August Wilson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

August Wilson
BornFrederick August Kittel Jr.
(1945-04-27)April 27, 1945
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
DiedOctober 2, 2005(2005-10-02) (aged 60)
Seattle, Washington, U.S.
Resting placeGreenwood Cemetery (Pittsburgh)
OccupationAuthor, playwright
Notable worksMa Rainey's Black Bottom (1984)
Fences (1987)
Joe Turner's Come and Gone (1988)
The Piano Lesson (1990)
Notable awardsPulitzer Prize for Drama (1987, 1990)
Whiting Award (1986)
Heinz Award in the Arts and Humanities (2004)
Brenda Burton
(m. 1969; div. 1972)
Judy Oliver
(m. 1981; div. 1990)
(m. 1994)

August Wilson (né Frederick August Kittel Jr.; April 27, 1945 – October 2, 2005) was an American playwright. He has been referred to as the "theater's poet of Black America".[1] He is best known for a series of 10 plays, collectively called The Pittsburgh Cycle (or The Century Cycle), which chronicle the experiences and heritage of the African-American community in the 20th century. Plays in the series include Fences (1987) and The Piano Lesson (1990), both of which won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama, as well as Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (1984) and Joe Turner's Come and Gone (1988). In 2006, Wilson was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame.

His works delve into the African-American experience as well as examine the human condition. Other themes range from the systemic and historical exploitation of African Americans, race relations, identity, migration, and racial discrimination. Viola Davis said that Wilson's writing "captures our humor, our vulnerabilities, our tragedies, our trauma. And he humanizes us. And he allows us to talk."[2] Since Wilson's death, two of his plays have been adapted into films: Fences (2016) and Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (2020). Denzel Washington has shepherded the films and has vowed to continue Wilson's legacy by adapting the rest of his plays into films for a wider audience.[3] Washington said, "the greatest part of what's left of my career is making sure that August is taken care of".[4]

Early life[edit]

Wilson was born Frederick August Kittel Jr. in the Hill District of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the fourth of six children. His father, Frederick August Kittel Sr., was a Sudeten German immigrant, who was a baker/pastry cook. His mother, Daisy Wilson, was an African-American woman from North Carolina who cleaned homes for a living.[5] Wilson's anecdotal history reports that his maternal grandmother walked from North Carolina to Pennsylvania in search of a better life. Wilson's mother raised the children alone until he was five in a two-room apartment behind a grocery store at 1727 Bedford Avenue; his father was mostly absent from his childhood. Wilson later wrote under his mother's surname.

The economically depressed neighborhood where he was raised was inhabited predominantly by Black Americans and Jewish and Italian immigrants. Life was tough for the Kittel siblings as they were biracial. August struggled with finding a sense of belonging to a particular culture and did not feel that he truly fit into African-American culture or White culture until later in life. Wilson's mother divorced his father and married David Bedford in the 1950s, and the family moved from the Hill District to the then predominantly White working-class neighborhood of Hazelwood, where they encountered racial hostility; bricks were thrown through a window at their new home. They were soon forced out of their house and on to their next home.[6]

The Hill District went on to become the setting of numerous plays in the Pittsburgh Cycle. His experiences growing up there with a strong matriarch shaped the way his plays would be written.[7]

External videos
video icon American Masters, August Wilson: The Ground on Which I Stand, PBS, 1:24:39[8]

In 1959, Wilson was one of 14 African-American students at Central Catholic High School but dropped out after one year.[5] He then attended Connelley Vocational High School, but found the curriculum unchallenging. He dropped out of Gladstone High School in the 10th grade in 1960 after his teacher accused him of plagiarizing a 20-page paper he wrote on Napoleon I of France. Wilson hid his decision from his mother because he did not want to disappoint her. At the age of 16 he began working menial jobs, where he met a wide variety of people on whom some of his later characters were based, such as Sam in The Janitor (1985).[6]

Wilson's extensive use of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh resulted in its later awarding him an honorary high school diploma. Wilson, who said he had learned to read at the age of four, began reading Black writers at the library when he was 12 and spent the remainder of his teen years educating himself through the books of Ralph Ellison, Richard Wright, Langston Hughes, Arna Bontemps, and others.[6]



