Australia at the 1988 Summer Paralympics

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Australia at the
1988 Summer Paralympics
Flag of Australia.svg
IPC code AUS
NPC Australian Paralympic Committee
Website www.paralympic.org.au
in Seoul
Competitors 179 in 16 sports
Flag bearer Paul Croft (Opening) Rodney Nugent (Closing)
Medals
Ranked 10th
Gold Silver Bronze Total
23 34 38 95
Officials 47
Summer Paralympics appearances (overview)

Australia competed at the 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul, South Korea in 16 sports, winning medals in 6 sports. Gold medals were won in three sports - athletics, lawn bowls and swimming. Australia won 95 medals - 23 gold, 34 silver and 38 bronze medals.[1] Australia finished 10th on the gold medal table and 7th on the combined medal table. Australian Confederation of Sports for the Disabled reported another medal ranking after Games with Australia being 2nd ranked in amputee sports, 8th in wheelchair sports, 11th in blind sports and 12th in cerebral palsy sports.[2]

Notable Australian performances included:

Australian athletes broke eight world records.[2]

Members of the Australian 4 × 100 m amputee relay during the medal ceremony at the 1988 Seoul Paralympic Games

Background[edit]

The five 'teardrops' arranged in the 'W' configuration and colours of the Olympic rings, represents the five oceans and five continents.
1988-1994 Paralympic Logo represents the five oceans and five continents

The 1988 Summer Paralympics were the first Paralympic Games to be held under the aegis of the International Co-ordinating Committee (ICC).[3] The ICC was accepted into the Olympic Family, which allowed greater co-operation by National Olympic Committees in regards to the organization of Paralympic Games.[3] The Seoul Olympic Organizing Committee (SLOOC) regarded the Paralympic Games as an extension of the Olympic Games and formulated a support plan which allowed sharing of Seoul Olympic manpower, facilities, equipment, and sharing of key personnel.[3] The SLOOC gave a subsidy of $12,857,143 US dollars.[3] It was not possible to use the Olympic Village so a new Paralympic Village, consisting of 10 apartment blocks, was created, providing catering, recreation, banking, post office facilities, medical centres, religious centres, and a shopping mall.[3][4] The 1988 Seoul Paralympic Games was also the first time both the Olympics and Paralympics used the same venues, and since then, every Winter and Summer Paralympic Games have been held in the same city as the Olympic Games.[5]

The Seoul Paralympic Organizing Committee (SPOC) designed the first Paralympic Symbol which was used from 1988-1994. The Five 'teardrops' in the 'W' configuration and colours of the Olympic rings represented the five oceans and the five continents.[3] This symbol was eventually changed in 1994, as it was considered to be too close to the International Olympic Committee's (IOC) 5-ring emblem.[6] The 1988 Seoul Paralympic Games is considered as the genesis of the Modern Paralympic Games.[5]

Opening Ceremony[edit]

Flag bearer Paul Croft at the Opening Ceremony

During the Opening Ceremony there were more than 75,000 people within the Olympic Stadium with a then record of 3,057 competitors from 61 nations.[7] The President of South Korea, Roh Tae-Woo, presented the new Paralympic flag to the President of the ICC, Jens Bromann.[4] Paul Croft, competing in his second Paralympic Games, was the flag bearer for Australia during the Opening Ceremony.[2] Parachutists in the Paralympic colors of blue, black, red, yellow, and green swept down into the Olympic Stadium following a procession of children in wheelchairs.[8] The Olympic Torch was carried in by a one-legged South Korean Paralympic volleyball player and handed to 19 year old Cho Hyun-hui, a wheelchair bound athlete with cerebral palsy. Cho Hyun-hai was wheeled around the stadium by her 7-year-old daughter before handing the Torch to blind runner Lee Jae-oon, who linked hands with women's handball Olympic gold medalist Kiifi Hyun-mi, who together, were carried up by elevator platform to light the Olympic Flame.[8]

Chief Paralympic Organiser Koh Kwi-nam addressed the athletes by saying "The goal you as athletes should try to reach for in the Games is not to accomplish the Olympic slogan of 'faster, higher and farther' but to show the world your real selves as courageous challengers, glorious conquerors and impartial participants."[8]

Controversies[edit]

The Seoul Paralympic Games were not without controversies. The Iranian goalball team were disqualified for refusing to play against the Israeli team. It was deemed that the Iranian team had misused the sporting platform for political aims by the ICC who made immediate arrangements to send the team home.[4] Asghar Dadkhan, the Iranian team manager, made a formal statement of apology pledging that all other Iranian athletes would compete with full regard to the regulations and would compete against Israel and any other nation.[4]

A Libyan team arrived at the Seoul Paralympic Games without having gone through the normal entry procedures.[4] The SPOC urged the ICC to accept the Libyan team and a compromise was reach, permitting the Libyans to participate as observers. They could compete in the marathon event, however they would not have any medal entitlement, nor would they be officially recognized at the Closing Ceremony.[4]

Twenty-seven athletes were incorrectly awarded medals after the first round of competition in the men's and women's wheelchair slalom event. The mistake was discovered when officials realised that the medals should not have been awarded until after a second round of competition.[9]

Team[edit]

Australian team at the Opening Ceremony

Australia sent a team of 179 athletes and 47 staff and escorts.[2] The Australian Confederation of Sports for the Disabled Inc took responsibity for team management and fundraising. The team was organised by disability athlete categories - amputee, blind, cerebral palsy, wheelchair (paraplegic and quadriplegic).[2]

Team management[edit]

The Australian team was organised by disability classifications as the Games team was organised by the Australian Confederation of Sports for the Disabled Inc.

