|Commonwealth of Australia|
Commonwealth of Australia, including the Australia's territorial claim in the Antarctic
|National language||English[N 2]|
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|Sir Peter Cosgrove|
|House of Representatives|
|Independence from the United Kingdom|
|1 January 1901|
9 October 1942 (with effect|
from 3 September 1939)
|3 March 1986|
|7,692,024 km2 (2,969,907 sq mi) (6th)|
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
• 2016 census
|3.2/km2 (8.3/sq mi) (236th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
|$1.313 trillion (19th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|$1.500 trillion (13th)|
• Per capita
medium · 19th
very high · 2nd
|Currency||Australian dollar (AUD)|
|Time zone||Various[N 3] (UTC+8 to +10.5)|
• Summer (DST)
|Various[N 3] (UTC+8 to +11)|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||AU|
For about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who in documented times have spoken languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. After the European discovery of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states and several territories.
Australia has the world's 13th-largest economy and tenth-highest per capita income (IMF). With the second-highest human development index globally, the country ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, and civil liberties and political rights. Australia is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the Pacific Islands Forum. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia has the world's 9th largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demography
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
The name Australia (pronounced [əˈstɹæɪljə, -liə] in Australian English) is derived from the Latin Terra Australis ("southern land"), a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was naturally applied to the new territories.[N 4]
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 (as Nieuw-Holland) and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts.[N 5] The name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been officially used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially by that name. The first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office.
Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under" (usually shortened to just "Down Under"). Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", and "the Wide Brown Land". The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country".
Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia. These first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. At the time of European settlement in the late 18th century, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by Makassan fishermen from South Peninsula, Sulawesi.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent (in 1606), are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, and made landfall on 26 February at the Pennefather River near the modern town of Weipa on Cape York. The Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent "New Holland" during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688 and again in 1699 on a return trip. In 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain.
With the loss of its American colonies in 1783, the British Government sent a fleet of ships, the "First Fleet", under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip, to establish a new penal colony in New South Wales. A camp was set up and the flag raised at Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, on 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day, Australia Day, although the British Crown Colony of New South Wales was not formally promulgated until 7 February 1788. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration and settlement of other regions.
A British settlement was established in Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the western part of Western Australia (the Swan River Colony) in 1828. Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. The Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia. South Australia was founded as a "free province"—it was never a penal colony. Victoria and Western Australia were also founded "free", but later accepted transported convicts. A campaign by the settlers of New South Wales led to the end of convict transportation to that colony; the last convict ship arrived in 1848.
The indigenous population, estimated to have been between 750,000 and 1,000,000 in 1788, declined for 150 years following settlement, mainly due to infectious disease. Thousands more died as a result of frontier conflict with settlers. A government policy of "assimilation" beginning with the Aboriginal Protection Act 1869 resulted in the removal of many Aboriginal children from their families and communities—often referred to as the Stolen Generations—a practice which may also have contributed to the decline in the indigenous population. As a result of the 1967 referendum, the Federal government's power to enact special laws with respect to a particular race was extended to enable the making of laws with respect to Aborigines. Traditional ownership of land ("native title") was not recognised in law until 1992, when the High Court of Australia held in Mabo v Queensland (No 2) that the legal doctrine that Australia had been terra nullius ("land belonging to no one") did not apply to Australia at the time of British settlement.
A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s and the Eureka Rebellion against mining licence fees in 1854 was an early expression of civil disobedience. Between 1855 and 1890, the six colonies individually gained responsible government, managing most of their own affairs while remaining part of the British Empire. The Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably foreign affairs, defence, and international shipping.
On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies was achieved after a decade of planning, consultation and voting. This established the Commonwealth of Australia as a dominion of the British Empire. The Federal Capital Territory (later renamed the Australian Capital Territory) was formed in 1911 as the location for the future federal capital of Canberra. Melbourne was the temporary seat of government from 1901 to 1927 while Canberra was being constructed. The Northern Territory was transferred from the control of the South Australian government to the federal parliament in 1911. In 1914, Australia joined Britain in fighting World War I, with support from both the outgoing Commonwealth Liberal Party and the incoming Australian Labor Party. Australians took part in many of the major battles fought on the Western Front. Of about 416,000 who served, about 60,000 were killed and another 152,000 were wounded. Many Australians regard the defeat of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) at Gallipoli as the birth of the nation—its first major military action. The Kokoda Track campaign is regarded by many as an analogous nation-defining event during World War II.
Britain's Statute of Westminster 1931 formally ended most of the constitutional links between Australia and the UK. Australia adopted it in 1942, but it was backdated to 1939 to confirm the validity of legislation passed by the Australian Parliament during World War II. The shock of the United Kingdom's defeat in Asia in 1942 and the threat of Japanese invasion caused Australia to turn to the United States as a new ally and protector. Since 1951, Australia has been a formal military ally of the US, under the ANZUS treaty. After World War II Australia encouraged immigration from mainland Europe. Since the 1970s and following the abolition of the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also promoted. As a result, Australia's demography, culture, and self-image were transformed. The passing of the Australia Act 1986 ended all possibility for any vestigial role of the British government in the government in Australia and removed the already seldom-used option of judicial appeals to the Privy Council in London. In a 1999 referendum, 55% of voters and a majority in every state rejected a proposal to become a republic with a president appointed by a two-thirds vote in both Houses of the Australian Parliament. Since the election of the Whitlam Government in 1972, there has been an increasing focus in foreign policy on ties with other Pacific Rim nations, while maintaining close ties with Australia's traditional allies and trading partners.
Australia's landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi) is on the Indo-Australian Plate. Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans,[N 6] it is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas, with the Coral Sea lying off the Queensland coast, and the Tasman Sea lying between Australia and New Zealand. The world's smallest continent and sixth largest country by total area, Australia—owing to its size and isolation—is often dubbed the "island continent", and is sometimes considered the world's largest island. Australia has 34,218 kilometres (21,262 mi) of coastline (excluding all offshore islands), and claims an extensive Exclusive Economic Zone of 8,148,250 square kilometres (3,146,060 sq mi). This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory. Apart from Macquarie Island, Australia lies between latitudes 9° and 44°S, and longitudes 112° and 154°E.
The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef, lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000 kilometres (1,240 mi). Mount Augustus, claimed to be the world's largest monolith, is located in Western Australia. At 2,228 metres (7,310 ft), Mount Kosciuszko on the Great Dividing Range is the highest mountain on the Australian mainland. Even taller are Mawson Peak (at 2,745 metres or 9,006 feet), on the remote Australian territory of Heard Island, and, in the Australian Antarctic Territory, Mount McClintock and Mount Menzies, at 3,492 metres (11,457 ft) and 3,355 metres (11,007 ft) respectively.
Australia's size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with tropical rainforests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east, and dry desert in the centre. It is the flattest continent, with the oldest and least fertile soils; desert or semi-arid land commonly known as the outback makes up by far the largest portion of land. Australia is the driest inhabited continent; its annual rainfall averaged over continental area is less than 500 mm. The population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, is among the lowest in the world, although a large proportion of the population lives along the temperate south-eastern coastline.
Eastern Australia is marked by the Great Dividing Range, which runs parallel to the coast of Queensland, New South Wales and much of Victoria. The name is not strictly accurate, because parts of the range consist of low hills, and the highlands are typically no more than 1,600 metres (5,249 ft) in height. The coastal uplands and a belt of Brigalow grasslands lie between the coast and the mountains, while inland of the dividing range are large areas of grassland. These include the western plains of New South Wales, and the Einasleigh Uplands, Barkly Tableland, and Mulga Lands of inland Queensland. The northernmost point of the east coast is the tropical-rainforested Cape York Peninsula.
The landscapes of the Top End and the Gulf Country—with their tropical climate—include forest, woodland, wetland, grassland, rainforest and desert. At the north-west corner of the continent are the sandstone cliffs and gorges of The Kimberley, and below that the Pilbara. To the south of these and inland, lie more areas of grassland: the Ord Victoria Plain and the Western Australian Mulga shrublands. At the heart of the country are the uplands of central Australia. Prominent features of the centre and south include Uluru (also known as Ayers Rock), the famous sandstone monolith, and the inland Simpson, Tirari and Sturt Stony, Gibson, Great Sandy, Tanami, and Great Victoria deserts, with the famous Nullarbor Plain on the southern coast.
The climate of Australia is significantly influenced by ocean currents, including the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low-pressure system that produces cyclones in northern Australia. These factors cause rainfall to vary markedly from year to year. Much of the northern part of the country has a tropical, predominantly summer-rainfall (monsoon). The south-west corner of the country has a Mediterranean climate. The south-east ranges from oceanic (Tasmania and coastal Victoria) to humid subtropical (upper half of New South Wales). The interior is arid to semi-arid.
