the British Muslim community about suspicious behaviour by an acquaintance alerted authorities to the alleged conspiracy, and a neighbour of the alleged plotters helped confirm those suspicions, the memo said. Counterterrorism officials used telephone records, e-mails and bank records to connect the suspects and build a detailed picture of the conspiracy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security said. Their spending habits and bank accounts also were traced by a unit that monitors the flow of money to provide evidence of association, the memo said. Intelligence received within the past five days by MI-5, the British security agency, led officials to conclude that the plan was in its execution phase, the memo said. The fact that U.S.-bound aircraft were to be targeted was learned only about two weeks ago, U.S. homeland security said. The alleged plotters planned to bring "some type of liquid or power explosive" on board the aircraft in drink or toothpaste containers, then explode it with detonators hidden in cell phones or MP3 players, the memo said.[97]
  • In a new development, it was claimed that plot suspects "apparently" had contacts with Germany. "Apparently there were some contacts by the suspected attackers with Germany -- we are checking these contacts," August Hanning, a deputy interior minister, told the Bild am Sonntag newspaper in a preview of an article to be printed Sunday.[97]
Raid of Internet cafes
  • British police confirmed that they had raided a series of Internet cafes in their investigation into an alleged plot to blow up as many as 10 trans-Atlantic aircraft. There was no confirmation of any arrests in the raids in London, Birmingham and the Thames Valley region, west of the capital. The raids came as links to suspected terror operatives in Pakistan—possibly connected to al Qaeda—were emerging as key elements of the investigation. Suspects in the UK received a coded message from Pakistan to "attack now" as authorities there closed in on terror suspects, security sources have told.[97]
Anger in Britain's Muslim community
  • The arrests have led to increased pressure on Britain's Muslim community, prompting leaders to publish an open letter to Prime Minister Tony Blair, blaming his foreign policy for inciting extremist anger. "It is our view that current British government policy risks putting civilians at increased risk both in the UK and abroad," the letter said.[97]
British airports
  • Budget carrier Ryanair, which has its British base at Stansted Airport, northeast of London, said it had complied with BAA orders to cancel more than 60 of its Stansted flights.
  • British Airways was forced to cancel 25 percent of its short-distance flights because of the airport's failure to cope with the situation, said British Airways CEO Willie Walsh.[97]

13 August[edit]

The arrested
  • Britain had foiled four major terrorist plots since the 7 July bombings in 2005, British Home Secretary John Reid said. Reid said there could be others still at large linked to alleged air terror plot. Asked about an Observer newspaper report that "up to two dozen" terror investigations were operating across the country, he said: "I'm not going to confirm an exact number, but I wouldn't deny that that would indicate the number of major conspiracies that we are trying to look at."[98]
  • Police, meanwhile, were still probing the homes and backgrounds of 23 men arrested on 10 August. Most of the men held in custody were of Pakistani origin and in their 20s.[98]
  • A lawyer for two of 23 suspects in custody accused police of denying her full access to her clients. The attorney, Mudassar Arani, said British suspects' families had been moved to hotels.[98]
  • According to a British intelligence official, the planned near-simultaneous attacks—which one top U.S. official said were intended to be "a second September 11th"—were foiled when a member of the country's Muslim community contacted authorities after noticing an acquaintance acting suspiciously. An undercover British agent then infiltrated the group to gather information, U.S. government officials told CNN.[98] This 'tipoff' and infiltration were never confirmed.
British airports
  • UK airports entered the fourth day of chaos as the fallout from the plot continued to cause cancellations, major delays and anger from flight operators. At Heathrow, one of the world's busiest airports, almost one-third of flights were cancelled as tough new screening for passengers and luggage caused problems. after the discovery of an apparent plan to smuggle liquid explosives onto planes in hand luggage.[98]
  • But with airlines struggling to get passengers to their destinations days after the new measures were introduced, several have hit out at airport operator British Airports Authority for failing to provide adequate facilities. "BAA is unable to provide a robust security search process and baggage operation at London Heathrow and as a result we are being forced to cancel flights and operate some others from Heathrow without all the passengers on board," British Airways Chief Executive Willie Walsh said. At least one major airline complained about the way the British Airport Authority, which oversees Heathrow airport, was handling the intense security. "BAA has failed to allow us to operate 100 percent of our schedule," said British Airways CEO Willie Walsh. "British Airways, along with other airlines, is ready and able to operate a full schedule. The weakness in the system today is getting the passengers processed and through the airport.[98]
  • Budget carrier Ryanair, which has its British base at Stansted Airport, northeast of London, said it had complied with BAA orders to cancel more than 60 of its Stansted flights. It demanded that the overloaded security situation be fixed by 14 August "Ryanair and other major UK airlines cannot keep canceling flights and be disrupting the travel plans of tens of thousands of British passengers and visitors solely because the BAA cannot cope with the new body-search requirements," chief executive Michael O'Leary said, according to The Associated Press.[98]
  • BAA's chief executive for Heathrow, Tony Douglas, defended the airports' efforts. I think the aviation community has actually come together remarkably well. We will continue to work closely with the government because public safety and security are important to us."[98]
  • British and American passengers underwent the third day of trip delays and stricter security measures because of heightened travel fears. Some flights were delayed up to four hours, and passengers carried plastic bags with necessities. Liquids and gels are prohibited unless it can be shown they are necessary, and on British-originated flights, all carry-on luggage is banned. Airlines warned the British government that air travel was threatening "to grind to a halt" because of the restrictions in place at airports.[98]
  • A temporary ban on mobile phones resulted in a British Airways flight from London to New York being returned to Heathrow "as a precautionary measure" late in the day after a phone was found aboard the plane, the airline said. None of the passengers on the flight claimed the phone, BA said. "We apologise to customers for the inconvenience, but their safety is our No. 1 priority, and we will always err on the side of caution," the airline reported.[98]
Raid of Internet cafes
  • As police widened their investigation into the bomb plot suspects, detectives raided a series of Internet cafes, including one near Heathrow, where the plotters were believed to be planning to start their operations.[98]
Pakistan
  • Pakistan authorities said that the arrests of two British citizens and five Pakistanis last week directly contributed to terror arrests made 10 August in Britain. Most of the men held in custody in Britain and Pakistan are Pakistanis in their 20s.[98]
Threat
  • The terror threat level in Britain remained "critical"—its highest designation.[98]