Overall - Rhys Roberts (General Manager), Nigel Rouse (Assistant General Manager), Dr John Bourke (Medical Director), Dominic Wall (Sport Coordinator), David Douglas (Publicity Director)
Section Managers- Wally Parsons (Amputee), Gary Prior (Blind), Judy Hill (Cerebral palsy), George Dunstan (Wheelchair)
State Management - each Australian state provided team officials:
Australian Capital Territory - overall - Dominic Wall ; wheelchair officials - M. Trewella, G. Walker
New South Wales - Amputee officials - D. Beath, T. Beath, Vic Renalson; blind officials - L. Alder, T. Keneghan, J. Stephenson, S. Jackson  ; cerebral palsy officials - A. Gregson, Tom Organ, S. Streat ; wheelchair officials - Michael Godfrey-Roberts, M. Bevan, C. Jarvis
Queensland - amputee officials - Paul Bird, H. Shorter ; blind officials - D. Beavis, J. Buckley ; cerebral palsy officials - A. Allan, A. Brindley, Karen Denman ; wheelchair officials - S. Hyde
South Australia - overall - R. Roberts ; amputee officials - P. Aldridge, M. Parsons, W. Parsons ; wheelchair officials - Kevin Bawden, George Dunstan, G. Gould, G. Maloney, M. Wardrop
Northern Territory - overall - N. Rouse ; blind official - B. Killalea
Tasmania - wheelchair official - G. Vince
Victoria - overall - John Bourke ; amputee official - P. Negropontis ; blind officials - J. Coole, E. O'Meagher ; wheelchair officials - Kathryn Lee, D. Perriman, J. Sayers
Western Australia - blind official - G. Prior ; cerebral palsy officials - G. Carter, D. Hancy, J. Hill, P. Jose, B. Lake, M. Chan ; whhelchair official - Norma Beer[2]

The team captain was Paul Croft who carried the flag at the Opening Ceremony and Mike Nugent was the vice captain.[2]

Fundraising[edit]

The Australian Confederation of Sports for the Disabled Inc undertook a range of fundraising acrivities to raise A$2 million of which A$1.w million would be used to send teams to the 1988 Seoul Summer and Innsbruck Winter Games.[2] The remainder of the funds would be used for future Games. The cash amount finally raised was A$1,104,328.[2] There were also considerable "in kind" donations covering accommodation, marketing, travel.[2]

Medalists[edit]

[1]

Events[edit]

Archery[10][edit]

Selected team of 3 athletes.

Men Women
Arthur Fisk, Eric Klein Carolyn Burns

Australia did not win any medals.[1]

Men

Athlete Event Result Rank
Arthur Fisk Men's Double FITA Round open 2207 24
Eric Klein Men's Double FITA Round open 2150 28

Women

Athlete Event Result Rank
Carolyn Burns Women's Double FITA Round 2-6 2087 13

Athletics[edit]

Selected team of 73 athletes.

Men Women
Rene Ahrens, Ian Aitchison, Robert Biancucci, Fabian Blattman, Peter Cliff, Darren Collins, Richard Cordukes, Paul Croft, Mark Davies, Michael Desanto, Phillip Deveraux, John Domanol, Alan Dufty, John Eden, Joe Egan, Craig Elliott, Shane Ellsmore, John Federico, Ian Gainey, Terry Giddy, David Goodman, Michael Hackett, Kevin Hamilton, Gary Hayes, Bradley Hill, Geoffrey Hill, Patrick Hughes, Matthew Jesse, Warren Lawton, John Lindsay, Adrian Lowe, Wayne Maher, Brett McArthur, Kerrod McGregor, Michael McIntyre, Warren McKennairey, Jeff McNeill, Marko Milne, Kieran Modra, Michael Nugent, Rodney Nugent, Andrew O’Sullivan, Nigel Parsons, Malcolm Richards, Sam Rickard, Jaime Romaguera, Edward Roos, Craig Sayers, Ralph Scott, Russell Short, Jason Smart, Bradley Thomas, Darren Thrupp, Ched Towns, Peter Trotter, Robert Turner, Vincenzo Vallelonga, Bruce Wallrodt, Jason Walsh, Ross Whyte, Jason Willis, Jeff Wiseman, Matthew van Eldik Lynette Coleman, Karen Gill, Meredith Jones, Deahnne McIntyre, Yvette McLellan, Patricia Molseed, Julie Russell, Donna Smith, Katrina Vines
Australia's 4x400 gold medal relay team. Nigel Parsons (L), Andrew O'Sullivan, Rodney Nugent and Adrian Lowe (R) with coach Peter Negopontis (R front).

Athletics was Australia's most successful sport at the Games winning 53 medals - 14 gold, 19 silver and 20 bronze medals. 13 athletes won gold medals. Rodney Nugent won 4 gold medals, 3 bronze medals and set a world record of 6.72m in his long jump event.[11] Four athletes came home with two gold medals - Adrian Lowe, Nigel Parsons, Russell Short and Bruce Wallrodt.[1]

Deahnne McIntyre won a gold medal, two silver medals and a bronze medal, competing a week after undergoing an emergency appendectomy in a Seoul hospital.[12] With doctors and officials telling her that she could not compete, McIntyre 'knew that she would be out there'.[13] McIntyre came into the games as the world record holder for the Women's 200m 5-6 classification, which she eventually won the gold medal for.[14]

Russell Short, a blind athlete, won two gold medals and a bronze medal. Short set a world record in his classification for javelin, making a throw of 54.72m.[15]

Dubbed 'The Awesome Foursome', Australia's 4 × 400 m relay team set a world record time of 3 minutes 55 seconds, beating the previous record by 3.9 seconds and winning the race by 50 metres.[16]

Patricia Molseed set a Paralympic Record of 8.82m in the Women's Shot Put B1 competition on her first throw despite suffering from a torn back muscle. Only able to make token efforts after her back gave out, her first throw was enough to clinch the gold medal.[12]

Track events – men[edit]