According to the Bureau of Meteorology's 2011 Australian Climate Statement, Australia had lower than average temperatures in 2011 as a consequence of a La Niña weather pattern; however, "the country's 10-year average continues to demonstrate the rising trend in temperatures, with 2002–2011 likely to rank in the top two warmest 10-year periods on record for Australia, at 0.52 °C (0.94 °F) above the long-term average". Furthermore, 2014 was Australia's third warmest year since national temperature observations commenced in 1910. Water restrictions are frequently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases and localised drought. Throughout much of the continent, major flooding regularly follows extended periods of drought, flushing out inland river systems, overflowing dams and inundating large inland flood plains, as occurred throughout Eastern Australia in 2010, 2011 and 2012 after the 2000s Australian drought.
Australia's carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world, lower than those of only a few other industrialised nations. A carbon tax was introduced in 2012 and helped to reduce Australia's emissions but was scrapped in 2014 under the Liberal Government. Since the carbon tax was repealed, emissions have again continued to rise.
Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it includes a diverse range of habitats from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests, and is recognised as a megadiverse country. Fungi typify that diversity; an estimated 250,000 species—of which only 5% have been described—occur in Australia. Because of the continent's great age, extremely variable weather patterns, and long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's biota is unique. About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic. Australia has the greatest number of reptiles of any country, with 755 species. Besides Antarctica, Australia is the only continent that developed without feline species. Feral cats may have been introduced in the 17th century by Dutch shipwrecks, and later in the 18th century by European settlers. They are now considered a major factor in the decline and extinction of many vulnerable and endangered native species.
Australian forests are mostly made up of evergreen species, particularly eucalyptus trees in the less arid regions; wattles replace them as the dominant species in drier regions and deserts. Among well-known Australian animals are the monotremes (the platypus and echidna); a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, and wombat, and birds such as the emu and the kookaburra. Australia is home to many dangerous animals including some of the most venomous snakes in the world. The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people who traded with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE. Many animal and plant species became extinct soon after first human settlement, including the Australian megafauna; others have disappeared since European settlement, among them the thylacine.
Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are threatened by human activities and introduced animal, chromistan, fungal and plant species. All these factors have led to Australia's having the highest mammal extinction rate of any country in the world. The federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is the legal framework for the protection of threatened species. Numerous protected areas have been created under the National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity to protect and preserve unique ecosystems; 65 wetlands are listed under the Ramsar Convention, and 16 natural World Heritage Sites have been established. Australia was ranked 3rd out of 178 countries in the world on the 2014 Environmental Performance Index.
Government and politics
Australia is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II at its apex as the Queen of Australia, a role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen is represented in Australia by the Governor-General at the federal level and by the Governors at the state level, who by convention act on the advice of her ministers. Thus, in practice the Governor-General has no actual decision-making or de facto governmental role, and merely acts as a legal figurehead for the actions of the Prime Minister and the Federal Executive Council. The Governor-General does have extraordinary reserve powers which may be exercised outside the Prime Minister's request in rare and limited circumstances, the most notable exercise of which was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of 1975.
The federal government is separated into three branches:
- Legislature: the bicameral Parliament, defined in section 1 of the constitution as comprising the Queen (represented by the Governor-General), the Senate, and the House of Representatives;
- Executive: the Federal Executive Council, which in practice gives legal effect to the decisions of the cabinet, comprising the prime minister and ministers of state who advise the Governor-General;
- Judiciary: the High Court of Australia and other federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the Governor-General on advice of the Federal Executive Council.
In the Senate (the upper house), there are 76 senators: twelve each from the states and two each from the mainland territories (the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory). The House of Representatives (the lower house) has 150 members elected from single-member electoral divisions, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats", allocated to states on the basis of population, with each original state guaranteed a minimum of five seats. Elections for both chambers are normally held every three years simultaneously; senators have overlapping six-year terms except for those from the territories, whose terms are not fixed but are tied to the electoral cycle for the lower house; thus only 40 of the 76 places in the Senate are put to each election unless the cycle is interrupted by a double dissolution.
Australia's electoral system uses preferential voting for all lower house elections with the exception of Tasmania and the ACT which, along with the Senate and most state upper houses, combine it with proportional representation in a system known as the single transferable vote. Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 18 years and over in every jurisdiction, as is enrolment (with the exception of South Australia). The party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms the government and its leader becomes Prime Minister. In cases where no party has majority support, the Governor-General has the constitutional power to appoint the Prime Minister and, if necessary, dismiss one that has lost the confidence of Parliament.
There are two major political groups that usually form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party. Within Australian political culture, the Coalition is considered centre-right and the Labor Party is considered centre-left. Independent members and several minor parties have achieved representation in Australian parliaments, mostly in upper houses.
In September 2015, Malcolm Turnbull successfully challenged Tony Abbott for leadership of the Coalition, and was sworn in as the 29th Prime Minister of Australia. The most recent federal election was held on 2 July 2016 and resulted in the Coalition's forming a majority government.
States and territories
Australia has six states—New South Wales (NSW), Queensland (QLD), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (TAS), Victoria (VIC) and Western Australia (WA)—and two major mainland territories—the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT). In most respects these two territories function as states, except that the Commonwealth Parliament has the power to modify or repeal any legislation passed by the territory parliaments.
Under the constitution, the States essentially have plenary legislative power to legislate on any subject, whereas the Commonwealth (federal) Parliament may legislate only within the subject areas enumerated under section 51. For example, State parliaments have the power to legislate with respect to education, criminal law and state police, health, transport, and local government, but the Commonwealth Parliament does not have any specific power to legislate in these areas. However, Commonwealth laws prevail over State laws to the extent of the inconsistency. In addition, the Commonwealth has the power to levy income tax which, coupled with the power to make grants to States, has given it the financial means to incentivize States to pursue specific legislative agendas within areas over which the Commonwealth does not have legislative power.
Each state and major mainland territory has its own parliament—unicameral in the Northern Territory, the ACT and Queensland, and bicameral in the other states. The states are sovereign entities, although subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the Constitution. The lower houses are known as the Legislative Assembly (the House of Assembly in South Australia and Tasmania); the upper houses are known as the Legislative Council. The head of the government in each state is the Premier and in each territory the Chief Minister. The Queen is represented in each state by a Governor; and in the Northern Territory, the Administrator. In the Commonwealth, the Queen's representative is the Governor-General.
The Commonwealth Parliament also directly administers the following external territories: Ashmore and Cartier Islands; Australian Antarctic Territory; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Coral Sea Islands; Heard Island and McDonald Islands; and Jervis Bay Territory, a naval base and sea port for the national capital in land that was formerly part of New South Wales. The external territory of Norfolk Island previously exercised considerable autonomy under the Norfolk Island Act 1979 through its own legislative assembly and an Administrator to represent the Queen. In 2015, the Commonwealth Parliament abolished self-government, integrating Norfolk Island into the Australian tax and welfare systems and replacing its legislative assembly with a council. Macquarie Island is administered by Tasmania, and Lord Howe Island by New South Wales.
Over recent decades, Australia's foreign relations have been driven by a close association with the United States through the ANZUS pact, and by a desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific, particularly through ASEAN and the Pacific Islands Forum. In 2005 Australia secured an inaugural seat at the East Asia Summit following its accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, and in 2011 attended the Sixth East Asia Summit in Indonesia. Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, in which the Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings provide the main forum for co-operation. Australia has pursued the cause of international trade liberalisation. It led the formation of the Cairns Group and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Australia is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization, and has pursued several major bilateral free trade agreements, most recently the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement and Closer Economic Relations with New Zealand, with another free trade agreement being negotiated with China—the Australia–China Free Trade Agreement—and Japan, South Korea in 2011, Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement, and as of November 2015 has put the Trans-Pacific Partnership before parliament for ratification.
Along with New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Malaysia and Singapore, Australia is party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements, a regional defence agreement. A founding member country of the United Nations, Australia is strongly committed to multilateralism and maintains an international aid program under which some 60 countries receive assistance. The 2005–06 budget provides A$2.5 billion for development assistance. Australia ranks fifteenth overall in the Center for Global Development's 2012 Commitment to Development Index.
Australia's armed forces—the Australian Defence Force (ADF)—comprise the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Army and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), in total numbering 81,214 personnel (including 57,982 regulars and 23,232 reservists) as of November 2015. The titular role of Commander-in-Chief is vested in the Governor-General, who appoints a Chief of the Defence Force from one of the armed services on the advice of the government. Day-to-day force operations are under the command of the Chief, while broader administration and the formulation of defence policy is undertaken by the Minister and Department of Defence.