Wilson knew that he wanted to be a writer, but this created tension with his mother, who wanted him to become a lawyer. She forced him to leave the family home and he enlisted in the United States Army for a three-year stint in 1962, but he was discharged after a year[9] and went back to working various odd jobs as a porter, short-order cook, gardener, and dishwasher.[citation needed]

Frederick August Kittel Jr. changed his name to August Wilson to honor his mother after his father's death in 1965. That same year, he discovered the blues as sung by Bessie Smith, and he bought a stolen typewriter for $10, which he often pawned when money was tight.[10] At 20, he decided he was a poet and submitted work to such magazines as Harper's.[5] He began to write in bars, the local cigar store, and cafes—longhand on table napkins and on yellow notepads, absorbing the voices and characters around him. He liked to write on cafe napkins because, he said, it freed him up and made him less self-conscious as a writer. He would then gather the notes and type them up at home.[5] Gifted with a talent for catching dialect and accents, Wilson had an "astonishing memory", which he put to full use during his career. He slowly learned not to censor the language he heard when incorporating it into his work.[10]

Wilson's childhood home at 1727 Bedford Avenue in Pittsburgh

Malcolm X's voice influenced Wilson's life and work (such as The Ground on Which I Stand, 1996). Both the Nation of Islam (NOI) and the Black Power movement spoke to him regarding self-sufficiency, self-defense, and self-determination, and he appreciated the origin myths that Elijah Muhammad supported. In 1969 Wilson married Brenda Burton, a Muslim, and became associated with the NOI, though he reportedly did not convert.[11] He and Brenda had one daughter, Sakina Ansari-Wilson. The couple divorced in 1972.[6]

In 1968, along with his friend Rob Penny, Wilson co-founded the Black Horizon Theater in the Hill District of Pittsburgh.[5] Wilson's first play, Recycling, was performed for audiences in small theaters, schools and public housing community centers for 50 cents a ticket. Among these early efforts was Jitney, which he revised more than two decades later as part of his 10-play cycle on 20th-century Pittsburgh.[6] He had no directing experience.[5] He recalled: "Someone had looked around and said, 'Who's going to be the director?' I said, 'I will.' I said that because I knew my way around the library. So I went to look for a book on how to direct a play. I found one called The Fundamentals of Play Directing [12] and checked it out."[10]


In 1976, Vernell Lillie, who had founded the Kuntu Repertory Theatre at the University of Pittsburgh two years earlier, directed Wilson's The Homecoming. That same year Wilson saw Athol Fugard's Sizwe Banzi is Dead, staged at the Pittsburgh Public Theater, the first time he attended professionally produced drama. Wilson, Penny, and poet Maisha Baton then founded the Kuntu Writers Workshop to bring African-American writers together and to assist them in publication and production. Both organizations remain active.

In 1978, Wilson moved to Saint Paul, Minnesota, at the suggestion of his friend, director Claude Purdy, who helped him secure a job writing educational scripts for the Science Museum of Minnesota.[5] In 1980 he received a fellowship for The Playwrights' Center in Minneapolis. He quit the museum in 1981, but continued writing plays. For three years, he was a part-time cook for the Little Brothers of the Poor. Wilson had a long association with the Penumbra Theatre Company of St. Paul, which premiered some of his plays. He wrote Fullerton Street, which has been unproduced and unpublished, in 1980. It follows the Joe Louis/Billy Conn fight in 1941 and the loss of values attendant on the Great Migration to the urban North.[6]


Throughout the 1980s, Wilson wrote the majority of his work including Jitney (1982), Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (1984), Fences (1985), Joe Turner's Come and Gone (1986), and The Piano Lesson (1987).

In 1987, St. Paul's mayor George Latimer named May 27 "August Wilson Day". He was honored because he is the only person from Minnesota to win a Pulitzer Prize for Drama.[6]


In 1990, Wilson left St. Paul after getting divorced and moved to Seattle. There he developed a relationship with Seattle Repertory Theatre, which produced his entire 10-play cycle and his one-man show How I Learned What I Learned.[6]

Though he was a writer dedicated to writing for theater, a Hollywood studio proposed filming Wilson's play Fences. He insisted that a Black director be hired for the film, saying: "I declined a White director not on the basis of race but on the basis of culture. White directors are not qualified for the job. The job requires someone who shares the specifics of the culture of Black Americans." The film remained unmade until 2016, when Denzel Washington directed the film Fences, starring Washington and Viola Davis. It earned Wilson a posthumous Oscar nomination.[13]