Athlete Event Heat Final
Time Rank Time Rank
Ian Aitchison Men's 1,500 m 3 4:32.47 7 Did not advance
Men's 10,000 m 3 N/A 31:58.81 5
Men's 5,000 m 3 N/A 16:23.13 10
Men's Marathon 3 N/A 2:27:53 13
Robert Bancucci Men's 1,500 m C8 N/A 4:55.76 5
Men's 200 m C8 26.10 Q 2 25.60 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's 800 m C8 2:15.32 Q 1 2:13.76 1st, gold medalist(s)
Men's 400 m C8 N/A 57.38 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Fabian Blattman Men's 200 m 1A 56.91 5 Did not advance
Peter Cliff Men's 5,000 m B1 N/A 18:57.15 8
Men's Marathon B1 N/A 3:06:28 6
Darren Collins Men's 100 m B2 12.85 3 Did not advance
Men's 400 m B2 58.09 2 Did not advance
Richard Cordukes Men's 100 m 1A N/A 26.34 7
Men's 200 m 1A 55.12 Q 4 53.90 8
Paul Croft Men's 10,000 m A6A8A9L4 N/A 40:18.96 6
Michael Desanto Men's 1,500 m 1B N/A 5:54.47 5
Men's 200 m 1B 45.39 Q 3 43.71 6
Men's 400 m 1B 1:31.63 6 Did not advance
Phillip Deveraux Men's 1,500 m B1 4:37.83 Q 2 4:18.45 4
Alan Dufty Men's 100 m 1C N/A 21.66 7
Men's 200 m 1C 41.97 Q 4 41.05 5
Men's 400 m 1C 1:24.73 Q 3 1:22.32 5
Men's 800 m 1C N/A 2:52.03 6
Men's 1,500 m 1C N/A 5:45.03 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's Marathon 1C N/A 2:21:39 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Joe Egan Men's 100 m A4A9 13.39 Q 1 13.15 5
Men's 200 m A4A9 28.46 Q 3 28.25 7
John Federico Men's 200 m 5-6 33.82 3 Did not advance
Men's Slalom 5-6 N/A 2:28.3 9
Ian Gainey Men's 1,500 m 3 4:32.47 Q 7 4:12.78 10
Men's 10,000 m 3 N/A 31:58.81 5
Men's 5,000 m 3 N/A 15:13.48 8
David Goodman Men's 400 m B3 51.87 Q 1 53.91 8
Men's 100 m B3 11.41 1 11.63 1st, gold medalist(s)
Wayne Haher Men's 100 m C2 53.06 5 Did not advance
Kevin Hamilton Men's 400 m B1 56.97 3 Did not advance
Bradley Hill Men's 800 m C7 2:35.75 5 Did not advance
Men's 200 m C7 26.45 Q 2 26.00 1st, gold medalist(s)
Men's 400 m C7 N/A 58.41 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Matthew Jesse Men's 1,500 m B3 4:45.95 Q 3 4:36.59 7
John Lindsay Men's 100 m 3 N/A 17.40 8
Men's 200 m 3 33.40 3 Did not advance
Men's 400 m 3 1:05.41 Q 3 1:05.23 6
Men's 800 m 3 2:18.80 6 Did not advance
Adrian Lowe Men's 100 m A4A9 12.72 2 12.37 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Men's 200 m A4A9 26.09 Q (WR) 1 25.86 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Men's 400 m A4A9 N/A 1:00.80 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Brett McArthur Men's 400 m 4 1:12.73 3 Did not advance
Men's 800 m 4 2:19.94 5 Did not advance
Kerrod McGregor Men's 100 m A2A9 N/A 15.98 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Michael McIntyre Men's 200 m 4 34.49 2 Did not advance
Men's 400 m 4 1:11.80 4 Did not advance
Paul McIntyre Men's 100 m 4 18.01 7 Did not advance
Warren McKennairey Men's 400 m B2 57.08 4 Did not advance
Jeff McNeill Men's 5,000 m B2 N/A 16:59.79 6
Men's Marathon B2 N/A 2:49:21 4
Kieran Modra Men's 1,500 m B3 4:35.39 6 Did not advance
Michael Nugent Men's 1,500 m 2 4:19.81 Q 4 4:22.61 10
Men's 400 m 2 1:06.65 Q 4 1:07.44 8
Men's 800 m 2 2:14.38 Q 2 2:12.66 8
Men's Marathon 2 N/A 2:23:13 19
Men's 200 m 2 34.95 Q 1 34.65 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Rodney Nugent Men's 100 m A6A8A9L4 11.70 Q 1 11.60 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's 200 m A6A8A9L4 24.05 Q 1 23.61 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Andrew O'Sullivan Men's 100 m A4A9 13.45 Q 4 13.47 7
Men's 200 m A4A9 28.24 Q 2 27.80 6
Men's 400 m A4A9 N/A 1:02.24 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Nigel Parsons Men's 100 m A6A8A9L4 12.38 5 Did not advance
Men's 200 m A6A8A9L4 25.00 Q 2 24.92 7
Men's 400 m A6A8A9L4 55.56 Q 5 56.53 7
Malcolm Richards Men's 200 m C8 32.73 7 Did not advance
Sam Rickard Men's 400 m B3 54.67 5 Did not advance
Men's 800 m B3 N/A 2:07.31 5
Jaime Romaguera Men's 100 m C6 15.65 5 Did not advance
Craig Sayers Men's 1,500 m 3 4:17.90 6 Did not advance
Men's 400 m 3 1:11.35 3 Did not advance
Men's 800 m 3 2:22.99 7 Did not advance
Jason Smart Men's 100 m A6A8A9L4 12.56 5 Did not advance
Darren Thrupp Men's 100 m C8 N/A 12.75 4
Men's 200 m C8 26.72 Q 3 26.35 5
Men's 400 m C8 N/A 1:01.92 8
Peter Trotter Men's 1,500 m 4 4:19.60 7 Did not advance
Men's 5,000 m 4 15:18.86 4 Did not advance
Men's Marathon 4 N/A 1:54:37 5
Robert Turner Men's 1,500 m 2 4:52.21 8 Did not advance
Men's 800 m 2 2:39.88 5 Did not advance
Vincenzo Vallelonga Men's 200 m 1B 42.73 Q 3 41.97 5
Men's 400 m 1B 1:33.69 5 Did not advance
Men's Salom 1B N/A 2:33.9 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's 100 m 1B N/A 20.84 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Jason Walsh Men's 100 m B3 11.89 Q 4 12.13 7
Men's 400 m B3 52.90 Q 2 51.37 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Ross Whyte Men's 800 m C8 2:31.88 7 Did not advance
Men's Cross Country 5,000 m C8 N/A 21:36.9 8
Jeff Wiseman Men's 1,500 m 4 4:22.75 4 Did not advance
Men's 400 m 4 1:08.57 4 Did not advance
Men's 800 m 4 2:10.04 4 Did not advance
Men's Marathon 4 N/A 1:58:28 7
Matthew van Eldik Men's Slalom C4-5 N/A N/A 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Michael Desanto
Richard Cordukes
Alan Dufty
Vincenzo Vallelonga
Men's 4 × 100 m Relay 1A-1C N/A 1:28.14 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Michael Desanto

