Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton

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His Grace
The Duke of Grafton
KG PC
Grafton3.JPG
Portrait by Pompeo Batoni, 1762. National Portrait Gallery, London
Prime Minister of Great Britain
In office
14 October 1768 – 28 January 1770
Monarch George III
Preceded by The Earl of Chatham
Succeeded by Lord North
Personal details
Born (1735-09-28)28 September 1735
Died 14 March 1811(1811-03-14) (aged 75)
Euston Hall, Suffolk
Political party Whig
Spouse(s) Anne (1756–69)
Elizabeth
Children 9
Alma mater Peterhouse, Cambridge
Religion Unitarian
Signature

Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton KG PC (28 September 1735 – 14 March 1811), styled Earl of Euston between 1747 and 1757, was a British Whig statesman of the Georgian era. He is one of a handful of dukes who have served as Prime Minister.

He became Prime Minister in 1768 at the age of 33, leading the supporters of William Pitt, and was the youngest person to have held the office until the appointment of William Pitt the Younger 15 years later. However, he struggled to demonstrate an ability to counter increasing challenges to Britain's global dominance following the nation's victory in the Seven Years' War. He was widely attacked for allowing France to annex Corsica, and stepped down in 1770, handing over power to Lord North.

Background and education[edit]

He was a son of Lord Augustus FitzRoy, a Captain in the Royal Navy,[1] and Elizabeth Cosby, daughter of Colonel William Cosby, who served as a colonial Governor of New York. His father was the third son of the 2nd Duke of Grafton and Lady Henrietta Somerset, which made FitzRoy a great-grandson of both the 1st Duke of Grafton and the Marquess of Worcester. He was notably a fourth-generation descendant of King Charles II and the 1st Duchess of Cleveland; the surname FitzRoy stems from this illegitimacy. His younger brother was the 1st Baron Southampton. From the death of his uncle in 1747, he was styled Earl of Euston as his grandfather's heir apparent.

Lord Euston was educated at Newcome's School in Hackney and at Westminster School, made the Grand Tour, and obtained a degree at Peterhouse, University of Cambridge.[2]

Political career[edit]

In 1756, he entered Parliament as MP for Boroughbridge, a pocket borough; several months later, he switched constituencies to Bury St Edmunds, which was controlled by his family. However, a year later, his grandfather died and he succeeded as 3rd Duke of Grafton, which elevated him to the House of Lords.

He first became known in politics as an opponent of Lord Bute,[3] a favourite of King George III. Grafton aligned himself with the Duke of Newcastle against Lord Bute, whose term as Prime Minister was short-lived largely because it was felt that the peace terms to which he had agreed at the Treaty of Paris were not a sufficient return for Britain's performance in the Seven Years War.

In 1765, Grafton was appointed a Privy Counsellor; then, following discussions with William Pitt the Elder, he was appointed Northern Secretary in Lord Rockingham's first government. However, he retired the following year, and Pitt (by then Lord Chatham) formed a ministry in which Grafton was First Lord of the Treasury but not Prime Minister.[4]

Chatham's illness, at the end of 1767, resulted in Grafton becoming the Government's effective leader (he is credited with entering the office of Prime Minister in 1768), but political differences, the impact of the Corsican Crisis and the attacks of "Junius" led to his resignation in January 1770. Also, in 1768, Grafton became Chancellor of Cambridge University.[citation needed] He became Lord Privy Seal in Lord North's ministry (1771) but resigned in 1775, being in favour of conciliatory action towards the American colonists. In the second Rockingham ministry of 1782, he was again Lord Privy Seal.[4]

Religious interests[edit]

In later years he was a prominent Unitarian, being one of the early members of the inaugural Essex Street Chapel under Rev. Theophilus Lindsey when founded in 1774. Grafton had associated with a number of liberal Anglican theologians when at Cambridge, devoted much time to theological study and writing after leaving office as Prime Minister. In 1773 in the House of Lords he supported a bill to release Anglican clergy from subscribing to all the Thirty Nine Articles. He became an advocate of moral reformation among the upper classes and of liturgical reform. He was author of:

  • Hints Submitted to the Serious Attention of the Clergy, Nobility and Gentry, by a Layman(1789).
  • Serious Reflections of a Rational Christian from 1788-1797.

He was a sponsor of Richard Watson's Consideration of the Expediency of Revising the Liturgy and Article of the Church of England (published 1790) and he funded the printing of 700 copies of Griesbach's edition of the Greek New Testament in 1796.[5]

Legacy[edit]

Grafton County, New Hampshire,[6] in the United States, is named in his honour, as are the towns of Grafton, New South Wales, Australia, the town of Grafton, New York, the unincorporated community of Grafton, Virginia, and possibly the township (since 1856 a city) of Grafton, West Virginia. The Grafton Centre Shopping Mall in Cambridge is also named after him, and indeed lies on Fitzroy Street. Cape Grafton in Far North Queensland was named after him by Lieutenant James Cook during his first voyage of discovery.