14 August[edit]

Threat
  • Britain lowered its terrorist threat level from "critical" to "severe". Home Secretary John Reid said the change in the alert level—which indicates a terrorist attack is no longer imminent -- "does not mean that the threat has gone away." "There is still a very serious threat of an attack," Reid said in a statement accompanying the announcement. "The threat level is at severe, indicating the high likelihood of an attempted terrorist attack at some stage, and I urge the public to remain vigilant." Security sources said it is unlikely that the level will soon drop further. They said there is great concern about "copycats" attempting similar attacks.[99]
British airports
  • London's Heathrow Airport, the world's busiest international airport, struggled to restore normal service after delays and cancellations caused by heightened security measures. "Flights that do operate remain subject to delays," British Airways said in a statement.[99]
  • Authorities in Britain and the United States imposed tight security on trans-Atlantic flights, sharply restricting what passengers could carry onto aircraft. Under the reduced threat level, passengers boarding aircraft in Britain are still banned from bringing most liquids, gels or pastes aboard aircraft, Britain's Transport Department said. The only exceptions are for prescription medicines that have been verified as authentic and baby milk or formula provided the accompanying passenger tastes the substance. But there is some good news for passengers in the UK, who can now bring one mid-sized bag aboard an aircraft. The government is also allowing laptop computers and items such as hair dryers to be brought on board, provided they are visible at security checkpoints.[99]
  • Air traffic at Heathrow remained snarled, with airlines cancelling as many one in five short-haul flights. British Airways said it planned to cancel five of its scheduled 76 long-haul flights from Heathrow and 39 of a planned 202 short-haul flights, Reuters reported.[99]
  • At Gatwick, London's second largest airport, BA cancelled all domestic flights from for the second consecutive day. However, all BA flights to Europe and beyond were expected to operate.[99]
  • Smaller regional airports, such as Liverpool's John Lennon airport and Leeds-Bradford airport in northern England, said services were almost back to normal, The Associated Press reported.[99]
  • Airport operators said 68 flights were cancelled from Heathrow, according to The Associated Press.[99]
  • There was new concern about security after a 12-year-old boy managed to board a plane at Gatwick Airport on Monday without a passport, ticket or boarding pass.[100]
  • Ryanair temporarily waived its 2.50 euro ($3.20, £2.95) fee for each carry-on bag that unexpectedly had to be checked, but has since reintroduced it. O'Leary said that the airline had no plans to end the policy.[99]
Pakistan
  • Detectives are known to be investigating the links between the detainees and suspected terror suspects apprehended in Pakistan.[99]
The arrested
  • A security source close to investigations told that some of the 23 suspects were expected to be released without charge due to lack of evidence. One person has already been released. He also poured doubt on the links to Rauf in Pakistan, Rivers said. A court ruled that police could hold one of the 23 suspects for questioning until 16 August.[99]