Alan Dufty

Richard Cordukes

Vincenzo Vallelonga

Men's 4 × 200 m Relay 1A-1C N/A 2:41.43 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Adrian Lowe

Rodney Nugent
Nigel Parsons
Jason Smart

Men's 4 × 100 m Relay A2A4-7 N/A 47.08 1st, gold medalist(s)
Nigel Parsons

Andrew O'Sullivan
Adrian Lowe
Rodney Nugent

Men's 4 × 400 m Relay A2A4-7 N/A 3:55.27 1st, gold medalist(s)

Track events – women

Athlete Event Heat Final
Time Rank Time Rank
Lynette Coleman Women's Slalom C1 N/A 3:36.44 4
Meredith Jones Women's 1,500 m 3 N/A 5:47.07 6
Women's 100 m 3 N/A 21.83 8
Women's 200 m 3 44.12 4 Did not advance
Women's 400 m 3 1:28.13 Q 4 1:27.99 6
Deahnne McIntyre Women's 100 m 5-6 19.97 Q 2 19.93 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Women's 200 m 5-6 N/A 40.36 1st, gold medalist(s)
Women's 400 m 5-6 N/A 1:18.44 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Yvette McLellan Women's 1,500 m 2 N/A 5:07.25 4
Women's 5,000 m 2 N/A 17:18.22 5
Women's 800 m 2 N/A 2:38.06 5
Women's 400 m 2 1:19.84 Q 3 1:18.69 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Katrina Vines Women's 100 m C6 N/A 20.46 7
Yvette McLellan
Julie Russell
Meredith Jones
Deahnne McIntyre
Women's 4 × 400 m Relay 2-6 N/A 5:33.82 2nd, silver medalist(s)

Field events – men[edit]

Australian discus competitor during the 1988 Seoul Paralympics
Rodney Nugent winner of 4 gold medals in Athletics
Athlete Event Result Rank
Rene Ahrens Men's Shot Put 6 12.87 m 4
Men's Discus 6 40.44 m 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Mark Davies Men's Javelin B2 40.40 m 4
Men's Triple Jump B2 11.52 m 8
Phillip Deveraux Men's Javelin B1 37.24 m 6
Men's Pentathlon B1 2044 4
John Domanol Men's Pentathlon B3 2085 7
John Eden Men's Discus A2A9 34.86 m 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Joe Egan Men's Pentathlon A4A9 2828.12 5
Craig Elliott Men's Javelin A2A9 34.58 m 6
Shane Ellsmore Men's Discus C7 26.64 m 6
Terry Giddy Men's Discus 4 34.82 m 2nd, silver medalist(s)
David Goodman Men's Pentathlon B3 1391 10
Michael Hackett Men's High Jump A4A9 1.68 m 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Gary Hayes Men's Javelin A2A9 29.94 m 8
Geoffrey Hill Men's Discus C5 24.24 m 8
Warren Lawton Men's High Jump B3 1.63 m 8
Men's Triple Jump B3 10.80 m 8
Wayne Maher Men's Kick Ball C2 15.03 4
Kerrod McGregor Men's High Jump A2A9 1.64 m 9
Men's Javelin A2A9 41.50 m 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's Long Jump A2A9 4.25 m 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's Discus A2A9 37.28 m PR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Marko Milne Men's Shot Put C8 7.74 m 6
Kieran Modra Men's Javelin B3 44.40 m 6
Rodney Nugent Men's High Jump A6A8A9L6 1.79 m 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's Long Jump A6A8A9L6 6.72 m WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Men's Triple Jump A6A8A9L6 12.97 m 1st, gold medalist(s)
Sam Rickard Men's High Jump B3 1.60 m 9
Edward Roos Men's Discus A6A8A9L6 37.86 m 5
Men's Shot Put A6A8A9L6 10.63 m 8
Ralph Scott Men's Club Throw C6 37.14 m 4
Russell Short Men's Shot Put B3 11.59 m 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's Discus B3 40.18 m 1st, gold medalist(s)
Men's Javelin B3 54.72 m WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Jason Smart Men's High Jump A6A8A9L6 1.76 m 4
Men's Javelin A6A8A9L6 36.34 m 7
Bradley Thomas Men's Javelin A4A9 38.08 m 6
Men's Long Jump A4A9 4.95 m 5
Men's Pentathlon A4A9 3286.56 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Ched Towns Men's Javelin B2 40.16 m 5
Bruce Wallrodt Men's Discus 2 22.30 m 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's Javelin 2 24.32 m PR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Men's Shot Put 2 7.83 m 1st, gold medalist(s)
Jason Walsh Men's Long Jump B3 5.76 m 7
Jason Willis Men's Discus A3A9 28.30 m 4
Men's Javelin A3A9 33.14 m 4
Men's Shot Put A3A9 6.77 m 6
Matthew van Eldik Men's Discus C4 16.16 m 7

Field events – women[edit]

Athlete Event Result Rank
Lynette Coleman Women's Precision Throw C1 80 m 6
Karen Gill Women's Shot Put C3 2.75 m 4
Women's Javelin C3 5.84 m 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Patricia Molseed Women's Shot Put B1 8.82 m PR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Julie Russell Women's Discus 3 14.80 m 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Women's Javelin 3 12.76 m 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Women's Pentathlon 3 4034.75 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Women's Shot Put 3 5.18 m 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Donna Smith Women's Discus A6A8A9L6 20.06 m 4
Women's Javelin A6A8A9L6 27.80 m 2nd, silver medalist(s)

Results key

  • Note – Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only
  • Q = Qualified for the next round
  • WR = World record
  • PR = Paralympic record
  • N/A = Round not applicable for the event

Boccia[edit]

Selected team of 4 athletes.