Family[edit]

On 29 January 1756, he married The Hon. Anne Liddell (1737–1804), daughter of the 1st Baron Ravensworth. They had three children:

  • Lady Georgiana FitzRoy [7] (8 May 1757 – 18 January 1799), who married John Smyth (12 February 1748 – 12 February 1811) on 4 June 1778.
  • George Henry FitzRoy, 4th Duke of Grafton (1760–1844)
  • General Lord Charles FitzRoy (14 July 1764 – 20 December 1829), who married, firstly, Frances Mundy (1773 – 9 August 1797) on 20 June 1795, and had one son. He married, secondly, Lady Frances Stewart (24 June 1777 – 9 February 1810) on 10 March 1799 and had three children. His sons Sir Charles FitzRoy (1796–1858), governor of New South Wales, and Robert FitzRoy, the hydrographer, were notable for their achievements.[8]

After the Duchess had become pregnant by her lover, the Earl of Upper Ossory, she and the Duke were divorced by Act of Parliament, passed 23 March 1769. Three months later, on 24 June 1769, the Duke married Elizabeth Wrottesley (1 November 1745 – 25 May 1822), daughter of the Reverend Sir Richard Wrottesley, Dean of Worcester.[9] They had the following children:

  • Lord Henry FitzRoy (9 April 1770 – 7 June 1828), clergyman; he married Caroline Pigot (died 1 January 1835) on 10 September 1800 and had five children.
  • Lord Frederick FitzRoy (b. 16 September 1774; died young).
  • Lady Augusta FitzRoy (1779 – 29 June 1839), who married Rev. George F. Tavel (died 1829) on 19 November 1811.
  • Lady Frances FitzRoy (1 June 1780 – 7 January 1866), who married the 1st Baron Churchill on 25 November 1800.
  • Admiral Lord William FitzRoy (1 June 1782 – 13 May 1857), who married Georgiana Raikes (died 2 December 1861) in 1816 and had two children.
  • Lord John Edward FitzRoy (24 September 1785 – 28 December 1856), MP, died unmarried.
  • Lady Charlotte FitzRoy (d. 23 June 1857).
  • Lady Elizabeth FitzRoy (died 13 March 1839), who married her cousin Lt. Gen. The Hon. William FitzRoy (1773–1837), son of the 1st Baron Southampton, on 4 July 1811.
  • Lady Isabella FitzRoy (died 10 December 1866), who married Barrington Pope Blachford (3 December 1783 – 14 May 1816) on 11 August 1812.

Grafton was thus the first British Prime Minister, before Sir Anthony Eden,[10] to be divorced and the second, after Sir Robert Walpole, to marry while in office.

The Duke of Grafton's Government[edit]

Main article: Grafton Ministry

Titles from birth to death[edit]

  • Mr. Augustus FitzRoy (1735–1747)
  • Earl of Euston (1747–1756)
  • Earl of Euston, MP (1756–1757)
  • His Grace The Duke of Grafton (1757–1765)
  • His Grace The Duke of Grafton, PC (1765–1769)
  • His Grace The Duke of Grafton, KG, PC (1769–1811)

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ http://thepeerage.com/p1040.htm#i10395
  2. ^ "Fitzory, Augustus Henry (FTSY751AH)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. 
  3. ^  "Fitzroy, Augustus Henry". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  4. ^ a b Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Grafton, Dukes of". Encyclopædia Britannica 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 317. 
  5. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 19. Oxford University Press. 2004. p. 928. ISBN 0-19-861369-5. Article by Peter Durrant.
  6. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 140. 
  7. ^ Romney, George. "Portrait of Lady Georgina Smyth and her son 1780c.". Philip Mould Historical Portraits Image Library. 
  8. ^ Chisholm 1911.
  9. ^ Hellicar 1978, p. 28
  10. ^ Eden's divorce was in 1950 and he remarried in 1952, prior to reaching office as Prime Minister.
Bibliography
  • Hellicar, Eileen (1978). Prime Ministers of Britain. David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7486-9{{inconsistent citations}} 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Sandwich
Secretary of State for the Northern Department
1765–1766
Succeeded by
Henry Seymour Conway
Preceded by
The Marquess of Rockingham
First Lord of the Treasury
1766–1770
Succeeded by
Lord North
Leader of the House of Lords
1766–1770
Succeeded by
Unknown
Preceded by
The Earl of Chatham
Prime Minister of Great Britain
14 October 1768 – 28 January 1770
Succeeded by
Lord North
Preceded by
The Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire
Lord Privy Seal
1771–1775
Succeeded by
The Earl of Dartmouth
Preceded by
The Earl of Dartmouth
Lord Privy Seal
1782–1783
Succeeded by
The Earl of Carlisle
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
William Murray
Sir Cecil Bisshopp, Bt
Member of Parliament for Boroughbridge
with Sir Cecil Bisshopp, Bt

1756–1757
Succeeded by
Sir Cecil Bisshopp, Bt
Thomas Thoroton
Preceded by
Viscount Petersham
Felton Hervey
Member of Parliament for Bury St Edmunds
with Felton Hervey

1756–1757
Succeeded by
Felton Hervey
Augustus Hervey
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Duke of Grafton
Lord Lieutenant of Suffolk
1757–1763
Succeeded by
The Lord Maynard
Preceded by
The Viscount Maynard
Lord Lieutenant of Suffolk
1769–1790
Succeeded by
Earl of Euston
Academic offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Newcastle
Chancellor of the University of Cambridge
1768–1811
Succeeded by
The Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Charles FitzRoy
Duke of Grafton
1757–1811
Succeeded by
George FitzRoy