15 August[edit]

The arrested
  • Early, British anti-terror investigators were given another day—until 16 August—to hold 22 of the suspects; an extension for the 23rd person was granted 15 August, a statement from New Scotland Yard said. The extensions are procedural; police can hold terror suspects up to 28 days without filing formal charges. "In all operations, some people may be released early without charge while others may remain in custody for further investigation," according to the statement.[101]
  • British investigators have searched for evidence of explosive tests in woods in High Wycombe, west of London, near where they arrested the 24 suspects 10 August. The British security sources told they are confident evidence of explosives will be found, even as police conducted a detailed forensic examination of one suspect's residence. Photographs taken by a neighbour showed police removing plastic containers from the flat.[101]
  • The security sources said the alleged plotters intended to use an electrical charge to detonate liquid explosives in planes as they flew at maximum cruising altitude over the Atlantic Ocean, thereby ensuring that investigators would have a tough time retrieving evidence. In a separate development in the case, another man was arrested in connection with the alleged plot to blow up commercial jetliners over the Atlantic, bringing the number in custody to 24, according to London's Metropolitan Police. The Metropolitan Police said the new suspect was detained about 1 p.m. (8 a.m. ET) 15 August in the Thames Valley area near London. He was taken into custody under the Terrorism Act 2000, which allows arrests of anyone suspected of being involved in the commission, preparation or instigation of acts of terrorism.[101]
  • The British security sources said the foiled plot was one of about a dozen that investigators were following and that it got their undivided attention six weeks ago when they determined that the attack plans were advanced. MI5 officers who were following the movements of the suspects have already been redeployed to monitor dozens of other suspected terror cells around Britain, sources said. The security sources estimate there are more than 1,200 individuals of concern across Britain.[101]
  • British investigators believe some of the money raised to help victims of the Pakistan- earthquake of 2005 may have been used to fund the alleged airliner terror plot. The funds are believed to have come from a front group for the Pakistani charity Jamaat al-Dawat network in Britain and was not sent from Pakistan, British and U.S. investigators said. A U.S. official also said it was his understanding that the charity being investigated by the British is a front for Jamaat al-Dawat, previously known as Lashkar-e-Toiba. Jamaat al-Dawat provided aid and relief camps for victims of the 8 October earthquake that killed more than 73,000 in northwest Pakistan and Pakistani-controlled Kashmir. Lord Nazir Ahmed, a leader among British Pakistanis and a member of Britain's Parliament, told that at least four of the alleged plotters travelled to Pakistan, telling their families they were going to help the quake victims. When questioned, the relatives denied that any members of their families had links to any extremist group, Ahmed said.[101]
Pakistan
  • The source described Rashid Rauf, who is being held without charge in Pakistan, as a leader of the group, and said that others being held in Pakistan played lesser roles. It said it may extradite Rauf to Britain, although no request had been received, according to The Associated Press.[101]
British Airports
  • Airport delay problems stretched into their fifth day in Britain, prompting further frustration among airlines which accused the British government and airport authorities of mishandling the new security measures.[101]

16 August[edit]

British Airports
  • As cancellations and delays gripped Britain's major airports for the sixth day, the head of British Airways threatened to sue BAA, the country's largest airport operator, for financial compensation. Meanwhile, air service nudged closer to normal at major London airports, but British Airways said it cancelled 35 flights from Heathrow and another 11 at Gatwick.[100]
  • Britain's Home Secretary John Reid is to host a meeting with a number of European Union interior ministers in London to talk about how the foiled plot on 10 August will affect airline security and anti-terror policies across the continent. Reid is also expected to urge closer cooperation between nations to deal with the increasing danger.[101]
  • The removal of two young British Asians from a holiday flight because fellow passengers were suspicious of them has been condemned by British parliamentarians. The men, thought to be in their 20s, were on a Monarch Airlines flight from Málaga, Spain to Manchester. Some passengers refused to board the plane unless the two were removed, according to the UK Press Association. Birmingham MP Khalid Mahmood said he thought what happened "is hugely irrational and people need to get their senses back into order." A Monarch Airlines spokesman told Britain's Guardian newspaper the two men attracted attention because they apparently were acting suspiciously. He declined to say what they had done. "The flight attendants were sufficiently concerned to alert the crew, who in turn informed the security authorities at Málaga airport," the spokesman said. The flight was delayed for three hours after Spanish police removed the two men and searched the aircraft and luggage for explosives. The pair flew to Manchester on a later flight. The incident coincided with a warning from Metropolitan Police Chief Superintendent Ali Dizaei that Britain was in danger of creating a new offence of "travelling whilst Asian," the PA reported. Dizaei, one of the UK's most senior Muslim police officers, said intelligence based on ethnicity, religion and country of origin was "hugely problematic." But the UK's Police Federation, which represents rank-and-file police officers, said profiling had already been used to stop football hooligans travelling to Germany for the World Cup in June, the PA reported.[102]
The arrested
  • British judge has allowed police to continue holding 23 of the 24 suspects through next week, Metropolitan Police said late in the day. The ruling gives police the authority to hold two of the suspects until 21 August, and the rest until 23 August. Afterwards, Scotland Yard said that a person arrested on 15 August as part of its investigation was released without charge, The Associated Press reports. Today's ruling was largely a procedural move. Under British anti-terrorism laws, police can hold suspects for up to 28 days without filing charges, but they must put the detention before a judge periodically. The hearing was held behind closed doors and attended only by the suspects' lawyers, investigators and government officials, The Associated Press reports. Experts say the primary reason police could use nearly a month to complete a probe is because of the complexity of investigations into the alleged plot to smuggle liquid explosives hidden in hand luggage aboard flights. "You've got laptops. You have to bring in translators to translate all the documents in there. And sometimes it's inopportune to release all your suspects -- particularly terrorism suspects -- while all that is being downloaded and translated," Cliff Knuckey, a retired police detective who has worked on terrorism investigations, told the Associated Press. "Terrorism investigations are different, simply because you're dealing with people who will do their best not to compromise their plans and who will do anything not to be compromised."[100]
  • Previously, police were able to detain people suspected of terrorism offences for 14 days only. But the new legislation, which became law earlier in 2006, also created new offences, including preparing a terrorist act, giving or receiving terrorist training, and selling or spreading terrorist publications.[100]
  • Prime Minister Tony Blair failed to receive parliamentary approval for his own plan to interrogate terrorist suspects for up to 90 days.[100]
  • Authorities said the suspects plotted to use liquid explosives to blow up as many as 10 trans-Atlantic flights, using commercial electronic devices as detonators.[100]
  • Home Secretary John Reid, Britain's top law-and-order official, acknowledged that some suspects would likely not be charged with major criminal offences but said there was mounting evidence of a "substantial nature" to back the allegations. His comments came after meeting with the French, German and Finnish interior ministers, Nicolas Sarkozy, Wolfgang Schäuble and Kari Rajamaki, respectively, and EU Commission Vice-President Franco Frattini. They later announced the allocation of $235,000 (€220,000 or £200,000) to research the best ways to detect liquid-based explosives.[100]
  • Two top Pakistani intelligence agents said that the would-be bombers wanted to carry out an al Qaeda-style attack to mark the fifth anniversary of the 11 September strikes but were too "inexperienced" to carry out the plot, AP reports. The agents, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said that if the terror cell members arrested in Pakistan and Britain had appropriate weapons and explosives training, they could have emulated attacks like the ones on 11 September 2001. The detainees in Britain and Pakistan had not attended terror-training camps in Pakistan or Afghanistan and had relied on information gleaned from textbooks on how to make bombs, the officials said, according to AP.[100]
Aviation related terror alerts
  • A 59-year-old woman caused a security scare when she allegedly passed notes to crew members, urinated on the floor and made comments the crew believed were references to al Qaeda and the 11 September attacks on the London-to-Washington flight. United 923, with 182 passengers and 12 crew members, was diverted to Boston and landed safely—with two fighter jets escorting it—after the pilot declared an emergency on board.[103]