Men Women
Burke Gibbons, Murray Parker, Donald Turton Lynette Coleman

Australia did not win any medals.[1]

Event Athlete Pool Play Quarter Finals Semi Finals Final Rank
W-L Rank Opposition

Result

Opposition

Result

Opposition

Result

Mixed Individual C1 Lynette Coleman 0-3 4 Did not advance
Mixed Individual C2 Burke Gibbons 1-2 3 Did not advance
Murray Parker 2-1 2 South KoreaLee (KOR)

L 0:7

Did not advance
Donald Turton 0-3 4 Did not advance
Mixed Team C1-C2 Lynette Coleman

Murray Parker
Burke Gibbons

1-2 3 Did not advance

Cycling[edit]

Selected team of 1 athlete.

Men
Gregory Caines

Australia did not win any medals.[1]

Athlete Event Result Rank
Gregory Caines Men's 60 km LC3 1:40:31.69 4

Football 7-a-side[edit]

The Football 7-a-side tournament was made up of 5 teams competing in a round robin tournament. Australia selected team of 9 athletes.

Australian Team
Shane Ellsmore, Lee Gordon, Geoffrey Hill, Mark Milne, David Pearson, Jaime Romaguera, Christopher Scott, Ralph Scott, Ross Whyte

Australia lost to the Netherlands 18-1, lost to Belgium 6-1, lost to Ireland 5 - 1 and lost to Korea 4-0. Australia did not win a medal.[1]

Round Robin Tournament

Team Pld W L Goals (F:A) Points
Netherlands 1st, gold medalist(s) 4 4 0 31:2 8
Belgium 2nd, silver medalist(s) 4 3 1 11:5 6
Ireland 3rd, bronze medalist(s) 4 2 2 10:5 4
Korea 4 1 3 5:15 2
Australia 4 0 4 3:33 0

Goalball[edit]

Australia represented by:[1]

Australian men's team
Theo Bottom, Robert Crestani, Russell Doyle, Kevin Frew, Gary Sargent, Tony Telfer. Coach: Terry Kenaghan

Australian men's results were - defeated Denmark 1-0, defeated South Korea 5-4, lost to Yugoslavia 0-1, lost to USA 2-3, lost to Italy 0-1, defeated Bulgaria 3-2 and lost to Canada 4-5. Australia beat the Netherlands in the 11th place playoff game.[1]

Australian women's team
Margaret Booth, Heather Gleeson, Marilyn Mills, Robyn Stephens, Jodi Willis, Susanne Wilson. Coach: Eileen O'Meagher

Australian women's results were - defeated Great Britain 3-0, lost to Germany 2-6, lost to United States 0-6, lost to Denmark 0-4, lost to Netherlands 1-5, lost to 2-5 Canada and lost to South Korea 4-5.[1]

Australia did not win any medals.[1]

Qualified for 2nd round
Eliminated

Men

Team Pld W D L PF PA PD Pts
Yugoslavia 7 5 1 1 10 5 +5 11
USA 7 5 1 1 14 5 +9 11
Italy 7 4 0 3 14 9 +5 8
Bulgaria 7 3 2 2 14 7 +7 8
Canada 7 4 0 3 22 13 +9 8
Australia 7 3 0 4 14 14 0 6
Denmark 7 1 2 4 1 9 -8 4
Korea 7 0 0 7 5 32 -27 0
Qualified for semifinals
Eliminated

Women

Team Pld W D L PF PA PD Pts
USA 7 7 0 0 26 0 +26 14
Denmark 7 4 2 1 27 3 +24 10
Netherlands 7 3 3 1 29 10 +19 9
Canada 7 4 1 2 18 13 +5 9
Germany 7 3 2 2 29 11 +18 8
Korea 7 2 0 5 12 40 -28 4
Australia 7 1 0 6 12 29 -17 2
Great Britain 7 0 0 7 9 56 -47 0

Lawn Bowls[edit]

Selected team of 11 athletes.

Men
David Boldery, David Doueal, John Forsberg, Roy Fowler, Ronald Gilshenan, Glen Hoffman, Stan Kosmala, Peter Magee, Max Peterson, Neville Read, Clifford Swann

Australia won 1 gold medal, 1 silver medal and 2 bronze medals.[1] Roy Fowler was competing in his sixth Paralympic Games, winning his 10th medal.[17]

Athlete Event Pool Play Semi Final Final / BM Rank
W-D-L Rank Opposition

Result

Opposition

Result

David Boldery

Clifford Swann

Men's Pairs LB2 3-1-1 2 N/A 2nd, silver medalist(s)
David Doueal Men's Singles LB1 3-0-1 1 N/A Chang Bok Lee (KOR)

L 11-21

4
John Forsberg Men's Singles LB3 1-0-2 3 N/A Robert Love (GBR)

W 21-9

3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Roy Fowler

Stan Kosmala

Men's Pairs 2-6 3-0-1 1 N/A 1st, gold medalist(s)
Ronal Gilshenan Men's Singles LB3 1-0-2 2 N/A Did not advance
Glen Hoffman Men's Singles LB3 1-0-2 3 N/A Did not advance
Peter Magee Men's Singles 2-6 1-0-2 3 Did not advance
Max Peterson Men's Singles 2-6 1-0-3 4 Did not advance
Neville Read Men's Singles 2-6 3-0-0 1 Ken Bridgeman (GBR)

L 12-21

Sin Nam Song (KOR)

W 21-17

3rd, bronze medalist(s)

Powerlifting[edit]

Australia were represented by two athletes, Matthew Poble and Michael Farrell who won silver and bronze respectively.[1]

Event Athlete Result Rank
Men's Up to 100 kg Matthew Poble 160 kg 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Michael Farrell 150 kg 3rd, bronze medalist(s)

Shooting[edit]

Selected team of 8 athletes.

