Augustalis (fl. 5th century) was the first bishop of Toulon, according to some authorities. He was appointed in 441. He attended the Council of Orange that year, and the Council of Vaison the following. He is associated with the civitas of Arles (ancient Arelate) by the Martyrologium Hieronymianum, which honors him on September 7. He is also named by the Martyrologium romanum on that day, with his location noted as in Gallia. An Augustalis, most likely this man, appears among a group of bishops addressed by Pope Leo I in letters dated 22 August 449 and 5 May 450, the latter of which addresses issues of jurisdiction between Arles and Vienne.
De ratione Paschae
The bishop, or another churchman named Augustalis in Gaul of the 5th century (possibly the 3rd) was the author of a tract De ratione Paschae, a table or laterculus on calculating the Paschal cycle. He is referenced in the Carthaginian Computus of 455, preserved in an 8th-century chronographical manuscript in the cathedral library at Lucca.
The table itself is not extant and the description of it is insufficient for reconstruction. Augustalis reckoned that the Crucifixion took place on 25 March in the year 28, on the 14th day of the moon. The dating of the Passion to 28 agrees with that of Prosper Tiro. The base date of Augustalis's laterculus was the year 213. It covered a hundred years, ending in 312. Augustalis worked with, or is thought sometimes even to have originated, the 84-year Metonic cycle usually associated, like the date of March 25 for Easter, with the Celtic tradition of Christianity in Gaul and the Celtic Islands, including Hibernia (Ireland) and Britannia (Britain). This cycle is characterized by a 14th-year saltus lunae ("leap" of the moon), a day added to the epact to reconcile the lunar year to the solar (compare leap year).
The 19th-century German scholar Bruno Krusch placed Augustalis in the 3rd century and thought that the supputatio Romana, an 84-year Roman table, was derived from the table of Augustalis, which he further identified as the "old table" (vetus laterculus) referenced in a Paschal prologue in a manuscript at Cologne. The "old table" is more often assumed to be the 112-year table of Hippolytus. Eduard Schwartz criticized the views of Krusch, asserting that the table of Augustalis was never used in Rome and that it represented an "eccentric version" of the 84-year cycle used by the insular Celtic churches. He places Augustalis in the 5th century.
- Louis Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule: Provinces du Sud-est (Paris, 1984), vol. 1, pp. 19 online, 250, 269, 349, citing the Latin sources.
- Christine Barnel, "Town and Country in Provence: Toulon, Its Notaries, and Their Clients," in Urban and Rural Communities in Medieval France: Provence and Languedoc, 1000–1500 (Brill, 1998), p. 240 online.
- Auguste Allmer, Revue épigraphique du Midi de la France 2 (1884–1889), pp. 374–375 online.
- Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, p. 250.
- Martyrologium Hieronymianum VII id. sept., as cited by S.T. Loseby, "Bishops and Cathedrals: Order and Density in the Fifth-Century Urban Landscape of Southern Gaul," in Fifth-Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity (Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 147 online.
- Martyrologium romanum Gregorii XIII, Pontificis Maximi. Urbani VIII et Clementis Papae X auctoritate recognitum (1807).
- St. Leo the Great: Letters, translated by Edmund Hunt (Fathers of the Church, 1957), pp. 120–121 and 134–135. See also Jacques Paul Migne, Flavii Lucii Dextri Chronicon in Patrologiae latina cursus completus (Paris, 1846), vol. 31, 507/508 online, especially note 7.
- For the scholarly debate on his date, see Alden A. Mosshammer, The Easter Computus and the Origins of the Christian Era (Oxford University Press), pp. 217 and 227–228.
- For the Latin text of which see Bruno Krusch, Studien zur christlich-mittelalterlichen Chronologie. Der 84jährige Ostercyclus und seine Quellen (Leipzig, 1880), reference to Augustalis p. 280 online.
- Bibl. Cap. 490. The text of the Carthaginian Computus was first published in 1761 by Giovan Domenico Mansi.
- Mosshammer, The Easter Computus, p. 219.
- Mosshammer, The Easter Computus, p. 228.
- In the inclusive counting of ancient Rome. See Faith Wallis, Bede: The Reckoning of Time (Liverpool University Press, 1999), p. xiv online.
- Mosshammer, The Easter Computus, pp. 217, 220, 225–228.
- Wallis, Bede, p. xiv. For an explanation of saltus and its usage by scholars in the context of the epact, see Mosshammer, The Easter Computus, pp. 75–76 online.
- Sanctissimae memoriae Augustalis.
- Mosshammer, The Easter Computus, p. 218.
- This dating would exclude the possibility that the De ratione author was the same man as the bishop of Toulon or the Augustalis whose saint's day was September 7.
- Mosshammer reproduces the table pp. 210–211.
- Krusch as summarized by Mosshammer, The Easter Computus, pp. 208–209, 217. Although Mansi had published the Carthaginian Computus in the 18th century, it had gone mostly unnoticed by scholars until Krusch's republication in 1880.
- On the vexed identity of this Hippolytus, see Mosshammer, "The Hippolytan Problem," in The Easter Computus pp. 118–121 et passim.
- Wallis, Bede, p. xiv; Mosshammer, The Easter Computus, p. 222.
- On which see also Mosshammer, The Easter Computus, pp. 229–231.