In the 2016–17 budget, defence spending comprised 2% of GDP, representing the world's 12th largest defence budget. Australia has been involved in UN and regional peacekeeping, disaster relief and armed conflict, including the 2003 invasion of Iraq; it currently has deployed about 2,241 personnel in varying capacities to 12 international operations in areas including Iraq and Afghanistan.
Australia is a wealthy country; it generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking and manufacturing. It has a market economy, a relatively high GDP per capita, and a relatively low rate of poverty. In terms of average wealth, Australia ranked second in the world after Switzerland in 2013, although the nation's poverty rate increased from 10.2% to 11.8%, from 2000/01 to 2013. It was identified by the Credit Suisse Research Institute as the nation with the highest median wealth in the world and the second-highest average wealth per adult in 2013.
The Australian dollar is the currency for the nation, including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, and Tuvalu. With the 2006 merger of the Australian Stock Exchange and the Sydney Futures Exchange, the Australian Securities Exchange became the ninth largest in the world.
Ranked fifth in the Index of Economic Freedom (2017), Australia is the world's twelfth largest economy and has the sixth highest per capita GDP (nominal) at US$56,291. The country was ranked second in the United Nations 2016 Human Development Index. All of Australia's major cities fare well in global comparative livability surveys; Melbourne reached top spot for the fourth year in a row on The Economist's 2014 list of the world's most liveable cities, followed by Adelaide, Sydney, and Perth in the fifth, seventh, and ninth places respectively. Total government debt in Australia is about A$190 billion – 20% of GDP in 2010. Australia has among the highest house prices and some of the highest household debt levels in the world.
An emphasis on exporting commodities rather than manufactured goods has underpinned a significant increase in Australia's terms of trade since the start of the 21st century, due to rising commodity prices. Australia has a balance of payments that is more than 7% of GDP negative, and has had persistently large current account deficits for more than 50 years. Australia has grown at an average annual rate of 3.6% for over 15 years, in comparison to the OECD annual average of 2.5%.
Australia was the only advanced economy not to experience a recession due to the global financial downturn in 2008–2009. However, the economies of six of Australia's major trading partners have been in recession, which in turn has affected Australia, significantly hampering its economic growth in recent years. From 2012 to early 2013, Australia's national economy grew, but some non-mining states and Australia's non-mining economy experienced a recession.
The Hawke Government floated the Australian dollar in 1983 and partially deregulated the financial system. The Howard Government followed with a partial deregulation of the labour market and the further privatisation of state-owned businesses, most notably in the telecommunications industry. The indirect tax system was substantially changed in July 2000 with the introduction of a 10% Goods and Services Tax (GST). In Australia's tax system, personal and company income tax are the main sources of government revenue.
In May 2012, there were 11,537,900 people employed (either full- or part-time), with an unemployment rate of 5.1%. Youth unemployment (15–24) stood at 11.2%. Data released in mid-November 2013 showed that the number of welfare recipients had grown by 55%. In 2007 228,621 Newstart unemployment allowance recipients were registered, a total that increased to 646,414 in March 2013. According to the Graduate Careers Survey, full-time employment for newly qualified professionals from various occupations has declined since 2011 but it increases for graduates three years after graduation.
Since 2008, inflation has typically been 2–3% and the base interest rate 5–6%. The service sector of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services, accounts for about 70% of GDP. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, particularly wheat and wool, minerals such as iron-ore and gold, and energy in the forms of liquified natural gas and coal. Although agriculture and natural resources account for only 3% and 5% of GDP respectively, they contribute substantially to export performance. Australia's largest export markets are Japan, China, the US, South Korea, and New Zealand. Australia is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine, and the wine industry contributes A$5.5 billion per year to the nation's economy.
Until the Second World War, the vast majority of settlers and immigrants came from the British Isles, and a majority of Australians have some British or Irish ancestry. These Australians form an ethnic group known as Anglo-Celtic Australians. In the 2016 Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were English (36.1%), Australian (33.5%), Irish (11.0%), Scottish (9.3%), Chinese (5.6%), Italian (4.6%), German (4.5%), Indian (2.8%), Greek (1.8%), and Dutch (1.6%).
Australia's population has quadrupled since the end of World War I, much of this increase from immigration. Following World War II and through to 2000, almost 5.9 million new immigrants arrived and settled in the country. Most immigrants are skilled, but the immigration quota includes categories for family members and refugees. By 2050, Australia's population is currently projected to reach around 42 million. Nevertheless, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world.
In 2016, more than a quarter (26%) of Australia's population were born overseas; the five largest immigrant groups were those born in England (3.9%), New Zealand (2.2%), Mainland China (2.2%), India (1.9%), and the Philippines (1%). Following the abolition of the White Australia policy in 1973, numerous government initiatives have been established to encourage and promote racial harmony based on a policy of multiculturalism. In 2015–16, there were 189,770 permanent immigrants admitted to Australia, mainly from Asia.
The Indigenous population—Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders—was counted at 649,171 (2.8% of the total population) in 2016. The increase is partly due to many people with Indigenous heritage previously having been overlooked by the census due to undercount and cases where their Indigenous status had not been recorded on the form. Indigenous Australians experience higher than average rates of imprisonment and unemployment, lower levels of education, and life expectancies for males and females that are, respectively, 11 and 17 years lower than those of non-indigenous Australians. Some remote Indigenous communities have been described as having "failed state"-like conditions.
In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2004, the average age of the civilian population was 38.8 years. A large number of Australians (759,849 for the period 2002–03; 1 million or 5% of the total population in 2005) live outside their home country.
|6||Gold Coast–Tweed Heads||Qld/NSW||646,983||16||Toowoomba||Qld||114,024|
Although Australia has no official language, English has always been entrenched as the de facto national language. Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon, and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling. General Australian serves as the standard dialect.
According to the 2016 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for close to 72.7% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are Mandarin (2.5%), Arabic (1.4%), Cantonese (1.2%), Vietnamese (1.2%) and Italian (1.2%). A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual.
Over 250 Indigenous Australian languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European contact, of which less than 20 are still in daily use by all age groups. About 110 others are spoken exclusively by older people. At the time of the 2006 census, 52,000 Indigenous Australians, representing 12% of the Indigenous population, reported that they spoke an Indigenous language at home. Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 5,500 deaf people.
Australia has no state religion; Section 116 of the Australian Constitution prohibits the federal government from making any law to establish any religion, impose any religious observance, or prohibit the free exercise of any religion. In the 2016 census, 52.1% of Australians were counted as Christian, including 22.6% as Roman Catholic and 13.3% as Anglican; 30.1% of the population reported having "no religion"; 7.3% identify with non-Christian religions, the largest of these being Islam (2.6%), followed by Buddhism (2.5%), Hinduism (1.9%) and Judaism (0.4%). The remaining 9.6% of the population did not provide an adequate answer. Those who reported having no religion increased conspicuously from 19% in 2006 to 30% in 2016. The largest change was between 2011 (22%) and 2016 (30.1%), when a further 2.2 million people reported having no religion.
Before European settlement, the animist beliefs of Australia's indigenous people had been practised for many thousands of years. Mainland Aboriginal Australians' spirituality is known as the Dreamtime and it places a heavy emphasis on belonging to the land. The collection of stories that it contains shaped Aboriginal law and customs. Aboriginal art, story and dance continue to draw on these spiritual traditions. The spirituality and customs of Torres Strait Islanders, who inhabit the islands between Australia and New Guinea, reflected their Melanesian origins and dependence on the sea. The 1996 Australian census counted more than 7000 respondents as followers of a traditional Aboriginal religion.
Since the arrival of the First Fleet of British ships in 1788, Christianity has grown to be the major religion practised in Australia. Christian churches have played an integral role in the development of education, health and welfare services in Australia. For much of Australian history, the Church of England (now known as the Anglican Church of Australia) was the largest religious denomination. However, multicultural immigration has contributed to a decline in its relative position, and the Roman Catholic Church has benefitted from recent immigration to become the largest group. Similarly, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism and Judaism have all grown in Australia over the past half-century.
Australia has the third and seventh highest life expectancy of males and females respectively in the world. Life expectancy in Australia in 2010 was 79.5 years for males and 84.0 years for females. Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world, while cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and disease, responsible for 7.8% of the total mortality and disease. Ranked second in preventable causes is hypertension at 7.6%, with obesity third at 7.5%. Australia ranks 35th in the world and near the top of developed nations for its proportion of obese adults and nearly two thirds (63%) of its adult population is either overweight or obese.
