Weber began his studies as a landscape painter in Frankfurt at the painter Heinrich Rosenkranz and continued in 1835 his studies at the court painter Johann Heinrich Schilbach in Darmstadt, then he studied at the Städel Institute in Frankfurt and moved in the autumn of 1838 to Düsseldorf. He became later there a professor, among his students were Theodor Martens and John Robinson Tait. In 1858 he brought Jacob Maurer and Anton Burger from Frankfurt to Düsseldorf.
In 1844 he was a co-founder of the Association of Düsseldorf Artists and a member of the Painting Council (Malkasten). In 1863 he became an honorary member of the Düsseldorfer Künstler-Liedertafel, and in 1864 he was awarded the title of honorary master of the Free German High Foundation for Science, Arts and General Education (Deutsches Hochstift) in Frankfurt. Weber had been married since 1844; His only daughter died in 1857. He died of pneumonia on 9 September 1873.
Weber did not follow the realistic art, but saw it as an tool for visualizing fantasies and poetic thoughts. The idealistic overall effect had to be attributed over all effects and details, exceptions were natural phenomena such as the moonlight or the evening landscape. In the literature, he is also referred to as "Moonshine-Weber". Beside landscape paintings, he also created drawings and watercolors, as well as some lithographs.
- Outlines of the History of Art, by Wilhelm Lübke and Russell Sturgis, published by Dodd, Mead & company, 1904
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