Ausgram I

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Ausgram I
আউসগ্রাম I
Community development block
সমষ্টি উন্নয়ন ব্লক
Ausgram I is located in West Bengal
Ausgram I
Ausgram I
Location in West Bengal
Coordinates: 23°31′04″N 87°39′37″E / 23.51778°N 87.66028°E / 23.51778; 87.66028
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Purba Bardhaman
Parliamentary constituency Bolpur
Assembly constituency Ausgram
Area
 • Total 85.85 sq mi (222.34 km2)
Elevation 125 ft (38 m)
Population (2011)
 • Total 119,363
 • Density 1,400/sq mi (540/km2)
Time zone IST (UTC+5.30)
PIN 713156 (Ausgram)
Telephone/STD code 03452
Vehicle registration WB-37,WB-38,WB-41,WB-42,WB-44
Literacy Rate 69.39 per cent
Website http://bardhaman.gov.in/

Ausgram I is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Bardhaman Sadar North subdivision of Purba Bardhaman district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

History[edit]

Medieval history[edit]

The area between the Damodar and Ajay was known as Gopbhum, where the Sadgope kings ruled for many centuries, prior to the advent of the Muslims. The Sur kings also occupy a somewhat mythical position in the region. Adi Sur of this dynasty is credited with having brought the five Brahmins and Kayasthas (two important upper castes in Bengal) from Kannauj in what is now Uttar Pradesh.[1]

In the 18th century the area faced massive attacks of the Bargi warriors.[2]

Movements[edit]

This being a canal-irrigated area it had faced agitations against the imposition of taxes for canal water.[3]

Damage to embankments of the Ajay and consequent flooding was a regular problem in the Ausgram and Mangalkot area. The devastating flood of 1943 caused immense suffering and lead to a mass movement for restoration/ repair of the embankments. A massive meeting was organised at Guskara in 1944, with Uday Chand Mahtab, Maharaja of Bardhaman. However, the government did not take any action,. Ultimately, the Communist Party, which had been at the forefront of agitations for some years, provided a huge work force for the purpose and completed the repair work. It laid the foundation for the party’s popularity in the area.[4]

Geography[edit]

Ausgram is located at 23°31′04″N 87°39′37″E / 23.5178°N 87.6602°E / 23.5178; 87.6602.

Ausgram I CD Block is part of the Kanksa Ketugram plain, which lies along the Ajay. The river forms a boundary with Birbhum district on the north for a long stretch and then flows through district.[5] The uneven laterite territory found in the western part of Bardhaman district extends up to Ausgram and then the alluvial flood plains commence.[6] The entire Durgapur- Kanksa-Faridpur-Ausgram area was densely forested even in more recent times. The influx of refugees from East Pakistan and their rehabilitation in the area, and irrigation facilities extended by Damodar Valley Corporation led to destruction of much of the forests in the area, but some still remain.[7]

Ausgram I CD Block is bounded by Ausgram II on the north and the west, Mangolkote and Bhatar CD Blocks on the east and Galsi II CD Block on the south.[8][9]

It is located 42 km from Bardhaman, the district headquarters.[8]

Ausgram I CD Block has an area of 222.34 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 7 gram panchayats, 92 gram sansads (village councils), 61 mouzas and 58 inhabited villages. Ausgram police station serves this block.[10] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Guskara.[11]

Ramnabagan Wildlife Sanctuary, established in 1981 and covering an area of 0.14 km2 forms a part of Ausgram I block.[12]

Gram panchayats of Ausgram I block/panchayat samiti are: Ausgram, Berenda, Billagram, Dignagar I, Dignagar II, Guskara II and Ukta.[13]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per the 2011 Census of India Ausgram I CD Block had a total population of 119,363, all of which were rural. There were 60,521 (51%) males and 58,842 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 13,581. Scheduled Castes numbered 42,659 (35.74%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 15,577 (13.05%).[14]

As per 2001 census, Ausgram I block had a total population of 106,813, out of which 54,623 were males and 52,190 were females. Ausgram I block registered a population growth of 13.75 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for Bardhaman district was 14.36 per cent.[15] Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.[16]Scheduled castes at 39,576 formed around one-third the population. Scheduled tribes numbered 14,191.[17]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Ausgram I CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Ban Nabagram (4,917), Karatia (4,021), Ausgram (5,533), Shibada (4,484), Belgram (4,345), Dignagar (8,313)and Bhota (4,022),[14]