Men Women
Robert Bakker, Keith Bremner, Allan Chadwick, Andrew Rambow, Stanley Sims, Grant Walker Barbara Caspers, Elizabeth Kosmala

Elizabeth Kosmala won all Australia's shooting medals - 3 gold medals and one silver medal.[1]

Men

Athlete Event Score Rank
Robert Bakker Men's Air Pistol Standing LSH2 546 10
Keith Bremner Men's Air Pistol 2-6 521 20
Men's Air Rifle 3 Positions 2-6 1076 33
Men's Air Rifle Kneeling 2-6 370 36
Men's Air Rifle Standing 2-6 329 34
Mixed Air Rifle Prone 2-6 377 36
Allan Chadwick Men's Air Rifle 2 Positions with Aids 1A-1C 780 4
Men's Air Rifle Kneeling with Aids 1A-1C 393 4
Men's Air Rifle Prone with Aids 1A-1C 387 6
Andrew Rambow Men's Air Rifle 3 Positions 2-6 1109 31
Men's Air Rifle Kneeling 2-6 385 26
Men's Air Rifle Standing 2-6 339 32
Mixed Air Rifle Prone 2-6 385 33
Stanley Simms Men's Air Pistol Standing LSH2 538 16
Grant Walker Men's Air Rifle 2 Positions with Aids 1A-1C 770 6
Men's Air Rifle Kneeling with Aids 1A-1C 386 7
Men's Air Rifle Prone with Aids 1A-1C 384 8

Women

Event Athlete Score Rank
Barbara Caspers Women's Air Rifle 3 Positions 2-6 1116 12
Women's Air Rifle Kneeling 2-6 385 8
Women's Air Rifle Prone 2-6 382 13
Women's Air Rifle Standing 2-6 349 12
Elizabeth Kosmala Women's Air Rifle 3 Positions 2-6 1171 1st, gold medalist(s)
Women's Air Rifle Kneeling 2-6 395 1st, gold medalist(s)
Women's Air Rifle Prone 2-6 395 1st, gold medalist(s)
Women's Air Rifle Standing 2-6 381 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Mixed Air Rifle Prone 2-6 395 15

Team

Athlete Event Score Rank
Keith Bremner Mixed Air Rifle 3 Positions Team 2-6 3356 12
Elizabeth Kosmala
Andrew Rambow
Keith Bremner Mixed Air Rifle Kneeling Team 2-6 1150 10
Elizabeth Kosmala
Andrew Rambow
Keith Bremner Mixed Air Rifle Prone Team 2-6 1157 12
Elizabeth Kosmala
Andrew Rambow
Keith Bremner Mixed Air Rifle Standing Team 2-6 1049 12
Elizabeth Kosmala
Andrew Rambow

Snooker[edit]

Australia was represented by John Hunt and Michael Quinn. Hunt finished 2nd in Pool A and Quinn finished 3rd in Pool C. Neither athlete qualified for the semifinals.[1]

Event Athlete Pool Play Semifinal Final
W-L Rank
Men's Snooker Event Open John Hunt 1-1 2 Did not advance
Michael Quinn 0-2 3 Did not advance

Swimming[edit]

Selected team of 25 athletes.

Men Women
Leslie Beath, Kingsley Bugarin, Brendan Burkett, Jason Diederich, Richard Dougan, Stephen Gregson, David Griffin, Gregory Hammond, Simon Matthew Lee, David Lillecrapp, Brian Moores, Robert Philpot, Wayne Ryding, Ralph Smith, Gregory Timmermans, Phillip Tracey, Robert Walden Karen Ferguson, Deborah Holland, Catherine Huggett, Susan Knox, Lyn Lillecrapp, Mandy Maywood, Sandra Yaxley, Judith Young

Australia won 5 gold, 12 silver and 14 bronze medals. Greg Hammond won two gold medals and Sandra Yaxley won one gold medal.[1]

Judith Young won two gold medals and three silver medals. After winning gold in the 100m backstroke and 400m freestyle, The United States of America and Great Britain, protested that Young was swimming in the wrong category and should be reclassified from amputee to Les Autres. After winning both events in a world record time, the protest was upheld and Young was re-classified in the Les Autres category. Both world record times were scratched from the record books but Young was able to keep both the gold medals and a silver she won in the 100m breaststroke.[11][18] She would go on to win two more medals in her new classification.[18]