Total expenditure on health (including private sector spending) is around 9.8% of GDP. Australia introduced universal health care in 1975. Known as Medicare, it is now nominally funded by an income tax surcharge known as the Medicare levy, currently set at 2%. The states manage hospitals and attached outpatient services, while the Commonwealth funds the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (subsidising the costs of medicines) and general practice.
School attendance, or registration for home schooling, is compulsory throughout Australia. Education is the responsibility of the individual states and territories so the rules vary between states, but in general children are required to attend school from the age of about 5 until about 16. In some states (e.g., Western Australia, the Northern Territory and New South Wales), children aged 16–17 are required to either attend school or participate in vocational training, such as an apprenticeship.
Australia has an adult literacy rate that was estimated to be 99% in 2003. However, a 2011–12 report for the Australian Bureau of Statistics reported that Tasmania has a literacy and numeracy rate of only 50%. In the Programme for International Student Assessment, Australia regularly scores among the top five of thirty major developed countries (member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Catholic education accounts for the largest non-government sector.
Australia has 37 government-funded universities and two private universities, as well as a number of other specialist institutions that provide approved courses at the higher education level. The OECD places Australia among the most expensive nations to attend university. There is a state-based system of vocational training, known as TAFE, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople. About 58% of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications, and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is the highest among OECD countries. The ratio of international to local students in tertiary education in Australia is the highest in the OECD countries. In addition, 30.9 percent of Australia's population has attained a higher education qualification, which is among the highest percentages in the world.
Since 1788, the primary influence behind Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culture, with some Indigenous influences. The divergence and evolution that has occurred in the ensuing centuries has resulted in a distinctive Australian culture. Since the mid-20th century, American popular culture has strongly influenced Australia, particularly through television and cinema. Other cultural influences come from neighbouring Asian countries, and through large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking nations.
Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Traditional designs, patterns and stories infuse contemporary Indigenous Australian art, "the last great art movement of the 20th century"; its exponents include Emily Kame Kngwarreye. Early colonial artists, trained in Europe, showed a fascination with the unfamiliar land. The impressionistic works of Arthur Streeton, Tom Roberts and others associated with the 19th-century Heidelberg School—the first "distinctively Australian" movement in Western art—gave expression to a burgeoning Australian nationalism in the lead-up to Federation. While the school remained influential into the new century, modernists such as Margaret Preston, and, later, Sidney Nolan and Arthur Boyd, explored new artistic trends. The landscape remained a central subject matter for Fred Williams, Brett Whiteley and other post-World War II artists whose works, eclectic in style yet uniquely Australian, moved between the figurative and the abstract. The national and state galleries maintain collections of local and international art. Australia has one of the world's highest attendances of art galleries and museums per head of population.
Australian literature grew slowly in the decades following European settlement though Indigenous oral traditions, many of which have since been recorded in writing, are much older. 19th-century writers such as Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson captured the experience of the bush using a distinctive Australian vocabulary. Their works are still popular; Paterson's bush poem "Waltzing Matilda" (1895) is regarded as Australia's unofficial national anthem. Miles Franklin is the namesake of Australia's most prestigious literary prize, awarded annually to the best novel about Australian life. Its first recipient, Patrick White, went on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1973. Australian winners of the Booker Prize include Peter Carey, Thomas Keneally and Richard Flanagan. Author David Malouf, playwright David Williamson and poet Les Murray are also renowned literary figures.
Many of Australia's performing arts companies receive funding through the federal government's Australia Council. There is a symphony orchestra in each state, and a national opera company, Opera Australia, well known for its famous soprano Joan Sutherland. At the beginning of the 20th century, Nellie Melba was one of the world's leading opera singers. Ballet and dance are represented by The Australian Ballet and various state companies. Each state has a publicly funded theatre company.
The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906), the world's first feature length film, spurred a boom in Australian cinema during the silent film era. After World War I, Hollywood monopolised the industry, and by the 1960s Australian film production had effectively ceased. With the benefit of government support, the Australian New Wave of the 1970s brought provocative and successful films, many exploring themes of national identity, such as Wake in Fright and Gallipoli, while "Crocodile" Dundee and the Ozploitation movement's Mad Max series became international blockbusters. In a film market flooded with foreign content, Australian films delivered a 7.7% share of the local box office in 2015. The AACTAs are Australia's premier film and television awards, and notable Academy Award winners from Australia include Geoffrey Rush, Nicole Kidman, Cate Blanchett and Heath Ledger.
Australia has two public broadcasters (the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and the multicultural Special Broadcasting Service), three commercial television networks, several pay-TV services, and numerous public, non-profit television and radio stations. Each major city has at least one daily newspaper, and there are two national daily newspapers, The Australian and The Australian Financial Review. In 2010, Reporters Without Borders placed Australia 18th on a list of 178 countries ranked by press freedom, behind New Zealand (8th) but ahead of the United Kingdom (19th) and United States (20th). This relatively low ranking is primarily because of the limited diversity of commercial media ownership in Australia; most print media are under the control of News Corporation and Fairfax Media.
Most Indigenous Australian tribal groups subsisted on a simple hunter-gatherer diet of native fauna and flora, otherwise called bush tucker. The first settlers introduced British food to the continent, much of which is now considered typical Australian food, such as the Sunday roast. Multicultural immigration transformed Australian cuisine; post-World War II European migrants, particularly from the Mediterranean, helped to build a thriving Australian coffee culture, and the influence of Asian cultures has led to Australian variants of their staple foods, such as the Chinese-inspired dim sim and Chiko Roll. Vegemite, pavlova, lamingtons and meat pies are regarded as iconic Australian foods. Australian wine is produced mainly in the southern, cooler parts of the country.
Australia is also known for its cafe and coffee culture in urban centres, which has influenced coffee culture abroad, including New York City. Australia and New Zealand were responsible for the flat white coffee.
Sport and recreation
About 24% of Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate in organised sporting activities.
Australia is unique in that it has professional leagues for four football codes. Australian rules football, the world's oldest major football code and Australia's most popular sport in terms of revenue and spectatorship, originated in Melbourne in the late 1850s, and predominates in all states except New South Wales and Queensland, where rugby league holds sway, followed by rugby union. Soccer, while ranked fourth in popularity and resources, has the highest overall participation rates.
The Australian national cricket team have participated in every edition of the Cricket World Cup. Australia have been very successful in the event, winning the tournament five times, the record number.
Australia is a powerhouse in water-based sports, such as swimming and surfing. The surf lifesaving movement originated in Australia, and the volunteer lifesaver is one of the country's icons. Nationally, other popular sports include horse racing, basketball, and motor racing. The annual Melbourne Cup horse race and the Sydney to Hobart yacht race attract intense interest. In 2016, the Australian Sports Commission revealed that swimming, cycling and soccer are the three most popular participation sports.
Australia is one of five nations to have participated in every Summer Olympics of the modern era, and has hosted the Games twice: 1956 in Melbourne and 2000 in Sydney. Australia has also participated in every Commonwealth Games, hosting the event in 1938, 1962, 1982, 2006 and 2018. Australia made its inaugural appearance at the Pacific Games in 2015. As well as being a regular FIFA World Cup participant, Australia has won the OFC Nations Cup four times and the AFC Asian Cup once – the only country to have won championships in two different FIFA confederations. The country regularly competes among the world elite basketball teams as it is among the global top three teams in terms of qualifications to the Basketball Tournament at the Summer Olympics. Other major international events held in Australia include the Australian Open tennis grand slam tournament, international cricket matches, and the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. The highest-rating television programs include sports telecasts such as the Summer Olympics, FIFA World Cup, The Ashes, Rugby League State of Origin, and the grand finals of the National Rugby League and Australian Football League. Skiing in Australia began in the 1860s and snow sports take place in the Australian Alps and parts of Tasmania.
- Australia's royal anthem is "God Save the Queen", played in the presence of a member of the Royal family when they are in Australia. In other contexts, the national anthem of Australia, "Advance Australia Fair", is played.
- English does not have de jure status.
- There are minor variations from three basic time zones; see Time in Australia.
- The earliest recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625 in "A note of Australia del Espíritu Santo, written by Sir Richard Hakluyt", published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus, a corruption of the original Spanish name "Austrialia del Espíritu Santo" (Southern Land of the Holy Spirit) for an island in Vanuatu. The Dutch adjectival form australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia (Jakarta) in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south.
- For instance, the 1814 work A Voyage to Terra Australis.