Wilson received many honorary degrees, including an honorary Doctor of Humanities from the University of Pittsburgh, of which he was a trustee from 1992 until 1995.[14]

Wilson maintained a strong voice in the progress and development of the (then) contemporary Black theater, undoubtedly taking influences from the examples of his youth, such as those displayed during the Black Arts Movement. One of the most notable examples of Wilson's strong opinions and critiques of what was Black theater's state in the 1990s, was the "On Cultural Power: The August Wilson/Robert Brustein Discussion" where Wilson argued for a completely Black theater with all positions filled by Blacks. Conversely, he argued that Black actors should not play roles not specifically Black (e.g., no Black Hamlet). Brustein heatedly took an opposing view.


In 2005, Wilson's final installment in his ten-part series The Century Cycle, titled Radio Golf, opened. It was first performed in 2005 by the Yale Repertory Theatre in New Haven, Connecticut and had its Broadway premiere in 2007 at the Cort Theatre. It would become known as Wilson's final work.[15]

Post–Black Arts Movement[edit]

Although Wilson's work is not formally recognized within the literary canon of the Black Arts Movement, he was certainly a product of its mission, helping to co-found the Black Horizon Theatre in his hometown of Pittsburgh in 1968. Situated in Pittsburgh's Hill District, a historically and predominantly Black neighborhood, the Black Horizon Theatre became a cultural hub of Black creativity and community building.[16] As a playwright of what is considered the Post–Black Arts Movement, Wilson inherited the spirit of BAM, producing plays that celebrated the history and poetic sensibilities of Black people. His iconic Century Cycle successfully tracked and synthesized the experiences of Black America in the 20th century, using each historical decade, from 1904 to 1997, to document the physical, emotional, mental, and political strivings of Black life in the wake of emancipation.[17]

Wilson's best-known plays are Fences (1985) (which won a Pulitzer Prize and a Tony Award), The Piano Lesson (1990) (a Pulitzer Prize and the New York Drama Critics' Circle Award), Ma Rainey's Black Bottom, and Joe Turner's Come and Gone.

Wilson stated that he was most influenced by "the four Bs": blues music, the Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges, the playwright Amiri Baraka and the painter Romare Bearden.[5] He went on to add writers Ed Bullins and James Baldwin to the list. He noted:

From Borges, those wonderful gaucho stories from which I learned that you can be specific as to a time and place and culture and still have the work resonate with the universal themes of love, honor, duty, betrayal, etc. From Amiri Baraka, I learned that all art is political, although I don't write political plays. From Romare Bearden I learned that the fullness and richness of everyday life can be rendered without compromise or sentimentality.[5]

He valued Bullins and Baldwin for their honest representations of everyday life.[10]

Like Bearden, Wilson worked with collage techniques in writing: "I try to make my plays the equal of his canvases. In creating plays I often use the image of a stewing pot in which I toss various things that I'm going to make use of—a black cat, a garden, a bicycle, a man with a scar on his face, a pregnant woman, a man with a gun." On the meaning of his work, Wilson stated:

I once wrote this short story called "The Best Blues Singer in the World", and it went like this—"The streets that Balboa walked were his own private ocean, and Balboa was drowning." End of story. That says it all. Nothing else to say. I've been rewriting that same story over and over again. All my plays are rewriting that same story.[10]

The Pittsburgh Cycle[edit]

Wilson's Pittsburgh Cycle,[18] also often referred to as his Century Cycle,[19] consists of ten plays—nine of which are set in Pittsburgh's Hill District (the other being set in Chicago), an African-American neighborhood that takes on a mythic literary significance like Thomas Hardy's Wessex, William Faulkner's Yoknapatawpha County, or Irish playwright Brian Friel's Ballybeg. The plays are each set in a different decade and aim to sketch the Black experience in the 20th century and "raise consciousness through theater" and echo "the poetry in the everyday language of Black America".[10] His writing of the Black experience always featured strong female characters and sometimes included elements of the supernatural. In his book, he wrote "My mother's a very strong, principled woman. My female characters . . . come in a large part from my mother"[20]

