Auriculotherapy

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Auriculotherapy
Pontos de auriculoterapia.jpg
Acupuncture points in the ear.
Alternative therapy

Auriculotherapy (also auricular therapy, ear acupuncture, and auriculoacupuncture) is a form of alternative medicine based on the idea that the ear is a micro system, which reflects the entire body, represented on the auricle, the outer portion of the ear. Conditions affecting the physical, mental or emotional health of the patient are assumed to be treatable by stimulation of the surface of the ear exclusively. Similar mappings are used by several modalities, including the practices of reflexology and iridology. These mappings are not based on or supported by any medical or scientific evidence, and are therefore considered to be pseudoscience.[1][2][3][4]

History and development[edit]

French neurologist Paul Nogier invented auriculotherapy in 1957.[5][6] Nogier developed a phrenological method of projection of a fetal Homunculus on the ear and published what he called the "Vascular Autonomic Signal" which measured a change in the amplitude of the pulse.[6] That mechanism would only produce a signal upon the introduction of new information to the electromagnetic field of the patient.[6] Nogier cited a 'principle of matching resonance' which he could use the vascular autonomic signal to detect the active points of the auricular microsystem.[6]

Nogier's Auricular acupuncture was introduced to China in 1958.[7][8]

Richard Niemtzow, in 2001 developed a procedure he coined Battlefield Acupuncture in an attempt to research more efficient relief for phantom limb pain and chronic pain for veterans.[3] Battlefield Acupuncture involves placing gold aiguille semi-permanent needles at up to five sites in the ears. In 2018, the United States Department of Defense, the Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management, and the Veterans Health Administration National Pain Management Program office completed a 3-year, $5.4 million acupuncture education and training program, which trained over 2800 providers in Battlefield Acupuncture.[9] Retired U.S. Air Force flight surgeon Harriet Hall characterized the Department of Defense's use of acupuncture and auriculotherapy as an embarrassing "infiltration of quackery into military medicine", a waste of tax dollars, and a potential harm to patients.[10]

Nogier points[edit]

The principles of auriculotherapy are contrary to known anatomy and physiology of the human body.[11] According to Nogier, the relevant structures include:[12]

  • Helix, the outer prominent rim of the auricle
  • Antihelix, the elevated ridge anterior and parallel to the helix
  • Triangular fossa, a triangular depression
  • Scapha, the narrow curved depression between the helix and the antihelix
  • Tragus, the small, curved flap in front of the auricle
  • Antitragus, the small tubercle opposite to the tragus
  • Concha, the hollow next to the ear canal

Nogier claims that various points located on the ear lobe are related to the head, and facial region, those on the scapha are related to the upper limbs, those on the antihelix and antihelix crura to the trunk and lower limbs and those in the concha are related to the internal organs.[12]

Criticism[edit]

A controlled crossover study of 36 patients failed to find any difference in two experiments. The study concluded that auriculotherapy is not an effective therapeutic procedure for chronic pain.[13]

The first experiment compared the effects of stimulation of auriculotherapy points versus control points.[13] A second experiment compared the stimulation of these points with a placebo control of no-stimulation.[13] Using the McGill Pain Questionnaire, pain was not decreased at the points compared to the controls. Patients' reports of pain relief after auriculotherapy are due to placebo effects.[13]

Also, during electrical stimulation, patients sometimes reported new pain in an unrelated part of the body.[13] These referred sensations reinforce the pain relief produced by the placebo effect and may be part of the reason why the belief in auriculotherapy persists.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Barrett, M.D., Stephen (2 February 2008). "Auriculotherapy: A Skeptical Look". Acupuncture Watch. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  2. ^ "Acupuncture". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  3. ^ a b Gorski, David (22 December 2008). "Battlefield acupuncture revisited: That's it? That's all Col. Niemtzow's got?". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  4. ^ Lee MS, Shin BC, Suen LK, Park TY, Ernst E (2008). "Auricular acupuncture for insomnia: a systematic review". Int. J. Clin. Pract. (Systematic review). 62 (11): 1744–52. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01876.x. PMID 18754807. S2CID 37046783.
  5. ^ Hou, Pu-Wei (28 December 2015). "The History, Mechanism, and Clinical Application of Auricular Therapy in Traditional Chinese Medicine". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015: 495684. doi:10.1155/2015/495684. PMC 4707384. PMID 26823672.
  6. ^ a b c d Nogier, Paul (1972). Treatise of Auriculotherapy. Maisonneuve.
  7. ^ Nguyen J. (1989), Auriculopuncture, Encycl. Méd. Nat. (Paris, France), Acupuncture et Médecine traditionnelle chinoise, II-2, 12-1989, 16 p.
  8. ^ Hsü, Elisabeth (1992). "The History and Development of Auriculotherapy". Acupuncture in Medicine. 10 (1_suppl): 109–118. doi:10.1136/aim.10.Suppl.109. S2CID 208042623.
  9. ^ Levy, Charles (March 2018). "Battlefield Acupuncture: An Emerging Method for Easing Pain". American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 97 (3): e18–e19. doi:10.1097/PHM.0000000000000766. PMID 28570280.
  10. ^ Hall, Harriet (21 August 2012). "Quackery and Mumbo-Jumbo in the U.S. Military". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  11. ^ Ernst, E. (2022). Alternative medicine: a critical assessment of 202 modalities (Second ed.). Cham: Springer. pp. 27, 184–185. ISBN 9783031107092.
  12. ^ a b Cheng, Xinnong (2009). Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion (3rd ed.). Foreign Languages Press. pp. 513–514.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Melzack, Ronald (24 February 1984). "Auriculotherapy Fails to Relieve Chronic Pain: A Controlled Crossover Study". JAMA. 251 (8): 1041–3. doi:10.1001/jama.1984.03340320027021. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 6363735.