Men

Athlete Event Heats Final
Time Rank Time Rank
Leslie Beath Men's 100 m Backstroke A2 1:21.68 4 Did not advance
Men's 100m Butterfly A2 1:22.94 4 Q 1:22.76 8
Men's 100 m Freestyle A2 1:07.92 3 Did not advance
Men's 200 m Individual Medley A2 2:57.18 1 Did not advance
Men's 400 m Freestyle A2 5:33.26 5 Did not advance
Kingsley Bugarin Men's 200 m Individual Medley B3 2:39.07 5 Q 2:36.29 6
Men's 100 m Breaststroke B3 1:17.13 3 Q 1:17.67 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's 200 m Breaststroke B3 2:49.87 3 Q 2:48.70 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's 50 m Breaststroke B3 34.96 3 Q 34.82 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Brendan Burkett Men's 100 m Breaststroke A2 1:33.99 2 Q 1:35.42 8
Men's 100 m Butterfly A2 1:19.36 3 Q 1:21.18 7
Men's 100 m Freestyle A2 1:06.31 3 Q 1:06.30 8
Men's 400 m Freestyle A2 5:08.19 2 Q 5:03.18 6
Jason Diederich Men's 100 m Backstroke A4 1:14.69 5 Q 1:14.17 6
Men's 100 m Butterfly A4 1:13.64 2 Q 1:10.47 4
Men's 100 m Freestyle A4 1:04.59 4 Q 1:03.81 8
Men's 200 m Individual Medley A4 2:44.49 6 Q 2:46.49 7
Men's 400 m Freestyle A4 5:15.56 6 Did not advance
Richard Dougan Men's 100 m Backstroke A4 1:20.23 5 Did not advance
Men's 100 m Breaststroke A4 1:41.79 8 Did not advance
Men's 100 m Butterfly A4 1:28.91 4 Did not advance
Men's 100 m Freestyle A4 1:08.06 5 Did not advance
Men's 200 m Individual Medley A4 2:53.62 5 Did not advance
Men's 400 m Freestyle A4 5:24.81 6 Did not advance
Stephen Gregson Men's 100 m Freestyle C6 1:57.58 5 Did not advance
Men's 50 m Backstroke C6 N/A 1:09.15 7
David Griffin Men's 100 m Backstroke A2 1:22.98 4 Did not advance
Men's 200 m Individual Medley A2 2:48.64 3 Q 2:47.65 7
Men's 100 m Butterfly A2 1:17.22 2 Q 1:14.27 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's 100 m Freestyle A2 1:05.95 1 Q 1:04.60 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Gregory Hammond Men's 100 m Breaststroke A8 N/A 1:20.18 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Men's 100 m Freestyle A8 1:06.26 2 Q 1:03.75 PR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Simon Matthew Lee Men's 100 m Breaststroke C8 N/A 1:46.47 5
Men's 100 m Freestyle C8 1:26.19 3 Did not advance
David Lillecrapp Men's 100 m Backstroke A4 1:14.97 1 Q 1:13.74 4
Men's 100 m Breaststroke A4 1:32.60 1 Q 1:33.73 7
Men's 100 m Freestyle A4 1:05.46 4 Did not advance
Men's 200 m Individual Medley A4 2:46.18 3 Did not advance
Men's 400 m Freestyle A4 4:53.89 3 Q 4:51.90 6
Brian Moores Men's 100 m Freestyle 1A N/A Did not start N/A
Robert Philpot Men's 100 m Freestyle C6 1:29.44 2 Q 1:35.98 6
Men's 50 m Breaststroke C6 N/A 57.79 5
Wayne Ryding Men's 100 m Breaststroke 5 1:50.06 1 Q 1:45.39 4
Men's 100 m Freestyle 5 1:10.52 1 Q 1:08.99 4
Men's 400 m Freestyle 5 N/A 5:25.25 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Ralph Smith Men's 100 m Freestyle A7 N/A 1:43.72 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Gregory Timmermans Men's 50 m Backstroke C6 N/A 56.56 4
Men's 50 m Breaststroke C6 N/A 1:01.35 6
Phillip Tracey Men's 100 m Freestyle 1A N/A 3:02.71 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Men's 25 m Backstroke 1A N/A 41.15 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Men's 50 m Freestyle 1A N/A 1:28.07 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Robert Walden Men's 100 m Freestyle C6 1:31.57 1 Q 1:33.10 4
Men's 50 m Backstroke C6 N/A 1:04.41 5
Men's 50 m Breaststroke C6 N/A 57.34 4

Qualification Legend: Q= Qualified for final; PR= Paralympic Record; WR= World Record

Women

Athlete Event Heats Final
Time Rank Time Rank
Karen Ferguson Women's 100 m Freestyle C6 2:30.48 4 Q 2:26.19 7
Women's 50 m Backstroke C6 N/A 1:06.15 7
Deborah Holland Women's 100 m Breaststroke A2 2:01.89 3 Q 2:04.37 7
Women's 100 m Freestyle A2 1:23.97 5 Q 1:22.42 5
Women's 400 m Freestyle A2 N/A 5:50.58 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Catherine Huggett Women's 400 m Freestyle C3-4 N/A 10:21.79 4
Women's 100 m Backstroke C3 N/A 2:38.04 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Lyn Lillecrapp Women's 25 m Butterfly 2 N/A 34.27 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Women's 100 m Backstroke S6 N/A 58.37 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Women's 100 m Breaststroke SB3 N/A 54.21 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Women's 100 m Freestyle S6 N/A 1:17.07 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Mandy Maywood Women's 200 m Individual Medley B3 3:09.58 3 Q 3:10.82 6
Women's 100 m Breaststroke B3 1:28.40 1 Q 1:30.73 3
Women's 200 m Breaststroke B3 3:14.23 2 Q 3:14.53 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Women's 50 m Breaststroke B3 40.85 1 Q 40.81 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Sandra Yaxley Women's 100 m Freestyle C6 1:42.00 1 Q 1:41.58 1st, gold medalist(s)
Women's 50 m Backstroke C6 N/A 55.03 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Judith Young Women's 100 m Freestyle L6 N/A 1:09.88 4
Women's 100 m Backstroke A8 N/A 1:21.20 1st, gold medalist(s)
Women's 400 m Freestyle A8 N/A 5:14.03 1st, gold medalist(s)
Women's 100 m Breaststroke A8 N/A 1:35.17 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Women's 100 m Butterfly L6 N/A 1:15.68 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Women's 200 m Individual Medley L6 N/A 2:49.61 2nd, silver medalist(s)

Qualification Legend: Q= Qualified for final; WR= World Record

Australian tennis player practising with a player from another country

Table Tennis[edit]

Selected team of 9 athletes.

Men Women
Geoffey Barden, Marcel Bucello, Paul Croft, Garry Croker, Jeremy O'Halloran, Craig Parsons, John Sheil, Ian Simpson Carmel Williams

Australia did not win any medals.[1]

Men

Athlete Event Pool Play Quarter Finals Semi Finals Final Rank
W-L Rank Opposition

Result

Opposition

Result

Opposition

Result

Geoffey Barden Men's Singles TT5 0-3 4 Did not advance
Marcel Bucello Men's Singles TT6 0-3 4 Did not advance
Paul Croft Men's Singles TT7 0-3 4 Did not advance
Garry Croker Men's Singles 1A 0-2 3 Did not advance
Jeremy O'Halloran Men's Singles TT5 0-4 5 Did not advance
Craig Parsons Men's Singles 1B 1-3 4 Did not advance
John Sheil Men's Singles 2 0-3 4 Did not advance
Ian Simpson Men's Singles 1C 1-1 2 Si Un Kim (KOR)

L 0-2

Did not advance

Women

Athlete Event Pool Play Quarter Finals Semi Finals Final /

BM

Rank
W-L Rank Opposition

Result

Opposition

Result

Opposition

Result

Carmel Williams Women's Singles 2 1-1 2 Lone Rasmussen (DEN)

W 2-1

Elisabeth Bisquolm (SUI)

L 0-2

Jolanda Paardekam (NED)

L 0-2

4

Weightlifting[edit]

Selected team of 5 athletes.