Other villages in Ausgram I CD Block included (2011census figures in brackets): Beranda (2,214), Ukta (2,969), Dwariapur (3,579),[14] Alefnagar, Aligram, Alutia (P), Asinda, Ausgram Chak, Baburbandh, Bahamanpur, Bara Chatra, Batagram, Belari, Beluti, Beranda, Bhada, Bhatgonna, Brajapur, Chonari, Deasa, Digha, Gangarampur,Gopinathbati, Gobindapur Purbba, Gonna, Jadabganj, Jaykrishnapur, Kalyanpur, Karanji, Karatia, Kayrapur, Kumarganj, Kunjanagar, Kurumba, Lakshmiganj, Majhergram, Mallikpur, Nabagram, Naoda, Nripatigram, Parasurampur, Pichkuri, Purbba Tati, Ramchandrapur, Sahapur, Shibbati, Shitalgram, Silut, Soara, Somaipur, Srikrishnapur, Srinagar, Sundalpur, Takipur, Telota and Warishpur.[18]

Literacy[edit]

As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Ausgram I CD Block was 73,406 (69.39% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 40,948 (76.32% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 32,458 (62.26% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 14.06%.[14]

As per 2001 census, Ausgram I block had a total literacy of 62.53 per cent for the 6+ age group. While male literacy was 71.85 per cent female literacy was 52.77 per cent. Bardhaman district had a total literacy of 70.18 per cent, male literacy being 78.63 per cent and female literacy being 60.95 per cent.[19]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Languages and religion[edit]

Bengali is the local language in these areas.[8]

In 2001 Bengali was the mother-tongue of 79.9% of the population of Bardhaman district, Hindi was the mother-tongue of 10.9%, Santali 4.9%, Urdu 2.8%, Bhojpuri 0.1% and Oraon 0.1%. There were other languages spoken by small percentages. However, as of 2017, CD Block-wise/ other region-wise break-up of mother tongue is not available in census/ other official sources.[20]

Religion in Ausgram I CD Block
Hindu
  
76.11%
Muslim
  
23.48%
Christian
  
0.28%
Others
  
0.13%

In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 90,850 and formed 76.11% of the population in Ausgram I CD Block. Muslims numbered 28,024 and formed 23.48% of the population. Christians numbered 329 and formed 0.28% of the population. Others numbered 160 and formed 0.13% of the population.[21]

In Bardhaman district the percentage of Hindu population has been declining from 84.3% in 1961 to 77.9% in 2011 and the percentage of Muslim population has increased from 15.2% in 1961 to 20.7% in 2011.[22]

Rural poverty[edit]

As per poverty estimates obtained from household survey for families living below poverty line in 2005, rural poverty in Ausgram I CD Block was 42.11%.[23]

Economy[edit]

Livelihood[edit]

In Ausgram I CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators formed 17.04%, agricultural labourers 63.24%, household industry workers 4.48% and other workers 15.24%.[24]

In Ausgram I CD Block, cultivators or agricultural labourers formed a large portion of the workforce, comparatively less workers were engaged in the secondary and tertiary sectors.[25]

Infrastructure[edit]

All 61 or 100% of mouzas in Ausgram I CD Block were electrified by 31 March 2014.[24]

58 mouzas in Ausgram I CD Block had drinking water facilities in 2013-14. There were 79 fertiliser depots, 23 seed stores and 46 fair price shops in the CD Block.[24]

Agriculture[edit]

Circle frame.svg

Persons engaged in agriculture
in Ausgram I CD Block

  Bargadars (6.67%)
  Patta holders (18.39%)
  Small farmers (4.32%)
  Marginal farmers (12.62%)
  Agricultural labourers (58.00%)

Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented fully. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.[26] Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone transformation. In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Ausgram I CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 6.67%, patta (document) holders 18.39%, small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 4.32%, marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 12.62% and agricultural labourers 58.00%.[24]

In 2003-04 net cropped area in Ausgram I CD Block was 14,110 hectares and the area in which more than one crop was grown was 6,850 hectares.[27]

In 2013-14, Ausgram I CD Block produced 3,763 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop from 1,344 hectares, 2,414 tonnes of Aus paddy (summer crop) from 982 hectares, 5,624 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 1,403 hectares, 305 tonnes of wheat from 123 hectares, 38,175 tonnes of potatoes from 1,867 hectares and 721 tonnes of sugar cane from 9 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds.[24]

In Bardhaman district as a whole Aman paddy constituted 64.32% of the total area under paddy cultivation, while the area under Boro and Aus paddy constituted 32.87% and 2.81% respectively. The expansion of Boro paddy cultivation, with higher yield rates, was the result of expansion of irrigation system and intensive cropping.[28] In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Ausgram I CD Block was 11,385.18 hectares, out of which 11,372.76 hectares were irrigated by canal water and 12.42 hectares by deep tube wells.[24]

Banking[edit]

In 2013-14, Ausgram I CD Block had offices of 6 commercial banks and 2 gramin banks.[24]