- Australia describes the body of water south of its mainland as the Southern Ocean, rather than the Indian Ocean as defined by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). In 2000, a vote of IHO member nations defined the term "Southern Ocean" as applying only to the waters between Antarctica and 60 degrees south latitude.
- Based on the Köppen climate classification.
- It's an Honour – Symbols – Australian National Anthem Archived 9 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine. and DFAT – "Australian National Anthem" Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.; "National Symbols" (PDF). Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia (PDF) (29th ed.). 2005 . Archived from the original on 11 June 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
- "Pluralist Nations: Pluralist Language Policies?". 1995 Global Cultural Diversity Conference Proceedings, Sydney. Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2009. "English has no de jure status but it is so entrenched as the common language that it is de facto the official language as well as the national language."
- See entry in the Macquarie Dictionary.
- Collins English Dictionary. Bishopbriggs, Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2009. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-00-786171-2.
- "Population clock". Australian Bureau of Statistics website. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 3 April 2018. The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Australia". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- "Australia". International Monetary Fund. April 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- "OECD Economic Surveys: Norway 2012".
- "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- Macquarie ABC Dictionary. The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. 2003. p. 56. ISBN 1-876429-37-2.
- "Australia". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. April 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- "Constitution of Australia". ComLaw. 9 July 1900. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
3. It shall be lawful for the Queen, with the advice of the Privy Council, to declare by proclamation that, on and after a day therein appointed, not being later than one year after the passing of this Act, the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania, and also, if Her Majesty is satisfied that the people of Western Australia have agreed thereto, of Western Australia, shall be united in a Federal Commonwealth under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia.
- Data refer mostly to the year 2014. World Economic Outlook Database-April 2015, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on 25 April 2015.
- "Australia: World Audit Democracy Profile". WorldAudit.org. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
- "Geographic Distribution of the Population". Retrieved 1 December 2012.
- Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Main Features — Cultural Diversity Article". www.abs.gov.au.
- United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, (2015). 'International Migration' in International migrant stock 2015. Accessed from International migrant stock 2015: maps on 24 May 2017.
- Australian pronunciations: Macquarie Dictionary, Fourth Edition (2005). Melbourne, The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. ISBN 1-876429-14-3
- "Australia" Archived 23 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine. – Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- "He named it Austrialia del Espiritu Santo and claimed it for Spain" Archived 17 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine. The Spanish quest for Terra Australis | State Library of New South Wales Page 1.
- "A note on 'Austrialia' or 'Australia' Rupert Gerritsen – Journal of The Australian and New Zealand Map Society Inc.- The Globe, Number 72, 2013 " Archived 12 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Posesion en nombre de Su Magestad (Archivo del Museo Naval, Madrid, MS 951) Page 3.
- "THE ILLUSTRATED SYDNEY NEWS". Illustrated Sydney News. National Library of Australia. 26 January 1888. p. 2. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- Purchas, vol. iv, pp. 1422–32, 1625. This appears to be variation of the original Spanish "Austrialia" [sic]. A copy at the Library of Congress can be read online "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2015..
- Scott, Ernest (2004) . The Life of Captain Matthew Flinders. Kessinger Publishing. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-4191-6948-9.
- Flinders, Matthew (1814). A Voyage to Terra Australis. G. and W. Nicol.
- "WHO NAMED AUSTRALIA?". The Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1912 – 1954). Adelaide: National Library of Australia. 11 February 1928. p. 16. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- Weekend Australian, 30–31 December 2000, p. 16
- Department of Immigration and Citizenship (2007). Life in Australia (PDF). Commonwealth of Australia. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-921446-30-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- Brian J. Coman A Loose Cannon, Essays on History, Modernity and Tradition, Ch. 5, "La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo: Captain Quiros and the Discovery of Australia in 1606", p. 40. Retrieved 16 February 2017
- Meanings and origins of Australian words and idioms, ANU
- Clarkson, Chris; Jacobs, Zenobia; Marwick, Ben; Fullagar, Richard; Wallis, Lynley; Smith, Mike; Roberts, Richard G.; Hayes, Elspeth; Lowe, Kelsey; Carah, Xavier; Florin, S. Anna; McNeil, Jessica; Cox, Delyth; Arnold, Lee J.; Hua, Quan; Huntley, Jillian; Brand, Helen E. A.; Manne, Tiina; Fairbairn, Andrew; Shulmeister, James; Lyle, Lindsey; Salinas, Makiah; Page, Mara; Connell, Kate; Park, Gayoung; Norman, Kasih; Murphy, Tessa; Pardoe, Colin (19 July 2017). "Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago". Nature. 547 (7663): 306–310. doi:10.1038/nature22968.
- Rogelio Sáenz; David G. Embrick; Néstor P. Rodríguez (3 June 2015). The International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity. Springer. pp. 602–. ISBN 978-90-481-8891-8.
- "The spread of people to Australia". Australian Museum.
- Viegas, Jennifer (3 July 2008). "Early Aussie Tattoos Match Rock Art". Discovery News. Archived from the original on 10 July 2008. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- MacKnight, CC (1976). The Voyage to Marege: Macassan Trepangers in Northern Australia. Melbourne University Press.
- "European discovery and the colonisation of Australia — European mariners". Government of Australia. Government of Australia. 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, p. 233.
- Marsh, Lindsay (2010). History of Australia : understanding what makes Australia the place it is today. Greenwood, W.A.: Ready-Ed Publications. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-86397-798-2.
- "European discovery and the colonisation of Australia". Australian Government: Culture Portal. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Commonwealth of Australia. 11 January 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2011.
- "European discovery and the colonisation of Australia". Australian Government: Culture Portal. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Commonwealth of Australia. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
[The British] moved north to Port Jackson on 26 January 1788, landing at Camp Cove, known as 'cadi' to the Cadigal people. Governor Phillip carried instructions to establish the first British Colony in Australia. The First Fleet was under prepared for the task, and the soil around Sydney Cove was poor.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, pp. 464–5, 628–29.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, p. 678.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, p. 464.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, p. 470.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, p. 598.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, p. 679.
- Convict Records Public Record office of Victoria; State Records Office of Western Australia Archived 30 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine..
- "1998 Special Article – The State of New South Wales – Timeline of History". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1988.
- Briscoe, Gordon; Smith, Len (2002). The Aboriginal Population Revisited: 70,000 years to the present. Canberra, Australia: Aboriginal History Inc. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-9585637-6-5.
- "Smallpox Through History". Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.
- Attwood, Bain; Foster, Stephen Glynn. Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience. National Museum of Australia, 2003. ISBN 9781876944117, p. 89.
- Attwood, Bain (2005). Telling the truth about Aboriginal history. Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-577-5.
- Dawkins, Kezia (1 February 2004). "1967 Referendum". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, pp. 5–7, 402.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, pp. 283–85.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, pp. 227–9.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, p. 556.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, pp. 138–9.
- "Colonial Defence and Imperial Repudiation". Daily Southern Cross (vol XVII, issue 1349). 13 November 1860. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, pp. 243–4.
- "History of the Commonwealth". Commonwealth Network. Commonwealth of Nations. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- The name "the Commonwealth of Australia" is prescribed in section 3 (covering clause 3) of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 (Imp).
- Otto, Kristin (25 June – 9 July 2007). "When Melbourne was Australia's capital city". Melbourne, Victoria: University of Melbourne. Archived from the original on 2 April 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
- Official year book of the Commonwealth of Australia. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1957.
- Macintyre, Stuart (1986) The Oxford History of Australia, vol. 4, p. 142
- C. Bean Ed. (1941). Volume I – The Story of Anzac: the first phase Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine., First World War Official Histories, Eleventh Edition.
- "First World War 1914–1918". Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 7 December 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2006.
- Tucker, Spencer (2005). Encyclopedia of World War I. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 273. ISBN 1-85109-420-2.
- Macintyre, Stuart (2000). A Concise History of Australia. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, pp. 151–153, ISBN 0-521-62359-6.
- Reed, Liz (2004). Bigger than Gallipoli: war, history, and memory in Australia. Crawley, WA: University of Western Australia. p. 5. ISBN 1-920694-19-6.
- Nelson, Hank (1997). "Gallipoli, Kokoda and the Making of National Identity" (PDF). Journal of Australian Studies. 53 (1): 148–60.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, p. 609.
- "Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 (Cth)". National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942" (PDF). ComLaw. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, pp. 22–23.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, p. 30.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, pp. 338–39, 681–82.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, pp. 442–3.