Men
Ray Epstein, Brian McNicholl, Arnie Money, Paul O’Brien, Col Richards

Australia won a bronze medal through Brian McNicholl's performance.[1]

Athlete Event Result Rank
Ray Epstein Men's Up to 51 kg 135 kg 7
Brian McNicholl Men's Up to 85 kg 192.5 kg 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Arnie Money Men's Up to 57 kg 125 11
Paul O'Brien Men's Up to 85 kg 155 7
Col Richards Men's Up to 65 kg 135 8

Wheelchair Basketball[edit]

The Australian Men's Wheelchair Basketball team was placed in Group B with Argentina, France, Germany and Morocco. Australia lost to France 49-61, lost to Germany 27-43, defeated Argentina 54-36 and defeated Morocco 88-21. Australia finished third in their group and 10th overall, losing to Belgium in the 9th place playoff game.[1]

Australian Team
Troy Andrews, Sandy Blythe, Stuart Ewin, David Gould, Michael Haughey, Gerry Hewson, Erich Hubel, Michael McFawn, Richard Oliver, Christopher Sparks, Stephen Trestrail, Michael Walker

Group Stage

Team Pld W L PF PA PD Pts
France 4 4 0 257 146 +111 8
Germany 4 3 1 201 141 +60 7
Australia 4 2 2 218 161 +57 6
Argentina 4 1 3 170 189 -19 5
Morocco 4 0 4 89 298 -209 4

Classification 9-16

Team Quarterfinal Semifinal Final Rank
Opposition

Score

Opposition

Score

Opposition

Score

Australia Mexico

W 68 - 52

Great Britain

W 40 - 29

Belgium

L 43 - 47

10

Wheelchair Fencing[edit]

Australia was represented by two athletes, Robert Goodwin and Robert Jordan. Neither athlete advanced out of the pool rounds.[1]

Event Athlete Pool Play Final Round Rank
W-L Rank
Men's Foil Individual 1C-3 Robert Goodwin 2-2 3 Did not advance
Robert Jordan 0-3 4 Did not advance
Men's Sabre Individual 1C-3 Robert Goodwin 0-3 4 Did not advance

Wheelchair Tennis[edit]

Wheelchair tennis was a demonstration sport and the medals awarded were not included in the overall medal tally. Mick Connell was the sole representative for Australia and was runner up in the men's singles.[1]

Athlete Event Semifinal Final Rank
Opposition

Score

Opposition

Score

Mick Connell Men's Singles Chip Turner (USA)

W 6-7, 7-6, 6-0

Laurent Giammartini (GER)

L 2-6, 2-6

2nd, silver medalist(s)

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "Australian Results at 1988 Paralympics". International Paralympic Committee Historical Results Database. Retrieved 28 June 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j '88 Paralympics Appeal report (PDF). Australian Confederation of Sports for the Disabled. 1989. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Scruton, Joan (1988). Stoke Mandeville Road to the Paralympics. Brill, Aylesbury, England: The Peterhouse Press. pp. 399–347. ISBN 0 946312 10 9. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Bailey, Steve (2008). "Athlete First: A History of the Paralympic Movement". John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: 91–137. doi:10.1002/9780470724323.ch5. 
  5. ^ a b Legg, David; Gilbert, Keith (2011). Paralympic Legacies (Sport and Society). Common Ground Publishing. pp. 47–51. ISBN 978-1-86335-896-5. 
  6. ^ Purdue, David (2013). "An (In)convenient Truce? Paralympic Stakeholders’ Reflections on the Olympic– Paralympic Relationship". Journal of Sport and Social Issues. 37: 384–402. doi:10.1177/0193723513491751. Retrieved 2015-10-28. 
  7. ^ "'88 Seoul Paralympics". Official website of the Paralympic Movement. International Paralympic Committee (IPC). Retrieved 20 October 2015. 
  8. ^ a b c Reuter (16 October 1988). "Paralympics open with a joyful ceremony". The Canberrra Times. Retrieved 27 October 2015 – via Trove. 
  9. ^ "Disabled athletes told to return wheelchair medals.". The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995). ACT: National Library of Australia. 21 October 1988. p. 18. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  10. ^ "Paralympic Results & Historical Records". www.paralympic.org. Retrieved 2015-08-21. 
  11. ^ a b "Australians Reap More Medals". The Sydney Morning Herald. 1988-10-21. Retrieved 27 Oct 2015. 
  12. ^ a b "Mclntyre adds gold to her bronze.". The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995). ACT: National Library of Australia. 20 October 1988. p. 24. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  13. ^ "Disabled athletes seek more support". The Sydney Morning Herald. 1988-10-25. Retrieved 27 October 2015. 
  14. ^ "McIntyre cruises to final despite added disability.". The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995). ACT: National Library of Australia. 18 October 1988. p. 28. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  15. ^ "Six more medals for Australians at Paralympics.". The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995). ACT: National Library of Australia. 24 October 1988. p. 23. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  16. ^ "Australians blitz field in record time.". The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995). ACT: National Library of Australia. 23 October 1988. p. 16. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  17. ^ "Lowe Sprints to his fifth medal". The Sydney Morning Herald. 1988-10-23. Retrieved 27 October 1988.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  18. ^ a b "Young grabs second silver.". The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995). ACT: National Library of Australia. 21 October 1988. p. 18. Retrieved 28 October 2015.