As for the elements of the supernatural, Wilson often featured some form of superstition or old tradition in plays that came down to supernatural roots.[21] One of his plays well known for featuring this is The Piano Lesson. In the play, the piano is used and releases spirits of the ancestors. Wilson wanted to create such an event in the play that the audience was left to decide what was real or not. He was fascinated by the power of theater as a medium where a community at large could come together to bear witness to events and currents unfolding.[10]

Wilson told The Paris Review:

I think my plays offer (White Americans) a different way to look at Black Americans. For instance, in Fences they see a garbageman, a person they don't really look at, although they see a garbageman every day. By looking at Troy's life, White people find out that the content of this Black garbageman's life is affected by the same things – love, honor, beauty, betrayal, duty. Recognizing that these things are as much part of his life as theirs can affect how they think about and deal with Black people in their lives.[5]

Although the plays of the cycle are not strictly connected to the degree of a serial story, some characters appear (at various ages) in more than one of the cycle's plays. Children of characters in earlier plays may appear in later plays. The character most frequently mentioned in the cycle is Aunt Ester, a "washer of souls". She is reported to be 285 years old in Gem of the Ocean, which takes place in her home at 1839 Wylie Avenue, and 349 in Two Trains Running. She dies in 1985, during the events of King Hedley II. Much of the action of Radio Golf revolves around the plan to demolish and redevelop that house, some years after her death. Aunt Ester is a symbolic and recurring figure that represents the African-American struggle. She is "not literally three centuries old but a succession of folk priestesses... [s]he embodies a weighty history of tragedy and triumph".[22] The plays often include an apparently mentally impaired oracular character (different in each play)—for example, Hedley Sr. in Seven Guitars, Gabriel in Fences, Stool Pigeon in King Hedley II, or Hambone in Two Trains Running.[citation needed]

Year Title Decade Opened on Broadway[23]
1982 Jitney 1970s 2017 – Samuel J. Friedman Theatre
1984 Ma Rainey's Black Bottom 1920s 1984 – Cort Theatre
1985 Fences 1950s 1987 – 46th Street Theatre
1986 Joe Turner's Come and Gone 1910s 1988 – Ethel Barrymore
1987 The Piano Lesson 1930s 1990 – Walter Kerr
1990 Two Trains Running 1960s 1992 – Walter Kerr
1995 Seven Guitars 1940s 1996 – Walter Kerr
1999 King Hedley II 1980s 2001 – Virginia Theatre
2003 Gem of the Ocean 1900s 2004 – Walter Kerr
2005 Radio Golf 1990s 2007 – Cort Theatre

Chicago's Goodman Theatre was the first theater in the world to produce the entire 10-play cycle, in productions which spanned from 1986 to 2007. Two of the Goodman's productions—Seven Guitars and Gem of the Ocean—were world premieres.[24] Israel Hicks produced the entire 10-play cycle from 1990 to 2009 for the Denver Center Theatre Company.[25] Geva Theatre Center produced all 10 plays in decade order from 2007 to 2011 as August Wilson's American Century. The Huntington Theatre Company of Boston has produced all 10 plays, finishing in 2012. During Wilson's life he worked closely with The Huntington to produce the later plays. Pittsburgh Public Theater was the first theater company in Pittsburgh to produce the entire Century Cycle, including the world premiere of King Hedley II to open the O'Reilly Theater in Downtown Pittsburgh.[26]

TAG – The Actors' Group, in Honolulu, Hawaii, produced all 10 plays in the cycle starting in 2004 with Two Trains Running and culminating in 2015 with Ma Rainey's Black Bottom. All shows were Hawaii premieres, all were extremely successful at the box office and garnered many local theatre awards for the actors and the organization. The Black Rep in St. Louis and the Anthony Bean Community Theater in New Orleans have also presented the complete cycle.