- "Australia Act 1986". Australasian Legal Information Institute. Archived from the original on 2 February 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- Woodard, Garry (11 November 2005). "Whitlam turned focus on to Asia". Melbourne: The Age. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- Thompson, Roger C. (1994). The Pacific Basin since 1945: A history of the foreign relations of the Asian, Australasian, and American rim states and the Pacific islands. Longman. ISBN 0-582-02127-8.
- "Australia's Size Compared". Geoscience Australia. Archived from the original on 24 March 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2007.
- Rosenberg, Matt (20 August 2009). "The New Fifth Ocean–The World's Newest Ocean – The Southern Ocean". About.com: Geography. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- "Continents: What is a Continent?". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 22 August 2009. "Most people recognize seven continents—Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia, from largest to smallest—although sometimes Europe and Asia are considered a single continent, Eurasia."
- "Australia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 22 August 2009. "Smallest continent and sixth largest country (in area) on Earth, lying between the Pacific and Indian oceans."
- "Islands". Geoscience Australia. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. "Being surrounded by ocean, Australia often is referred to as an island continent. As a continental landmass it is significantly larger than the many thousands of fringing islands ..."
- "Australia in Brief: The island continent". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009. "Mainland Australia, with an area of 7.69 million square kilometres, is the Earth's largest island but smallest continent."
- "State of the Environment 2006". Department of the Environment and Water Resources. Archived from the original on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2007.
- "Oceans and Seas – Geoscience Australia". Geoscience Australia. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009.
- UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1980). "Protected Areas and World Heritage – Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area". Department of the Environment and Heritage. Archived from the original on 28 May 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2007.
- "Mount Augustus". The Sydney Morning Herald. 17 February 2005. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "Highest Mountains". Geoscience Australia. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- "Parks and Reserves—Australia's National Landscapes". Environment.gov.au. 23 November 2011. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Macey, Richard (21 January 2005). "Map from above shows Australia is a very flat place". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- Kelly, Karina (13 September 1995). "A Chat with Tim Flannery on Population Control". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010. "Well, Australia has by far the world's least fertile soils".
- Grant, Cameron (August 2007). "Damaged Dirt" (PDF). The Advertiser. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
Australia has the oldest, most highly weathered soils on the planet.
- Loffler, Ernst; Anneliese Loffler; A. J. Rose; Denis Warner (1983). Australia: Portrait of a continent. Richmond, Victoria: Hutchinson Group (Australia). pp. 37–39. ISBN 0-09-130460-1.
- "Australia – Climate of Our Continent". Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- "Countries of the World (by lowest population density)". WorldAtlas. Archived from the original on 10 March 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "1301.0 – Year Book Australia, 2008". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Johnson, David (2009). The Geology of Australia (2 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-521-76741-5.
- Seabrooka, Leonie; McAlpinea, Clive; Fenshamb, Rod (2006). "Cattle, crops and clearing: Regional drivers of landscape change in the Brigalow Belt, Queensland, Australia, 1840–2004". Landscape and Urban Planning. 78 (4): 375–376. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2005.11.00.
- "Einasleigh upland savanna". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- "Mitchell grass downs". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- "Eastern Australia mulga shrublands". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- "Southeast Australia temperate savanna". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- "Arnhem Land tropical savanna". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- "Rangelands – Overview". Australian Natural Resources Atlas. Australian Government. 27 June 2009. Archived from the original on 13 March 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- "Cape York Peninsula tropical savanna". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- Van Driesum, Rob (2002). Outback Australia. Lonely Planet. p. 306. ISBN 1-86450-187-1.
- "Victoria Plains tropical savanna". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- "Western Australian Mulga shrublands". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- "Central Ranges xeric scrub". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- Banting, Erinn (2003). Australia: The land. Crabtree Publishing Company. p. 10. ISBN 0-7787-9343-5.
- "Tirari-Sturt stony desert". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- "Great Sandy-Tanami desert". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- Kleinman, Rachel (6 September 2007). "No more drought: it's a 'permanent dry'". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- Marks, Kathy (20 April 2007). "Australia's epic drought: The situation is grim". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 22 April 2007. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "Climate of Western Australia". Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
- "Annual Australian Climate Statement 2011". Bom.gov.au. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
- "Annual climate statement of 2014". Bureau of Meteorology. 6 January 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "2014 was Australia's warmest year on record: BoM". ABC Online. 21 January 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "Saving Australia's water". BBC News. 23 April 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
- "National review of water restrictions in Australia". Australian Government National Water Commission. 15 January 2010. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- Smith, Deborah (22 May 2007). "Australia's carbon dioxide emissions twice world rate". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 17 March 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "Carbon price helped curb emissions, ANU study finds". The Sydney Morning Herald. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- Palmer, Brad (6 November 2014). "Australia repealed its carbon tax — and emissions are now soaring". The University of Melbourne. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- Pascoe, I.G. (1991). History of systematic mycology in Australia. History of Systematic Botany in Australasia. Ed. by: P. Short. Australian Systematic Botany Society Inc. pp. 259–264.
- "About Biodiversity". Department of the Environment and Heritage. Archived from the original on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 18 September 2007.
- Lambertini, Marco (2000). A Naturalist's Guide to the Tropics (excerpt). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-46828-3. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- Fact check: Are feral cats killing over 20 billion native animals a year? ABC News, 13 November 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- "About Australia: Flora and fauna". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade website. Commonwealth of Australia. May 2008. Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Snake Bite", The Australian Venom Compendium.
- Savolainen, P.; Leitner, T.; Wilton, A. N.; Matisoo-Smith, E.; Lundeberg, J. (2004). "A detailed picture of the origin of the Australian dingo, obtained from the study of mitochondrial DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101 (33): 12387–12390. doi:10.1073/pnas.0401814101. PMC . PMID 15299143.
- "Humans to blame for extinction of Australia's megafauna". The University of Melbourne. 8 June 2001. Archived from the original on 2 April 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "The Thylacine Museum – A Natural History of the Tasmanian Tiger". The Thylacine Museum. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- "National Threatened Species Day". Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. 2006. Archived from the original on 9 December 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2006.
- "Invasive species". Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 17 March 2010. Archived from the original on 29 June 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- "Australia's most endangered species". Australian Geographic. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "About the EPBC Act". Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Archived from the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- "National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity". Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 21 January 2010. Archived from the original on 12 March 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- "Conservation of biological diversity across Australia". Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 19 January 2009. Archived from the original on 13 March 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- "The List of Wetlands of International Importance". Ramsar Convention. 22 May 2010. pp. 6–7. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- "Australia". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
- "2014 Environmental Performance Index". Yale University. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "How Australia's Parliament works". Australian Geographic. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, pp. 287–8.
- "Governor-General's Role". Governor-General of Australia. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Downing, Susan (23 January 1998). "The Reserve Powers of the Governor-General". Parliament of Australia. Archived from the original on 26 July 2010. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- "The World Factbook 2009". Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. 2009. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
- "Senate Summary". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 6 May 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Voting HOR". Australian Electoral Commission. 31 July 2007. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Election Summary: Tasmania". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 3 May 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Evans, Tim (2006). "Compulsory Voting in Australia" (PDF). Australian Electoral Commission. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- "What happens if I do not vote?". Voting Australia – Frequently Asked Questions. Australian Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2008.
- "Governor-General's Role". Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Glossary of Election Terms". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "State of the Parties". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 18 April 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Fenna, Alan; Robbins, Jane; Summers, John (2013). Government Politics in Australia. London, United Kingdom: Pearson Higher Education AU. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-4860-0138-5.
- "As it happened: Malcolm Turnbull topples Tony Abbott in Liberal leadership ballot". ABC. 14 September 2015.
- Karp, Paul (10 July 2016). "Australian election: Malcolm Turnbull declares win, eight days after polls close". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- Australian Constitution, section 122 - Australian Legal Information Institute website.
- "State and Territory Government". Government of Australia. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Australian Constitution, section 109.
- "Role of the Administrator". Government House Northern Territory. 16 June 2008. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "Governor-General's Role". Governor–General of the Commonwealth of Australia. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "Administrator of Norfolk Island". Australian Government Attorney-General's Department. Archived from the original on 6 August 2008.
- Monica Tan; Australian Associated Press (12 May 2015). "Norfolk Island loses its parliament as Canberra takes control". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting". Commonwealth website. Pall Mall, London: Commonwealth Secretariat. 2009. Archived from the original on 26 March 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- Capling, Ann (2013). Australia and the Global Trade System: From Havana to Seattle. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-521-78525-9.
- Gallagher, P. W. (1988). "Setting the agenda for trade negotiations: Australia and the Cairns group". Australian Journal of International Affairs. 42 (1 April 1988): 3–8. doi:10.1080/10357718808444955.