17 August[edit]

Pakistan
  • The alleged UK airport terror plot was sanctioned by al Qaeda's No2, Ayman al Zawahri, according to Pakistani intelligence. The latest investigations by Pakistan also indicate that a British national arrested in Pakistan, Rashid Rauf, was the planner of the alleged attacks. "We have reason to believe that it was al Qaeda sanctioned and was probably cleared by al Zawahiri", said a Pakistani official. He spoke on condition of anonymity because of the sensitivity of the investigation.[104]
The arrested
  • Police said they were searching 14 homes and businesses and had searched 49 locations since the 10 August raids in London, High Wycombe and Birmingham, central England, The Associated Press reports.[105]
  • British police reported having found a suitcase containing items which could be used to construct a bomb, according to the British Broadcasting Corporation. The suitcase is reported to have been found in woodlands in High Wycombe, about 50 kilometers (31 mi) north-west of London. BBC quotes an anonymous police source as saying a suitcase holding "everything you would need to make an improvised device," had been found. The wood is near the home of one of two dozen suspects arrested on 10 August. The Metropolitan Police have refused to comment on the BBC report, saying it could not discuss anything found during the searches.[105]
British Airports
  • Service returned almost to normal at British airports. British Airways, the worst-affected airline, said it had almost cleared a backlog of 5,000 pieces of luggage separated from their owners amid hundreds of delayed and cancelled flights. The airline canceled 19 short-haul services from Heathrow Airport.[105]
Aviation related terror alerts
  • West Virginia airport terminal was evacuated after two bottles of liquid found in a woman's carry-on luggage twice tested positive for explosives residue. Chemical tests later turned up no explosives in the bottles, and the airport was reopened after nearly 10 hours.[103]

