Austen Henry Layard

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The Right Honourable
Sir Austen Henry Layard
GCB
AustenHenryLayard.jpg
Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
12 February 1852 – 21 February 1852
Monarch Queen Victoria
Prime Minister Lord John Russell
Preceded by The Lord Stanley of Alderley
Succeeded by Lord Stanley
In office
15 August 1861 – 26 June 1866
Monarch Queen Victoria
Prime Minister The Viscount Palmerston
The Earl Russell
Preceded by The Lord Wodehouse
Succeeded by Edward Egerton
First Commissioner of Works
In office
9 December 1868 – 26 October 1869
Monarch Queen Victoria
Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by Lord John Manners
Succeeded by Acton Smee Ayrton
Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire
In office
1877–1880
Monarch Queen Victoria
Preceded by The Marquess of Salisbury
Succeeded by The Earl of Dufferin
Personal details
Born 5 March 1817 (1817-03-05)
Paris, France
Died 5 July 1894 (1894-07-06)
London, England
Nationality British
Political party Liberal
Spouse(s) Mary Enid Evelyn Guest

The Rt Hon Sir Austen Henry Layard GCB (/ˈɔːstɪn ˈhɛnr ˈlɛərd/; 5 March 1817 – 5 July 1894) was an English traveller, archaeologist, cuneiformist, art historian, draughtsman, collector, author, politician and diplomat, best known as the excavator of Nimrud and of Niniveh, where he uncovered in 1851 the library of Ashurbanipal.

Family[edit]

Layard was born in Paris, France, to a family of Huguenot descent. His father, Henry Peter John Layard, of the Ceylon Civil Service, was the son of Charles Peter Layard, Dean of Bristol, and grandson of Daniel Peter Layard the physician. Through his mother, Marianne, daughter of Nathaniel Austen, banker, of Ramsgate, his English descent was consolidated. His uncle was Benjamin Austen, a London solicitor and close friend of Benjamin Disraeli in the 1820s and 1830s. Edgar Leopold Layard the ornithologist was his brother.

Early life[edit]

Much of Layard's boyhood was spent in Italy, where he received part of his schooling, and acquired a taste for the fine arts and a love of travel; but he was at school also in England, France and Switzerland. After spending nearly six years in the office of his uncle, Benjamin Austen, he was tempted to leave England for Sri Lanka (Ceylon) by the prospect of obtaining an appointment in the Civil Service, and he started in 1839 with the intention of making an overland journey across Asia.

After wandering for many months, chiefly in Persia, and having abandoned his intention of proceeding to Ceylon, he returned in 1842 to Constantinople, where he made the acquaintance of Sir Stratford Canning, the British Ambassador, who employed him in various unofficial diplomatic missions in European Turkey. In 1845, encouraged and assisted by Canning, Layard left Constantinople to make those explorations among the ruins of Assyria with which his name is chiefly associated. This expedition was in fulfilment of a design which he had formed, when, during his former travels in the East, his curiosity had been greatly excited by the ruins of Nimrud on the Tigris, and by the great mound of Kuyunjik, near Mosul, already partly excavated by Paul-Émile Botta.

Excavations and the arts.[edit]

Layard remained in the neighbourhood of Mosul, carrying on excavations at Kuyunjik and Nimrud, and investigating the condition of various peoples, until 1847; and, returning to England in 1848, published Nineveh and its Remains: with an Account of a Visit to the Assyrians, and the Yezidis, and an Inquiry into the Manners and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians (2 vols., 1848–1849).

To illustrate the antiquities described in this work he published a large folio volume of Illustrations of the Monuments of Nineveh (1849). After spending a few months in England, and receiving the degree of D.C.L. from the University of Oxford, Layard returned to Constantinople as attaché to the British embassy, and, in August 1849, started on a second expedition, in the course of which he extended his investigations to the ruins of Babylon and the mounds of southern Mesopotamia. He is credited with discovering the Library of Ashurbanipal during this period. His record of this expedition, Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, which was illustrated by another folio volume, called A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, was published in 1853. During these expeditions, often in circumstances of great difficulty, Layard despatched to England the splendid specimens which now form the greater part of the collection of Assyrian antiquities in the British Museum.

Apart from the archaeological value of his work in identifying Kuyunjik as the site of Nineveh, and in providing a great mass of materials for scholars to work upon, these two books of Layard's were among the best written books of travel in the language.

Layard was an important member of the Arundel Society.[1] During 1866 Layard founded "Compagnia Venezia Murano" and opened a venetian glass showroom in London at 431 Oxford Street. Today Pauly & C. - Compagnia Venezia Murano is one of most important brands of venetian art glass production. In 1866 he was appointed a trustee of the British Museum.