- "APEC and Australia". APEC 2007. 1 June 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Australia:About". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Australia – Member information". World Trade Organization. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement". Canberra, ACT: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 17 March 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "Closer Economic Relations". Canberra, ACT: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 8 October 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "Japan-Australia Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Archived from the original on 23 May 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- "Gillard confident of S Korean trade deal – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "S. Korea, Australia set free-trade talks deadline". Highbeam. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement". dfat.gov.au. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- Arvanitakis, James; Tyler, Amy (3 June 2008). "In Defence of Multilateralism". Centre for Policy Development. Archived from the original on 17 September 2009.
- Australian Government. (2005). Budget 2005–2006 Archived 14 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Center for Global Development. Commitment to Development Index: Australia, cgdev.org. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
- Khosa, Raspal (2004). Australian Defence Almanac 2004–05. Canberra: Australian Strategic Policy Institute. p. 4.
- "Home : Global Operations : Department of Defence". www.defence.gov.au. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- "Government to help Kalgoorlie quake victims". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 20 April 2010. Archived from the original on 6 June 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- Cassen, Robert (1982). Rich Country Interests and Third World Development. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-7099-1930-1.
- "Australia, wealthiest nation in the world". 20 October 2011. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- "Australian's the world's wealthiest". The Sydney Morning Herald. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- Credit Suisse Research Institute (9 October 2013). "Global Wealth Reaches New All-Time High". The Financialist. Credit Suisse. Archived from the original on 29 July 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- AAP (12 October 2013). "Richest nation but poverty increasing". The Australian. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- "On the International Realignment of Exchanges and Related Trends in Self-Regulation – Australian Stock Exchange" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
- "World & Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation. 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- "GDP per capita (current US$) | Data". The World Bank. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- "Human Development Reports". United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- "Melbourne 'world's top city'". The Age. 6 February 2004. Archived from the original on 30 January 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
- Dyett, Kathleen (19 August 2014). "Melbourne named world's most liveable city for the fourth year running, beating Adelaide, Sydney and Perth" Archived 21 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine., ABC News. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- Hughes, Tim. "Australian dollar continues astronomical rise to 30-year highs as US dollar, euro tank". Courier Mail. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "Australia Public debt – Economy". Indexmundi.com. 9 January 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
- "Nick Bryant's Australia: Australian affordablity". BBC. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "5368.0 – International Trade in Goods and Services, Australia, April 2007". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 31 May 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- "Might Australia's economic fortunes turn?". The Economist. 29 March 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
- "World Economic Outlook (WEO) 2010 Rebalancing Growth". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- "Australia slashes immigration as recession looms". London: The Independent. 16 March 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Mclennan, David (12 April 2011). "Australian economy growing as new recession fears fade". The Canberra Times. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "National economy grows but some non-mining states in recession". The Conversation. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- Syvret, Paul (7 April 2012). "Mining punches through recession". Courier Mail. Archived from the original on 16 April 2012.
- "Non-mining states going backwards". ABC. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- Macfarlane, I. J. (October 1998). "Australian Monetary Policy in the Last Quarter of the Twentieth Century" (PDF). Reserve Bank of Australia Bulletin. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- Parham, Dean (1 October 2002). "Microeconomic reforms and the revival in Australia's growth in productivity and living standards" (PDF). Conference of Economists, Adelaide. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- Tran-Nam, Binh. "The Implementation Costs of the GST in Australia: Concepts, Preliminary Estimates and Implications  JlATax 23; (2000) 3(5)". Journal of Australian Taxation 331. Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Part 1: Australian Government Budget Outcome". Budget 2008–09 – Australian Government. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. 6202.0 – Labour Force, Australia, April 2012 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- Patricia Karvelas (13 November 2013). "Call for end to welfare poverty". The Australian. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "Australian Graduate Survey". graduatecareers.com.au.
- "GradStats: Employment and Salary Outcomes of Recent Higher Education Graduates, December 2014" (PDF). Graduate Careers Australia. 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Australia. CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. Year Book Australia 2005 Archived 9 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine..
- "Wine Australia". wineaustralia. Archived from the original on 23 October 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who list "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the Anglo-Celtic group. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2008.
- "CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN AUSTRALIA, 2016". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 June 2017. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
- "3105.0.65.001—Australian Historical Population Statistics, 2006" (XLS). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 23 May 2006. Archived from the original on 8 September 2007. Retrieved 18 September 2007.
Australian population: (1919) 5,080,912; (2006) 20,209,993
- "Background note: Australia". US Department of State. Archived from the original on 20 May 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2007.
- "Fact Sheet 20 – Migration Program Planning Levels". Department of Immigration and Citizenship. 11 August 2009. Archived from the original on 7 May 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- "Australia's population to grow to 42 million by 2050, modelling shows Archived 17 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.". News.com.au. 17 April 2010
- "2016 Census of Population and Housing" (ZIP). Censusdate.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
- "The Evolution of Australia's Multicultural Policy". Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. 2005. Archived from the original on 19 February 2006. Retrieved 18 September 2007.
- "2015–16 Migration Programme Report : Programme year to 30 June 2016" (PDF). Border.gov.au\accessdate=2017-08-21.
- "ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER POPULATION". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 27 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- Lunn, Stephen (26 November 2008). "Life gap figures not black and white". The Australian. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- Gibson, Joel (10 April 2009). "Indigenous health gap closes by five years". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- Grattan, Michelle (8 December 2006). "Australia hides a 'failed state'". Melbourne: The Age. Archived from the original on 19 November 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- Parliament of Australia, Parliamentary Library (7 March 2005). Australia's aging workforce.
- Parliament of Australia, Senate (2005). Inquiry into Australian Expatriates.
- Duncan, Macgregor; Leigh, Andrew; Madden, David & Tynan, Peter (2004). Imagining Australia. Allen & Unwin. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-74114-382-9.
- "3218.0 - Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2016". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/latestProducts/3218.0Media%20Release12016-17?OpenDocument%7Cpublisher=Australian Bureau of Statistics|accessdate=25 April 2018|
- Moore, Bruce. "The Vocabulary Of Australian English" (PDF). National Museum of Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- "The Macquarie Dictionary", Fourth Edition. The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd, 2005.
- Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Main Features — Cultural Diversity Article". www.abs.gov.au. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017.
- Walsh, Michael (1991) "Overview of indigenous languages of Australia" in Suzanne Romaine (1991). Language in Australia. Cambridge University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-521-33983-4.
- "A mission to save indigenous languages". Australian Geographic. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- "National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005". Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 July 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (4 May 2010). "4713.0 – Population Characteristics, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2006". Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2007). "20680-Language Spoken at Home (full classification list) by Sex – Australia". 2006 Census Tables : Australia. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- "About Australia: Religious Freedom". Dfat.gov.au. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "RELIGION IN AUSTRALIA, 2016". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 June 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
- "Indigenous Traditions – Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders". Abc.net.au. 14 December 1999. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "2011 Census reveals Hinduism as the fastest growing religion in Australia". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Australia 'among world's least religious countries'". SBS News. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- NCLS releases latest estimates of church attendance Archived 23 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., National Church Life Survey, Media release, 28 February 2004.
- "How Australia compares". Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Archived from the original on 12 March 2011.
- "Life expectancy". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- "Skin cancer – key statistics". Department of Health and Ageing. 2008. Archived from the original on 8 February 2014.
- "Risks to health in Australia" (PDF). Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 26 February 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2011.
- Smoking – A Leading Cause of Death. The National Tobacco Campaign.
- % Global prevalence of adult obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²): country rankings 2012 IASO
- "About Overweight and Obesity". Department of Health and Ageing. Archived from the original on 7 May 2010.
- "Overweight and obesity". Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
- "Health care in Australia". About Australia. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2008. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010.
- Biggs, Amanda (29 October 2004). "Medicare – Background Brief". Parliament of Australia: Parliamentary Library. Canberra, ACT: Commonwealth of Australia. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- "Medicare levy". Australian Taxation Office. 18 October 2017. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- QS World University Rankings 2015/16 Archived 19 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine., topuniversities.com. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
- Townsend, Ian (30 January 2012). "Thousands of parents illegally home schooling". ABC News. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
- "Schooling Overview". Australian Government, Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. Archived from the original on 28 March 2011.
- "Education". Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Archived from the original on 18 February 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- "Our system of education". Australian Government: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "The Department of Education – Schools and You – Schooling". Det.wa.edu.au. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Education Act (NT) – Section 20". austlii.edu.au.
- "Education Act 1990 (NSW) – Section 21". austlii.edu.au.