In the years after Wilson's death the 10-play cycle has been referred to as The August Wilson Century Cycle[27] and as The American Century Cycle.[28]

Two years before his death in 2005, Wilson wrote and performed an unpublished one-man play entitled How I Learned What I Learned about the power of art and the power of possibility. This was produced at New York's Signature Theatre and directed by Todd Kreidler, Wilson's friend and protégé. How I Learned explores his days as a struggling young writer in Pittsburgh's Hill District and how the neighborhood and its people inspired his cycle of plays about the African-American experience.[29]

Personal life[edit]

Wilson was married three times. His first marriage was to Brenda Burton from 1969 to 1972. They had one daughter, Sakina Ansari, born 1970. In 1981, he married Judy Oliver, a social worker; they divorced in 1990. He married again in 1994 and was survived by his third wife, costume designer Constanza Romero, whom he met on the set of The Piano Lesson. They had a daughter, Azula Carmen Wilson.[5] Wilson also was survived by siblings Freda Ellis, Linda Jean Kittel, Richard Kittel, Donna Conley and Edwin Kittel.[1]


Wilson reported that he had been diagnosed with liver cancer in June 2005 and been given three to five months to live. He died at age 60 on October 2 of that year at Swedish Medical Center in Seattle, and was interred at Greenwood Cemetery, Pittsburgh, on October 8.[30] He reportedly requested a "Black funeral" at Saint Paul Cathedral, but permission for a non-Catholic funeral was not granted by the diocese. A memorial service was instead held at the University of Pittsburgh.[11]


Year Title Notes
1973 Recycle
1977 Black Bart and the Sacred Hills
1980 Fullerton Street
1982 Jitney
1984 Ma Rainey's Black Bottom
1984 Joe Turner's Come and Gone
1985 Janitor
1986 The Ground on Which I Stand [speech]
1987 Fences
1989 The Homecoming
1989 The Coldest Day of the Year
1990 The Piano Lesson
1991 Two Trains Running
1995 Seven Guitars
1999 King Hedley II
2002 How I Learned What I Learned
2003 Gem of the Ocean
2005 Radio Golf

Awards and nominations[edit]

Year Award Category Project Result
1985 Tony Awards Best Play Ma Rainey's Black Bottom Nominated
1987 Fences Won
1988 Joe Turner's Come and Gone Nominated
1990 The Piano Lesson Nominated
1992 Two Trains Running Nominated
1996 Seven Guitars Nominated
2001 King Hedley II Nominated
2005 Gem of the Ocean Nominated
2007 Radio Golf Nominated
2017 Best Revival of a Play Jitney Won
1985 Drama Desk Awards Outstanding New Play Ma Rainey's Black Bottom Nominated
1987 Fences Won
1988 Joe Tuner's Come and Gone Nominated
1990 The Piano Lesson Won
1996 Seven Guitars Nominated
2000 Jitney Nominated
2007 Radio Golf Nominated
1987 Pulitzer Prize For Drama Fences Won
1989 The Piano Lesson Nominated
1990 The Piano Lesson Won
1992 Two Trains Running Nominated
1995 Seven Guitars Nominated
2000 King Hedley II Nominated
2017 Academy Awards Best Adapted Screenplay Fences Nominated
1995 Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Television Movie The Piano Lesson Nominated
Outstanding Writing for a Miniseries or a Special Nominated
1985 New York Drama Critics' Circle Award Best Play Ma Rainey's Black Bottom Won
1987 Fences Won
1988 Joe Turner's Come and Gone Won
1990 The Piano Lesson Won
1992 Best American Play Two Trains Running Won
1996 Best Play Seven Guitars Won
2000 Jitney Won
2007 Best American Play Radio Golf Won

Legacy and honors[edit]

The August Wilson Theatre, New York City

The childhood home of Wilson and his six siblings, at 1727 Bedford Avenue in Pittsburgh, was declared a historic landmark by the State of Pennsylvania on May 30, 2007.[31] On February 26, 2008, Pittsburgh City Council placed the house on the List of City of Pittsburgh historic designations. On April 30, 2013, the August Wilson House was added to the National Register of Historic Places.[32]

In Pittsburgh, there is an August Wilson Center for African American Culture. The center includes a permanent exhibition on Wilson's life in Pittsburgh's Hill District, "August Wilson: A Writer's Landscape."[33]

On October 16, 2005, fourteen days after Wilson's death, the Virginia Theatre in New York City's Broadway Theater District was renamed the August Wilson Theatre. It is the first Broadway theatre to bear the name of an African-American.[34] The theatre has run many shows, including Jersey Boys, Groundhog Day, and Mean Girls.[35]

In 2007, the August Wilson Monologue Competition was founded by Kenny Leon and Todd Kreidler. High school students, supported by professional actors, mentors, local drama teachers and others learn a monologue from one of Wilson's plays, and perform it in front of a professional jury. This tribute to Wilson's work is an official contest in many American cities including, as of 2020, Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Greensboro, Los Angeles, New Haven, New York, Norfolk, Pittsburgh, Portland, San Diego, and Seattle. The national winner of the contest gets the chance to perform on Broadway.[36]