18 August[edit]

British Airports
  • British Airways said it planned to operate a full service.[105]
  • A British passenger plane to Egypt diverted to a southern Italian airport after the pilot reported that a bomb was suspected to be on board, Italian aviation officials said. Authorities searching the plane found a handwritten note in English that said there was a bomb on the plane, Salvatore De Paolis, a spokesman for border police at the airport, told SKY TG 24 television news. All 280 passengers were safe and had exited the plane, state police at the airport said. The Excel Airways Boeing 767 requested an emergency landing in Brindisi because of what was described as a suspected bomb, the Italian air traffic agency ENAV said. The plane was flying from London's Gatwick airport to Hurghada, Egypt, ENAV said. Italy's Air Force said it had sent an F-16 to intercept the plane before it landed. Excel spokeswoman Jane Sebuliba said the landing was "a precautionary diversion" and declined further comment, saying Excel planned to say more soon.[103]
  • Budget airline Ryanair threatened to take legal action against the British government unless it meets three demands for relaxing airport security and improving staffing at overstretched airports within the next seven days. The airline, which cancelled scores of flights and suffered a 10 percent drop in weekly bookings because of the terror alert that raised security levels on 10 August, wants the government to return passenger search requirements to pre-alert levels. It also wants the government to restore the hand luggage allowance for passengers leaving British airports and an assurance that military and police personnel would be released to help with airport security checks next time there is a major security alert. Ryanair chief executive Michael O'Leary said the carrier has sent a letter to Transport Secretary Douglas Alexander informing him of its demands.[106]
  • The Transport Department said that the current security regime was necessary because of the level of the security threat, which remains at high, and is kept under constant review. "We have no intention of compromising security levels nor do we anticipate changing our requirements in the next seven days," it said. The department added that the action taken last week was under the Aviation Security Act 1982, so Ryanair wouldn't be entitled to any compensation. Ryanair says that wasn't made clear and it intends to use the Transport Act 2000 for legal action if it goes ahead. O'Leary declined to say how much compensation the airline would seek from the government but said the alert had so far cost the carrier "a couple of million" euros in cancelled flights and lost bookings. He rejected analyst forecasts that Ryanair faced a €10 million($12.8 million, £9.5 million) hit, saying the short-term cost was likely to be "a couple of million euros" and the long-term impact would be immaterial. "If the security procedures are returned to normal within another seven days, then Ryanair will not make any claim against the government," he added.[103]
  • In another blow, the GMB Union said Swissport baggage handlers and check-in staff plan to strike during the end of August holiday weekend at Stansted airport. Swissport provides services to Ryanair and easyJet and some charter airlines operating at Stansted—representing about 80 percent of the passenger traffic at Britain's third-busiest airport.[103]
  • O'Leary was particularly critical of the fact that passengers may now carry a large briefcase, but not a small wheeled case, which he claimed was just 20 percent larger than the allowed briefcase. The issue is a problem for Ryanair because the carrier began charging customers in January for each bag they checked as part of a plan to get passengers to take only what they could carry. The airline temporarily waived its €2.50 ($3.20, £2.95) fee for each carry-on bag that unexpectedly had to be checked, but has since reintroduced it.[103]
  • Virgin Atlantic, which is jointly owned by Richard Branson's Virgin Group and Singapore Airlines, said it was asking the British government to pay for airport security in Britain, although it is not considering suing the government. Paul Charles, a spokesman for the airline, said the government already pays for transport police to patrol Britain's railways and therefore it should also pay for airport security. Currently, the bill for security is taken by the airport operators and airlines, and some of the cost is likely passed on to passengers.[103]

19 August[edit]

Pakistan
  • Rashid Rauf, whose detention in Pakistan was the trigger for the arrest of 23 suspects in Britain, has been accused of taking orders from Al Qaeda's 'No3' in Afghanistan and sending money back to the UK to allow the alleged bombers to buy plane tickets. But after two weeks of interrogation, an inch-by-inch search of his house and analysis of his home computer, officials are now saying that his extradition is 'a way down the track' if it happens at all. It comes amid wider suspicions that the plot may not have been as serious, or as far advanced, as the authorities initially claimed. Analysts suspect Pakistani authorities exaggerated Rauf's role to appear 'tough on terrorism' and impress Britain and America. A spokesman for Pakistan's Interior Ministry last night admitted that 'extradition at this time is not under consideration'.[107]

Late August[edit]

20 August[edit]

British Airports
  • Airport security restrictions are to be made more "manageable" within days, according to ministers. The Trade and Industry Secretary Alistair Darling said the Government would ensure restrictions were "proportionate" to the threat level. He added that the Transport Secretary Douglas Alexander would meet the airport's operator BAA to resolve outstanding security issues within "the next week or so". "Unfortunately it was necessary because of the intelligence we received to step up security. "But I hope that in the next few days we can make sure that the system is manageable, is proportionate," he told the BBC. Mr Darling, a former transport secretary, said it was important to strike a balance between security needs and allowing people to go about their business. "Yes, there has been a lot of disruption over the last week but I'm pretty sure we can sort out these problems," he said. "But I am bound to say that the problem we have got is that we do have these threats and we've got to act proportionately, we've got to deal with them." Mr Darling also dismissed a report that air passengers could face a new surcharge on tickets to pay for upgraded security. "The cost of security is met by the industry," he said. "It always has been and that will continue."[108]
Pakistan
  • Rauf's arrest followed a protracted surveillance operation on him and his family which, The Mail has established, dates back to the 7/7 bomb attacks on London. The possible link between 7/7 and the alleged plot emerged when the Daily Mail spoke to Rauf's uncle, Miam Mumtaz, in Kashmir. Mumtaz was approached by two members of ISI, the feared Pakistani security service, as he nervously denied any knowledge of his nephew's alleged activities. One ISI man said it had been monitoring all movement by Mumtaz and the rest of Rauf's relatives since the 7/7 attacks. It is the first official acknowledgement of any suspected link between the London bombings and the plot to blow up planes flying from Britain to America. But it comes against a welter of claims made by Pakistani security sources about Rauf, who is being interrogated by British and Pakistani agents in Rawalpindi.[107]
  • The sources believe Rauf went to Afghanistan twice, where he made contact with senior Al Qaeda commanders. They also say he visited the border city of Quettain, where Taliban and Al Qaeda have a heavy presence. They believe that at least seven of the suspects in custody in Britain travelled to Pakistan while planning the bombings. Rauf left for Pakistan 2002 after another uncle was stabbed to death in Birmingham following an alleged dispute over an arranged marriage. Meanwhile, Rauf's 54-year-old father Abdul was held at Islamabad airport as he tried to leave the country 18 August. He was involved in setting up Ilford-based Crescent Relief, which is being investigated by the Charity Commission over claims that money donated for victims of the Kashmir earthquake October 2005 could have been diverted to extremist groups.[107]

