August Dvorak

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August Dvorak
Born (1894-05-05)May 5, 1894
Glencoe, Minnesota, United States
Died October 10, 1975(1975-10-10) (aged 81)
Occupation Psychologist, Professor, Designer

August Dvorak (May 5, 1894 – October 10, 1975[1]) was an American educational psychologist and professor of education[2] at the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington.[3] He and his brother-in-law, William Dealey, are best known for creating the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout in the 1930s as a replacement for the QWERTY keyboard layout. In the 1940s, Dvorak designed keyboard layouts for people with the use of one hand.[4]

Dvorak and Dealey, along with Nellie Merrick and Gertrude Ford, wrote the book Typewriting Behavior, published in 1936. The book, currently not in print, is an in-depth report on the psychology and physiology of typing.

Dvorak was the captain of a Gato-class submarine in the United States Navy during World War II.[5] He was distantly related to the Czech composer Antonín Dvořák. While the composer's name is pronounced [ˈdvɔr̝ɑːk]), with the ř roughly as a simultaneous trilled [r] and [ʒ], August Dvorak's family in the U.S. pronounces it /ˈdvɔːræk/, with an English r.[6][5]


  1. ^ Cassingham, R. C. (1986). The Dvorak Keyboard. Freelance Communications. ISBN 0-935309-10-1. Page 5.
  2. ^ Cassingham, page 32.
  3. ^ Dvorak, August et al. (1936). Typewriting Behavior. American Book Company. Title page.
  4. ^ The first such machine built in accordance with Dvorak's one-handed layout was designed and constructed by Martin Tytell, also known a "Mr. Typewriter", of New York City. Kursh, Harry. Mechanix Illustrated, January 1951, pp. 74 et seq. See Meet Mr. Typewriter
  5. ^ a b Pournelle, Jerry (September 1985). "PC, Peripherals, Programs, and People". BYTE. p. 347. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  6. ^ Cassingham, page 15.

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