- "Minimum school leaving age jumps to 17". The Age. 28 January 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "Literacy". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- "A literacy deficit". abc.net.au. 22 September 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- "Australian Education | Australian Education System | Education | Study in Australia". Ausitaleem.com.pk. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Education at a Glance 2006 Archived 2 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
- "About Australian Apprenticeships". Australian Government. Archived from the original on 11 November 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Education at Glance 2005 Archived 11 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine. by OECD: Percentage of foreign students in tertiary education.
- Sauter, Michael B. (24 September 2012). "The Most Educated Countries in the World – Yahoo Finance". Finance.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Grossman, Samantha (27 September 2012). "And the World's Most Educated Country Is ..." Time. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "2016 Census QuickStats: Australia". www.censusdata.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
- "About Australia: World Heritage properties". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 25 July 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- Jupp, pp. 796–802.
- Teo and White, pp. 118–20.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, pp. 98–9.
- Teo and White, pp. 125–27.
- Teo and White, pp. 121–23.
- Jupp, pp. 808–12, 74–77.
- Taçon, Paul S. C. (2001). "Australia". In Whitely, David S.. Handbook of Rock Art Research. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 531–575. ISBN 978-0-7425-0256-7
- Henly, Susan Gough (6 November 2005). "Powerful growth of Aboriginal art". The New York Times.
- Smith, Terry (1996) "Kngwarreye Woman, Abstract Painter", p. 24 in Emily Kngwarreye – Paintings, North Ryde NSW: Craftsman House / G + B Arts International. ISBN 90-5703-681-9.
- Australian art Archived 19 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Art Gallery of New South Wales. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- Brett Whiteley: Nature Archived 20 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Art Gallery of New South Wales. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- Germaine, Max (1990). Artists & Galleries of Australia. Roseville, Vic.: Craftsman House. pp. 756–58, 796–97, 809–10, 814–15, 819–20, 826–27, 829–30. ISBN 976-8097-02-7.
- Ron Radford, Director of the National Gallery of Australia, quoted in Blake, Elissa (4–5 February 2012). "The art of persuasion". The Sydney Morning Herald (Spectrum section).
- "Sidney Nolan's Rainbow Serpent is larger than life" (16 June 2012), The Australasian.
- Sarwal, Amit; Sarwal, Reema (2009). Reading Down Under: Australian Literary Studies Reader. SSS Publications. p. xii. ISBN 978-81-902282-1-3.
- O'Keeffe, Dennis (2012). Waltzing Matilda: The Secret History of Australia's Favourite Song. Allen & Unwin. p. back cover. ISBN 978-1-74237-706-3.
- Miles Franklin Literary Award, australia.gov.au. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- Australia's Nobel Laureates and the Nobel Prize Archived 19 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., australia.gov.au. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- Hughes-D'Aeth, Tony (15 October 2014). "Australia's Booker prize record suggests others will come in Flanagan's wake" Archived 22 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The Conversation. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, p. 394.
- "Tranter, John (1977) A warrior poet living still at Anzac Cove: Review of The Vernacular Republic: Selected Poems". Johntranter.com. 29 January 1977. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- "Arts funding guide 2010" (PDF). Australia Council. 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 July 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- "Evaluation of the Orchestras Review 2005 funding package implementation" (PDF). Australia Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Opera Australia". Australia Council. Archived from the original on 23 July 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Opera in Australia". Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 5 March 2007. Archived from the original on 6 April 2011.
- Maloney, Shane (January 2006). "Nellie Melba & Enrico Caruso". The Monthly. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Brandis, George (8 May 2007). "35 per cent increase in funding for Australia's major performing arts companies". Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts. Archived from the original on 12 November 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Chichester, Jo (2007). "Return of the Kelly Gang". UNESCO Courier. UNESCO. Archived from the original on 4 February 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
- "The first wave of Australian feature film production". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Culture.gov.au – "Film in Australia"". Australian Government: Culture Portal. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Commonwealth of Australia. 22 November 2007. Archived from the original on 27 March 2011.
- Krausz, Peter (2002). "Australian Identity: A Cinematic Roll Call" (PDF). Australian Screen Education Online. Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia: Australian Teachers of Media (29): 24–29. ISSN 1443-1629.
- Moran, Albert; Vieth, Errol (2009). The A to Z of Australian and New Zealand Cinema. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6347-7, p. 35.
- Quinn, Karl (6 December 2015). "Australian film has had its biggest year at the box office ever. Why?" Archived 29 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- "Ten Great Australian Moments at the Oscars" Archived 8 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. (26 February 2014), news.com.au. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- "Country profile: Australia". BBC News. 13 October 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
- Reporters Without Borders (2010). "Press Freedom Index 2010". Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
- Barr, Trevor. "Media Ownership in Australia Archived 12 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.", australianpolitics.com. Retrieved 2 January 2008.
- Gardiner-Garden, John & Chowns, Jonathan (30 May 2006). "Media Ownership Regulation in Australia". Parliament of Australia. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010.
- "Bush Tucker Plants, or Bush Food". Teachers.ash.org.au. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "Bush Tucker". Theepicentre.com. Retrieved 26 April 2011.[dead link]
- "Australian food and drink". Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 23 September 2008. Archived from the original on 26 March 2010.
- "Modern Australian recipes and Modern Australian cuisine". Special Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on 3 May 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Jonsen, Helen (1999). Kangaroo's Comments and Wallaby's Words: The Aussie Word Book. Hippocrene Books. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-7818-0737-1.
- Santich, Barbara (2012). Bold Palates: Australia's Gastronomic Heritage. Wakefield Press. p. 290. ISBN 978-1-74305-094-1.
- "Avo smash and flat whites bringing the Aussie vibe to New York". ABC News. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- National Sports Museum Heritage Listing, National Sports Museum. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- Skinner, James; Zakus H., Dwight; Edwards, Allan (2013). "Coming in from the Margins: Ethnicity, Community Support and the Rebranding of Australian Soccer". In Adam, Brown. Football and Community in the Global Context: Studies in Theory and Practice. Routledge. pp. 92–93. ISBN 9781317969051.
- "Cricket World Cup 2015: Australia crush New Zealand in final". 29 March 2015 – via www.bbc.com.
- Pike, Jeffrey (2004). Australia. Langenscheidt Publishing Group. p. 103. ISBN 978-981-234-799-2.
- Booth, Douglas (2012). Australian Beach Cultures: The History of Sun, Sand and Surf. Routledge. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-7146-8178-8.
- Campbell, Peter. "Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race". cyca.com.au. Cruising Yacht Club of Australia. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- "Football named Oz's biggest club-based participation sport". Football Australia. 17 December 2016.
- "The Top 20 sports played by Aussies young and old(er)". Roy Morgan. 17 December 2016.
- Oxlade, Chris; Ballheimer, David. Olympics. DK Eyewitness. DK. p. 61. ISBN 0-7566-1083-4.
- Davison, Hirst and Macintyre, pp. 479–480.
- "Flag Bearers". Australian Commonwealth Games Association. Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Past Commonwealth Games". Commonwealth Games Federation. Archived from the original on 15 March 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Linden, Julian (31 January 2015). "Factbox – Asian Cup champions Australia". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- "Australian Film Commission. What are Australians Watching?" Free-to-Air, 1999–2004 TV. screenaustralia.gov.au
- Davison, Graeme; Hirst, John; Macintyre, Stuart (1998). The Oxford Companion to Australian History. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-553597-9.
- Jupp, James (2001). The Australian people: an encyclopedia of the nation, its people, and their origins. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80789-1.
- Smith, Bernard; Smith, Terry (1991). Australian painting 1788–1990. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-554901-5.
- Teo, Hsu-Ming; White, Richard (2003). Cultural history in Australia. University of New South Wales Press. ISBN 0-86840-589-2.
- Denoon, Donald, et al. (2000). A History of Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-17962-3.
- Goad, Philip and Julie Willis (eds.) (2011). The Encyclopedia of Australian Architecture. Port Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88857-8.
- Hughes, Robert (1986). The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia's Founding. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50668-5.
- Powell, J. M. (1988). An Historical Geography of Modern Australia: The Restive Fringe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25619-4
- Robinson, G. M., Loughran, R. J., and Tranter, P. J. (2000). Australia and New Zealand: Economy, Society and Environment. London: Arnold; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0340720336 paperback, ISBN 0-340720328 hardback.
- Wikimedia Atlas of Australia
- Geographic data related to Australia at OpenStreetMap
- About Australia from the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade website
- Governments of Australia website (federal, states and territories)
- Australian Government website
- Australian Bureau of Statistics
- Tourism Australia
- "Australia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Australia at Curlie (based on DMOZ)