In Seattle, Washington, along the south side of the Seattle Repertory Theatre, the vacated Republican Street between Warren Avenue N. and 2nd Avenue N. on the Seattle Center grounds has been renamed August Wilson Way.[37]

In September 2016, an existing community park near his childhood home was renovated and renamed August Wilson Park.[38]

In 2020, the University Library System at the University of Pittsburgh acquired Wilson's literary papers and materials to establish the August Wilson Archive.[39][40][41]

In 2021, the United States Postal Service honored Wilson with a Forever stamp featuring him as part of the Black Heritage series of stamps. It was designed by Ethel Kessler with art from Tim O'Brien.[42]

Other awards and honors by year:

  • 1985: New York Drama Critics' Circle Award for Best American Play Ma Rainey's Black Bottom
  • 1986: Whiting Award for Drama
  • 1987: Artist of the Year by Chicago Tribune
  • 1988: Literary Lion Award from the New York Public Library
  • 1988: Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement[43]
  • 1988: New York Drama Critics Circle Award for Best Play – Joe Turner's Come and Gone
  • 1990: Governor's Awards for Excellence in the Arts and Distinguished Pennsylvania Artists
  • 1990: New York Drama Critics Circle Award for Best Play – The Piano Lesson
  • 1991: Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame award
  • 1991: St. Louis Literary Award from the Saint Louis University Library Associates[44][45]
  • 1992: American Theatre Critics' Association Award – Two Trains Running
  • 1992,2007: New York Drama Critics Circle Citation for Best American Play – Two Trains Running
  • 1992: Clarence Muse Award
  • 1996: New York Drama Critics Circle Award for Best Play – Seven Guitars
  • 1999: National Humanities Medal
  • 2000: New York Drama Critics Circle Award for Best Play – Jitney
  • 2001:Outer Critics Circle Award for John Gassner Playwriting Award – Fences
  • 2002: Olivier Award for Best new Play – Jitney
  • 2004: The 10th Annual Heinz Award in Arts and Humanities[46]
  • 2004: The U.S. Comedy Arts Festival Freedom of Speech Award
  • 2005: Make Shift Award at the U.S. Confederation of Play Writers
  • 2006: American Theatre Hall of Fame.[47]
  • 2013: Lucille Lortel Award for Outstanding Revival – The Piano Lesson