21 August[edit]

The arrested
  • Eleven of the 23 people arrested over an alleged plot to bomb trans-Atlantic airliners have been charged in the UK with terrorism offences as police revealed they have found bomb-making equipment and martyrdom videos. Eight of the suspects were charged with two offences of conspiracy to murder and a new offence of preparing acts of terrorism contrary to section five of the Terrorism Act 2006. The three others were charged with other offences under the Terrorism Act 2000. Eleven others remain in custody and a woman has been released, the Crown Prosecution Service announced at a news conference in London.[109]
  • The eight men charged with conspiracy to murder and intent to commit acts of terrorism are: Ahmed Abdullah Ali, also known as "Abdullah Ali Ahmed Khan"; Tanvir Hussain; Umar Islam, aka "Brian Young"; Arafat Waheed Khan; Assad Sarwar; Adam Khatib; Ibrahim Savant; Waheed Zaman. The two suspects charged with failing to disclose material assistance in preventing an act of terrorism are: Cossor Ali (female), specifically charged with failing to disclose information about Ahmed Abdullah Ali, between January 2005 and August 2006; Mehran Hussain, specifically charged with failing to disclose information about Nabeel Hussain, one of those originally arrested, between September 2005 and August 2006. An unnamed 17-year-old male was also charged with possessing "a book on improvised explosives devices, some suicide notes and wills with the identities of persons prepared to commit acts of terrorism and a map of Afghanistan containing information likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism."[14]
  • Susan Hemming, head of the Crown Prosecution Service Counter Terrorism Division, told reporters: "We have been carefully examining and assessing the evidence against each individual with the assistance of anti-terrorist officers in order to come to charging decisions at the earliest practicable opportunity." Police Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke added that bomb-making equipment, including chemicals and electrical components, had been found during police searches. Clarke said: "First there is evidence from surveillance carried out before 10 August. "This includes important, indeed highly significant, video and audio recordings. "Since 10 August we have found bomb-making equipment. There are chemicals, including hydrogen peroxide, electrical components, documents and other items. "We have also found a number of video recordings. These are sometimes referred to as martyrdom videos."[109]
  • British authorities have carried out a total of 69 searches of residences, businesses, vehicles and open spaces, which have netted bomb-making equipment and chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide, Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke said. "As well as the bomb-making equipment, we have found more than 400 computers, 200 mobile telephones and 8,000 items of removable storage media such as memory sticks, CDs and DVDs," he said. "So far, from the computers alone, we have removed some 6,000 gigabytes of data."It will take "many months" for investigators to analyze all of the data, he said.[14]
  • CNN's Robin Oakley said the sheer amount of material seized by police indicated that it would be some time before a trial starts. Oakley said he believed police had revealed so much information partly to assure the public that the terror threat remained high more than a year after the London bombings that killed 52 people and the four bombers. He added that Scotland Yard was probably also keen to show it was avoiding mistakes it had made in previous terror investigations.[14]

22 August[edit]

The arrested
  • Court hearings for 11 suspects charged in the alleged plot to bomb trans-Atlantic airliners have been taking place in London. Today's hearings at City of Westminster Magistrates' Court in central London marked the first time the suspects, all of whom were charged 21 August, have been seen in public since they were arrested on 10 August. Amid heavy security, vans carried the suspects to the court, where eight people charged with conspiracy to commit murder and preparing acts of terrorism were the first to appear before Chief Magistrate Timothy Workman. Before the court adjourned for lunch, Tanvir Hussain, 25, Ahmed Ali Khan, 25, Umar Islam, 28, and Arafat Waheed Khan, 25, were ordered to be remanded in custody until a second court appearance at the Old Bailey on 4 September. A person is charged with possessing articles that could be used to prepare a terrorist act, and two others are charged with failing to disclose information that could help prevent a terrorist act. 11 persons are still being held without charge.[14]
Pakistan
  • In Pakistan, law enforcement authorities continued to interrogate Rashid Rauf, a Briton of Pakistani descent, over his alleged key role in the plot, officials told The Associated Press. Pakistani Interior Minister Aftab Ahmad Sherpao said British police were conducting inquiries in Pakistan but were not involved in questioning Rauf.[14]

