He made his debut with the French national team against South Africa in 2001.
Rougerie sued Phil Greening of England for a hand off during a European game in 2002 that left him with a throat injury forcing him to undergo 3 larynx surgeries. Greening was ordered to pay £29,000 in compensation.
In 2007, he won the European Challenge Cup with Clermont against Bath at the Stoop of Twickenham (22-16).
Then he captained the Clermont Auvergne side that won the French championish, the Bouclier de Brennus, after 10 unlucky chances, against Perpignan in a one way final (19-6) on the 29th of May 2010.
It was initially alleged by a prominent New Zealand newspaper that Rougerie was responsible for eye gouging All Black captain Richie McCaw during France's 2011 Rugby World Cup Final defeat. Footage of the action was aired on the Re:Union show on Sky Network Television in New Zealand. Firstly he is shown head butting the prone Richie McCaw trapped in the ruck, then raking his fingers across McCaw's eyes. The period for match citing passed and Rougerie escaped suspension. An action of this type could have seen him banned from the game for up to 6 months.