Transport[edit]

Ausgram I CD Block has 4 originating/ terminating bus routes.[24]

The Khana-Barharwa section of Sahibganj Loop passes through the CD Block and there is a station at Guskhara.[29]

SH 13, running from Mollarpui Maghipara (in Birbhum district) to Dankuni (in Hooghly district), passes through this CD Block.[30]

Education[edit]

In 2013-14, Ausgram I CD Block had 94 primary schools with 6,781 students, 12 high school with 6,288 students and 5 higher secondary schools with 4,408 students. Ausgram I CD Block had 2 technical/ professional institutions with 250 students and 221 institutions for special and non-formal education with 9,183 students[24]

Culture[edit]

The area is renowned for its dhokra art castings.[31] In particular, Dariapur village in the area is famous for its dhokra metal craft.

Healthcare[edit]

In 2014, Ausgram I CD Block had 1 block primary health centre and 3 primary health centres with total 35 beds and 6 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 21 family welfare subcentres. 2,612 patients were treated indoor and 228,599 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[24]

Ausgram I CD Block has a block primary health centre at Bon Nabagram and primary health centres at Guskara, Ukta and Dighnagar.[32][33]

Ausgram I CD Block is one of the areas of Bardhaman district which is affected by a low level of arsenic contamination of ground water.[34]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, Bardhaman Jelar Itihas O Lok Sanskriti (History and Folk lore of Bardhaman District.), (Bengali), pp150-51, Radical Impression. ISBN 81-85459-36-3
  2. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, pp209, 292-293
  3. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, p472
  4. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, p482
  5. ^ "Census of India 2011, West Bengal: District Census Handbook, Barddhaman" (PDF). Physiography, pages 13-14. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 23 January 2017. 
  6. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, Bardhaman Jelar Itihas O Lok Sanskriti (History and Folk lore of Bardhaman District.), (Bengali), Vol I, p18,28, Radical Impression. ISBN 81-85459-36-3
  7. ^ Chattopadhyay, Akkori, p38, 542
  8. ^ a b c "Ausgram I Block". onefivenine. Retrieved 23 January 2017. 
  9. ^ "Tehsil Map of Barddhaman". CD Block/ Tehsil. Maps of India. Retrieved 23 January 2017. 
  10. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Burdwan". Tables 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 22 January 2017. 
  11. ^ "District Census Handbook: Barddhaman" (PDF). Map of Barddhaman with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fourth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2017. 
  12. ^ "Wildlife Sancturies of West Bengal". West Bengal Forest Department. Retrieved 2011-08-26. 
  13. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Bardhaman - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  14. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 16 January 2017. 
  15. ^ "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4, Barddhaman District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  16. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  17. ^ "TRU for all Districts (SC & ST and Total)". Census 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  18. ^ "Villages in Ausgram - I C.D.Block". vlist.in. Retrieved 2011-11-10. 
  19. ^ "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 5, Bardhaman District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  20. ^ "Census of India 2011: District Census Handbook Barddhaman" (PDF). Table 11: Population by Mother-tongue in Barddhaman district (1961-2001), page 51. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 28 January 2017. 
  21. ^ "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 27 January 2017. 
  22. ^ "Census of Indiia 2011: District Census Handbook, Barddhaman" (PDF). Table 9: Population by religion in Badhaman district (1961-2011), Page 50. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 27 January 2017. 
  23. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bardhaman" (PDF). Table 4.2: Empirical Measurement of Rural Poverty in Bardhaman 2005, page 94. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bardhaman". Tables 2.7, 2.1, 8.2, 16.1, 17.2, 18.1, 18.2, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  25. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bardhaman" (PDF). Block/ Sub-division wise Variation in Occupational Distribution of Workers, page 47. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  26. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  27. ^ "District Human Development Report, Bardhaman" (PDF). Table 3.10, Gross Cropped Area, Net Cropped Area and Cropping Intesity of different blocks of Bardhaman district 2003-04, Page 53. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, May 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  28. ^ "District Human Development Report: Bardhaman" (PDF). Occupational Structure, Status and levels of Livelihood, page 55. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  29. ^ "53065 Bardhaman-Rampurhat Bamdev Passenger". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 10 February 2017. 
  30. ^ "List of State Highways in West Bengal". West Bengal Traffic Police. Retrieved 5 February 2017. 
  31. ^ Dokra Art
  32. ^ "Bardhaman district". Medical Institutions. Bardhaman district administration. Retrieved 6 March 2017. 
  33. ^ "2011 District Census Handbook Bardhaman Part XII A" (PDF). Ausgram I Block Map on page 342. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 6 March 2017. 
  34. ^ "Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (20 years study )". Bardhaman. SOES. Retrieved 9 September 2011.