25 August[edit]

The arrested
  • A British judge has remanded in custody another of the 24 suspects arrested. Umair Hussain, 24, is charged with his brother Mehran with failing to disclose information that could help prevent an act of terrorism. District Court Judge Daphne Wickham denied Hussain bail and ordered him to appear in court on 1 September. A date for a committal hearing was set for 19 September. Hussain spoke only to confirm his name and age during a brief appearance in court. Hussain's lawyer, Timur Rustem, told reporters outside City of Westminster Magistrates Court in central London he was surprised by the charge, which relates to disclosing information about Hussain's younger brother Nabeel. He said he also believed there were questions about its legality. British media say Nabeel is one of eight people still in custody who has not been charged with any offence. Rustem said he had lodged a complaint with the Independent Police Complaints Commission about the conditions in which Hussain was held while being questioned at Paddington Green Police Station in north London. "He's a cheerful soul, he's taking it quite philosophically," Rustem said. "He knows it is a serious investigation."[110]
Manchester
British airports
  • Ryanair Holdings made good on its threat to sue the British government, asking for damages from cancellations and lost bookings after security moves taken in wake of a failed plot to blow up planes flying out of the UK to the U.S. Ryanair's (RYAAY) move, however, didn't appear intended to bolster the coffers—it's asking for £3 million ($5.7 million, €4.95 million), which it would donate entirely to a charity that works to prevent blindness. Ryanair, Europe's largest low-cost airline, said it's seeking the number of damages incurred from 10 to 16 August The British government, in turn, said Ryanair doesn't have the right to seek compensation, according to a government spokesman quoted by BBC News. "The purpose of this claim is to encourage the Department for Transport to restore UK airport security to the effective International Air Transport Association norm, and to prevent similar breakdowns at UK airports during future security scares by putting in the necessary police and army personnel to carry out the extra security checks whenever the government decides to double or quadruple them again, without notice," the company said. Dublin-based Ryanair has been the most outspoken of the airlines operating from the UK to criticise the UK government rules, though British Airways (BAB) executives also have criticised the government's response. Ryanair charges that the new procedures adopted after the plot had been foiled are "nonsensical and ineffective." It cited as examples: Reduced carry-on luggage limits only apply to flights departing the UK, and not inbound flights. The reduction of luggage limits to a large briefcase when the internationally accepted carry-on bag is only 20% greater doesn't improve security. The body searching for every second passenger coming through X-ray machines instead of one in four means that families, elderly couples and young children are searched as potential terrorists. Bottles, cosmetics and toiletries are being confiscated, even though passengers can buy them in duty-free and bring them aboard outbound flights. "It is a pity that the UK government has so far failed to adopt the same rock-solid approach it took when it successfully restored the London Underground to normal within two days of the 7 July attacks," said CEO Michael O'Leary. Ryanair also has used the new security risks as a marketing ploy, offering seats at a discount "to defeat terrorism." Ryanair shares were little moved, rising 0.2% in European trading.[111]

26 August[edit]

Pakistan
  • Interior minister Aftab Ahmad Sherpao said Rashid Rauf had "wider international links" and was in touch with an Afghanistan-based al Qaida leader. He did not offer any evidence to back up his claim. Pakistan has withheld information about at least seven suspects, whom security officials say was arrested on Rauf's information. Pakistan has no extradition treaty with Britain, but Mr Sherpao said they would consider deporting Rauf to London if any such request was made to them. Rauf, in his mid-20s, is believed to be being interrogated by Pakistan agents near the capital, Islamabad. He had ties by marriage to Masood Azhar, leader of an al Qaida-linked Pakistani militant group, Jaish-e-Mohammed. Azhar has lived in Bhawalpur, a city in eastern Pakistan where Rauf had also settled. However, Pakistan has said the group had no links to the plot.[112]
  • Sources said that Britain had approached the foreign affairs ministry in Islamabad seeking the deportation of Rashid Rauf, the main suspect. "The request is pending with the foreign office," the sources said, adding that it would be processed when it was passed on to the interior ministry. All that Interior Minister Aftab Ahmad Khan Sherpao could say was that his ministry had not received any such request. Foreign Office spokesperson Tasnim Aslam said she was unaware of any request for Mr Rauf's deportation, but said that arrangements between Pakistan and Britain provided for such a possibility. "There is mutual legal assistance arrangement through the joint judicial cooperation working group which provides for such a possibility and cooperation. Yes, the possibility (for Rauf's deportation) exists. It can not be ruled out", she told. The sources, requesting anonymity, said the 26-year-old suspect, who had been picked up from Bahawalpur, had been charged with forging documents. He has not been charged with any terrorism-related offences. An FIR was registered against him at the Islamabad Airport police station in Rawalpindi. He was produced before a magistrate in Rawalpindi again 25 August after his 14-day remand had ended. He was remanded for another 14 days. The sources said it might take four to five weeks to process the case for Mr Rauf's deportation back to England. They said Mr Rauf had been charged with another offence. Though they did not specify the charge, they made it clear that the new charge was also not related to terrorism. "He was needed for further investigation and hence the request for further remand," the sources said. The sources said that Mr Rauf had been under surveillance for over a month but his movements were closely watched and monitored a week before his arrest. They said that Mr Rauf had made several calls to plotters in England hastening his arrest. A computer and some computer disks were recovered from his possession. The sources did not say what those phone calls were all about but said that the British investigators, despite having initial differences with the US and Pakistan on when to proceed against the plotters, concurred to arrest them once the main suspect was in custody. The sources claimed that Mr Rauf was not only a key suspect, who had met the Al Qaeda mastermind but was also instrumental in directing finances to the plotters through South Africa.[113]