Political career[edit]

Layard now turned to politics. Elected as a Liberal member for Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire in 1852, he was for a few weeks Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, but afterwards freely criticized the government, especially in connection with army administration. He was present in the Crimea during the war, and was a member of the committee appointed to inquire into the conduct of the expedition. In 1855 he refused from Lord Palmerston an office not connected with foreign affairs, was elected lord rector of Aberdeen university, and on 15 June moved a resolution in the House of Commons (defeated by a large majority) declaring that in public appointments merit had been sacrificed to private influence and an adherence to routine. After being defeated at Aylesbury in 1857, he visited India to investigate the causes of the Indian Mutiny. The report he gave on his return proved to be controversial, generating negative responses in the Australian press.[2] He unsuccessfully contested York in 1859, but was elected for Southwark in 1860, and from 1861 to 1866 was Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs in the successive administrations of Lord Palmerston and Lord John Russell. After the Liberals returned to office in 1868 under William Ewart Gladstone, Layard was made First Commissioner of Works and sworn of the Privy Council.[3]

Diplomatic career[edit]

Austen Henry Layard
From a German edition of Austen Layard's A Popular Account of Discoveries at Nineveh.

Layard resigned from office in 1869, on being sent as envoy extraordinary to Madrid.[4] In 1877 he was appointed by Lord Beaconsfield Ambassador at Constantinople, where he remained until Gladstone's return to power in 1880, when he finally retired from public life. In 1878, on the occasion of the Berlin Congress, he was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath.

Retirement in Venice[edit]

Layard retired to Venice. There he took up residence in the sixteenth-century palazzo on the grand canal named Ca Cappello, just behind Campo San Polo, and which he had commissioned historian Rawdon Brown, another long-time British resident of Venice, to purchase for him in 1874.[5] In Venice he devoted much of his time to collecting pictures of the Venetian school, and to writing on Italian art. On this subject he was a disciple of his friend Giovanni Morelli, whose views he embodied in his revision of Franz Kugler's Handbook of Painting, Italian Schools (1887). He wrote also an introduction to Constance Jocelyn Ffoulkes's translation of Morelli's Italian Painters (1892–1893), and edited that part of Murray's Handbook of Rome (1894) which deals with pictures. In 1887 he published, from notes taken at the time, a record of his first journey to the East, entitled Early Adventures in Persia, Susiana and Babylonia. An abbreviation of this work, which as a book of travel is even more delightful than its predecessors, was published in 1894, shortly after the author's death, with a brief introductory notice by Lord Aberdare. Layard also from time to time contributed papers to various learned societies, including the Huguenot Society, of which he was first president. He died in London and is buried in Dorset.

Publications[edit]

  • Layard, A. H. (1848–49). Inquiry into the Painters and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians (vol. 1–2).
  • Layard, A. H. (1849). Nineveh and its Remains. London: John Murray.
  • Layard, A. H. (1849). Illustrations of the Monuments of Nineveh.
  • Layard, A. H. (1849–53). The Monuments of Nineveh. London: John Murray.
  • Layard, A. H. (1851). Inscriptions in the cuneiform character from Assyrian monuments. London: Harrison and sons.
  • Layard, A. H. (1852). A Popular Account of Discoveries at Nineveh. London: John Murray.
  • Layard, A. H. (1853). Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon. London: John Murray.
  • Layard, A. H. (1853). A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh. London: John Murray
  • Layard, A. H. (1854). The Ninevah Court in the Crystal Palace. London: John Murray.
  • Layard, A. H. (1894). Early Adventures in Persia, Susiana, and Babylonia. London: John Murray.
  • Layard, A. H. (1903). Autobiography and Letters from his childhood until his appointment as H.M. Ambassador at Madrid. (vol. 1–2) London: John Murray.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Layard, A. Henry (1903). Bruce, William N, ed. Autobiography. vol. I. London: John Murray. p. vi. 
  2. ^ Sydney Morning Herald, 18 August 1858, Sydney Morning Herald, 5 September 1858
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 23449. p. 6581. 11 December 1868.
  4. ^ p. 134, Sir Henry Layard (Obituary) in Eminent persons: Biographies reprinted from the Times, Vol VI, 1893-1894, Macmillan & Co., 1897, pp. 130–134 
  5. ^ http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/printable/16218

Further reading[edit]

  • Brackman, Arnold C. The Luck of Nineveh: Archaeology's Great Adventure. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1978 (hardcover, ISBN 0-07-007030-X); New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1981 (paperback, ISBN 0-442-28260-5).
  • Jerman, B.R. The Young Disraeli. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1960.
  • Kubie, Nora Benjamin. Road to Ninevah: the adventures and excavations of Sir Austen Henry Layard (1964; 1965 in the UK)
  • Larsen, Mogens T. The Conquest of Assyria. Routledge. 1996. ISBN 0-415-14356-X - the best modern account of Layard.
  • Lloyd, Seton. Foundations in the Dust: The Story of Mesopotamian Exploration. London; New York: Thames & Hudson, 1981 (hardcover, ISBN 0-500-05038-4).
  • Waterfield, Gordon. Layard of Nineveh. London: John Murray, 1963.
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
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Political offices
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Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
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1861–1866
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Edward Egerton
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Lord John Manners
First Commissioner of Works
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Diplomatic posts
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