  1. ^ a b Isherwood, Charles (October 3, 2005). "August Wilson, Theater's Poet of Black America, Is Dead at 60 (Published 2005)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 12, 2020.
  2. ^ "Denzel Washington on bringing August Wilson's "Ma Rainey's Black Bottom" to the screen". CBS News. December 11, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  3. ^ Gratzinger, Ollie (August 14, 2022). "Denzel Washington Honors August Wilson's Legacy at House Opening". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  4. ^ Sullivan, Lindsey (October 2, 2020). "Denzel Washington Wants Samuel L. Jackson to Star in Film of August Wilson's The Piano Lesson". Playbill. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Isherwood, Charles (October 3, 2005), "August Wilson, Theater's Poet of Black America, Is Dead at 60", The New York Times.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Little, Johnathan (2000). Twentieth-Century American Dramatists: Second Series. Detroit, Michigan: Gale. ISBN 978-0-7876-3137-6.
  7. ^ Shannon, Sandra G. (1991). "The Fences They Build: August Wilson's Depiction of African-American Women". Obsidian II. 6 (2): 1–17. ISSN 0888-4412. JSTOR 44485235.
  8. ^ "American Masters, August Wilson: The Ground on Which I Stand". PBS. February 20, 2012. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
  9. ^ "August Wilson |". Retrieved January 9, 2024.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Bonnie Lyons, George Plimpton (Winter 1999). "August Wilson, The Art of Theater No. 14". The Paris Review. Winter 1999 (153).
  11. ^ a b "From Allah to Broadway. August Wilson's roots in the Nation of Islam". A Journey through NYC religions. December 30, 2020. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  12. ^ Dean, Alexander; Carra, Lawrence (2009). Fundamentals of Play Directing (5th ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. ISBN 978-1-57766-648-6.
  13. ^ Viagas, Robert (April 22, 2016). "Denzel Washington's Fences Film Begins Shooting Today". Playbill. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  14. ^ Bruce Steele (October 10, 2005). "Remembering August Wilson 1945–2005". The Pitt Chronicle. The University of Pittsburgh. Archived from the original on September 2, 2006. Retrieved October 1, 2008.
  15. ^ Brantley, Ben (May 9, 2007). "In the Rush to Progress, the Past Is Never Too Far Behind". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
  16. ^ Greenwood, Jill King (March 16, 2015). "August Wilson and Black Horizon Theatre | Pitt Chronicle | University of Pittsburgh". Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  17. ^ "August Wilson, Pulitzer winning playwright: Plays". Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  18. ^ "August Wilson's 'Pittsburgh Cycle' Plays". June 3, 2020.
  19. ^ "10 Plays, 100 Years – Playwright August Wilson Reveals the History of a Community (From the Playbill)".
  20. ^ Wilson, August (2001). The Ground on which I Stand. Theatre Communications Group. p. 151. ISBN 978-1559361873.
  21. ^ "August Wilson: The Ground on Which I Stand | Biography and Timeline | American Masters | PBS". American Masters. January 28, 2015. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  22. ^ Rawson, Christopher (November 9, 2009). "August Wilson's mythic character Aunt Ester explored in theater festival". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  23. ^ The August Wilson Century Cycle Archived October 12, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.Theatre Communications Group. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  24. ^ Houlihan, Mary (January 8, 2014). "Court Theatre stages August Wilson's 'Seven Guitars'". Chicago Sun-Times.
  25. ^ Weber, Bruce (July 7, 2010). "Israel Hicks, Director of August Wilson's Cycle, Dies at 66". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
  26. ^ Isenberg, Robert (October 2, 2008). "The final installment of August Wilson's epic Pittsburgh Cycle premieres at the Public". Pittsburgh City Paper.
  27. ^ Wilson, August (2007). August Wilson Century Cycle. Theatre Communications Group. ISBN 978-1559363075.
  28. ^ "Listen to Playwright August Wilson's American Century Cycle in Its Entirety: 10 Free Plays".
  29. ^ "How I Learned What I Learned". Retrieved September 24, 2015.
  30. ^ Wilson, Scott; Mank, Gregory W. (forward) (2016). "Wilson, August #13712". Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons (3rd ed.). McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786479924. OCLC 948561021.
  31. ^ Associated Press (May 31, 2007). "State Memorializes August Wilson's Childhood Home". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on November 14, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2008.
  32. ^ "Wilson, August, House".
  33. ^ "Explore and Visit \ The August Wilson African American Cultural Center". The August Wilson African American Cultural Center. Retrieved December 4, 2023.
  34. ^ Jesse McKinley (September 2, 2005). "Theater Is to Be Renamed for a Dying Playwright". The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  35. ^ "August Wilson Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  36. ^ "August Wilson Monologue Competition". Portland Center Stage at the Armory. 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2023.
  37. ^ Kathy Mulady (June 12, 2007). "Visions For a New Seattle Center Being Made Public". The Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved October 5, 2008.
  38. ^ Arbogast, Sarah (August 8, 2016). "Newly-Renovated August Wilson Park Unveiled In Hill District". CBS Pittsburgh.
  39. ^ "August Wilson Archive | University of Pittsburgh Library". Retrieved December 4, 2023.
  40. ^ "University of Pittsburgh Library System Acquires Archive of Renowned Playwright August Wilson" (Press release). University of Pittsburgh. October 29, 2020. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  41. ^ Pitz, Marylynne (October 29, 2020). "August Wilson's literary archive is coming home". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  42. ^ "August Wilson Stamp |". Retrieved January 6, 2021.
  43. ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". American Academy of Achievement.
  44. ^ "Saint Louis Literary Award – Saint Louis University". Archived from the original on August 23, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  45. ^ Saint Louis University Library Associates. "Recipients of the Saint Louis Literary Award". Archived from the original on July 31, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
  46. ^ "The Heinz Awards :: August Wilson".
  47. ^ Rawson, Christopher (January 31, 2007). "Theater Hall of Fame honors August Wilson, seven others". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved February 12, 2014.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]