30 August[edit]

The arrested
  • Another three men were charged with conspiracy to murder and preparing an act of terrorism: Mohammed Yasar Gulzar, Nabeel Hussain, and Mohammed Shamin Uddin. They are to appear in the Old Bailey on 18 September.[114]

September[edit]

4 September[edit]

The arrested
  • Eight British men were remanded in custody for a further two weeks after appearing at the Old Bailey in connection with a plot to blow up transatlantic airliners.[115] The men, aged between 19 and 28, were accused of conspiracy to murder and preparing an act of terrorism. They were: Tanvir Hussain, 25, of no fixed abode; Umar Islam, 28, of east London; Arafat Waheed Khan, 25, from Walthamstow, east London; Ahmed Abdullah Ali, 25 from Walthamstow; Ibrahim Savant, 25, from north London; Waheed Zaman, 22, from Walthamstow; Assad Sarwar, 26, from High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, and Adam Khatib, 19, from Walthamstow. They are each charged with one offence of conspiracy to murder. They are also charged with a new offence under the Terrorism Act 2006, alleging that they were preparing to smuggle the component parts of improvised explosive devices on to aircraft and assemble and detonate them on board. They appeared at the Old Bailey for a preliminary hearing via video link from Belmarsh high-security jail.[116]
  • Prosecutor Colin Gibbs said that due to a large amount of evidence, including forensic material, he expected the men to face "a very long trial of (between) five and eight months." The trial, he said, would not start until at least January 2008.[115]

7 September[edit]

European Union
  • Aviation experts agreed on EU-wide rules on scanning laptop computers taken into aircraft cabins, but they delayed a decision on restricting liquids in hand luggage. A decision to follow Britain and the United States in banning carry-on liquids would only be taken after more technical discussions on 11 September 2006 in London and Montreal, the European Union said in a statement. "A common European response to address this threat is urgent," said the EU's committee on civil aviation security. The EU statement said the two-day meeting had made "considerable progress" toward drawing up new rules. However, officials said more technical talks would be needed before they agreed on whether to ban all liquids in hand luggage or restrict the amount of liquid that could be carried onto planes. Officials said they needed more information to decide how much liquid could be carried without constituting a possible risk. The EU nations also held off on any decision on new limits to the size of permitted hand luggage.[117]
European airports
  • Many European airports had previously asked passengers to hand over laptop computers to be scanned separately, but there had been no EU-wide regulation. An EU statement said the decision to make separate laptop scanning mandatory would increase the ability to detect concealed dangerous items. The experts also agreed on the need to phase in higher performance scanners. Francoise Humbert, communications manager for the Association of European Airlines welcomed the decisions. "It's a very good idea, we're glad it's been implemented swiftly". She was also pleased the EU was seeking more international consultation before introducing restrictions on liquids. The AEA, which represents 31 European carriers, said it would support strict restrictions on carrying liquids and gels onto passenger planes, but oppose a complete ban as "unrealistic". Humbert said, "It will cause huge operational problems and hassle for passengers." She said the association would accept a volume limit of around 150 millilitres.[117]

14 September[edit]

Britain
  • The M40 motorway was closed near High Wycombe by the Metropolitan Police as explosives officers investigated several bags and bottles found in the nearby woods. The police refused to confirm whether it was related to the 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot.[118][119]

October[edit]

10 October[edit]

Britain
  • The Chancellor of the Exchequer refers to his department's part in the foiling (via the Financial Sanctions Unit) of the alleged plot in a major speech to delivered at Chatham House, calling it "the most expeditious and most comprehensive asset freeze the Treasury has undertaken." He added that in relation to the case, "nearly 70 homes, business and open spaces have been searched... [A]s well as bomb-making equipment, 200 mobile phones, 400 computers, and a total of 8,000 CDs, DVDs and computer disks, containing 6,000 gigabytes of data have been seized." He also explained that, given that the police had to intervene early before the terrorist act, they may need an investigation regime that allows for more 28 days of pre-charge detention that was brought in by the Terrorism Act 2006.[120]

November[edit]

1 November[edit]

The Arrested
  • The City of Westminster Magistrates' Court released two suspects, Mehran Hussain and Umair Hussain, due to insufficient evidence[121]
British airports
  • The Department for Transport announces that the restrictions on the carriage of liquids onto the planes are to be relaxed slightly on 6 November, and that passengers will be allowed to carry containers up to 100 ml into the plane in a resealable bag[122]

See also[edit]

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External links[edit]

UK press
International press