Australia at the 2008 Summer Paralympics

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Australia at the
2008 Summer Paralympics
Flag of Australia.svg
IPC codeAUS
NPCAustralian Paralympic Committee
Websitewww.paralympic.org.au
in Beijing
Competitors167 in 13 sports
Flag bearer Russell Short (Opening)
Matthew Cowdrey (Closing)
Medals
Ranked 5th
Gold
23
Silver
29
Bronze
27
Total
79
Officials122
Summer Paralympics appearances (overview)

Australia sent a delegation to compete at the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing. The country sent 167 (95 male and 72 female) athletes in 13 sports (out of 20) and 122 officials.[1] It was the country's largest ever Paralympic delegation to an away Games.[2] The team sent to Beijing was described as the emergence of the new generation of Australian athletes with 56 percent of the team attending their first Paralympic Games.[3] The delegation's chef de mission was Darren Peters.[4]

Australian team enters the stadium at the opening ceremony
Australian team at the 2008 Beijing Paralympics opening ceremony

Australia won 23 gold, 29 silver and 27 bronze medals. It finished fourth on the total medal tally and fifth on the gold medal tally. Major sporting achievements for the Australian team included:

Medalists[edit]

[1]

Events[edit]

Heath Francis

Athletics[edit]

Jodi Willis-Roberts, Russell Short, and Darren Thrupp competed at their sixth Paralympics. Jessica Gallagher was selected in the team but was classified ineligible to compete. She attended the Games as a member of staff.[1] Australian athletes set six world records, a further three Paralympic records and 16 Australian records during the Games.[1] Heath Francis and Evan O'Hanlon won three gold medals.[1][5]

A medal won by O'Hanlon at the 2008 Summer Paralympics on display at the Australian Institute of Sport

Men's track[edit]

Athlete Class Event Heats Semifinal Final
Result Rank Result Rank Result Rank
Jonathan Bernard T12 400m 52.11 11 Did not advance
Matthew Cameron T54 100m 14.92 12 Did not advance
Richard Colman T53 200m 26.80 2 Q N/A 26.71 2nd, silver medalist(s)
400m 52.38 4 Q N/A 48.92 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
800m 1:39.90 6 Q N/A 1:37.49 4
T54 1500m 3:08.18 5 Q 3:02.19 9 Did not advance
Roy Daniell T12 Marathon N/A 2:40:47 13
Kurt Fearnley T54 800m 1:38.79 4 Q 1:39.39 6 Q 1:36.76 2nd, silver medalist(s)
1500m 3:06.96 1 Q 3:00.15 2 Q 3:14.28 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
5000m 10:13.21 PR 1 Q N/A 10:22.97 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Marathon N/A 1:23:17 PR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Heath Francis T46 100m 11.07 1 Q N/A 11.05 1st, gold medalist(s)
200m 22.13 1 Q N/A 21.74 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
400m 49.39 1 Q N/A 47.69 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Gerrard Gosens T11 1500m 4:21.00 6 q N/A 4:24.65 6
Christopher Mullins T38 200m 25.51 14 Did not advance
400m N/A 54.59 6
Richard Nicholson T54 100m 14.87 9 Did not advance
200m 26.37 14 Did not advance
400m 50.36 20 Did not advance
Evan O'Hanlon T38 100m N/A 10.96 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
200m 22.98 1 Q N/A 21.98 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Michael Roeger T46 800m 2:00.40 11 Did not advance
1500m 4:09.62 7 Q N/A 3:59.21 8
5000m N/A 15:36.95 11
Brad Scott T37 200m 25.06 2 Q N/A 25.09 4
800m N/A 2:02.71 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Ian Speed T12 800m 2:01.48 9 Did not advance
Tim Sullivan T38 100m N/A 11.91 7
200m 23.74 7 Q N/A 23.62 7
400m N/A DSQ
Darren Thrupp T37 100m 12.54 7 q N/A 12.59 7
Stephen Wilson T44 100m 11.87 5 Q N/A 11.78 5
400m N/A 55.49 5
Christopher Mullins
Evan O'Hanlon
Tim Sullivan
Darren Thrupp
T35-38 4 × 100 m relay N/A 44.81 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Aaron Chatman
Heath Francis
Paul Raison
Stephen Wilson
T42-46 4 × 100 m relay N/A 45.80 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Matthew Cameron
Richard Colman
Kurt Fearnley
Richard Nicholson
T53-54 4 × 100 m relay 52.60 3 Q N/A DSQ

Men's field[edit]

Athlete Class Event Final
Result Points Rank
Damien Bowen F33-34/52 Javelin throw 26.52 994 7
Aaron Chatman F44/46 High jump 2.02 1011 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Rodney Farr F33-34/52 Javelin throw 17.55 1003 6
Shot put 8.49 930 11
Greg Hibberd F33-34/52 Shot put 10.83 1004 5
Hamish MacDonald F33-34/52 Shot put 10.82 1003 6
Wade McMahon F37-38 Javelin throw 46.71 SB 970 4
Paul Raison F44 Discus throw 49.77 921 5
Shot put 15.83 988 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Russell Short F11-12 Shot put 14.79 912 6
Darren Thrupp F37-38 Long jump 5.82 SB 1011 5

Women's track[edit]

Athlete Class Event Heats Semifinal Final
Result Rank Result Rank Result Rank
Angela Ballard T53 100m 18.19 6 Q N/A 17.89 5
200m 32.36 7 q N/A 31.81 7
400m 1:01.02 6 Q N/A 59.82 7
800m N/A 2:02.56 6
Carlee Beattie T46 100m 13.70 15 Did not advance
200m 28.05 15 Did not advance
Gemma Buchholz T52 100m N/A 24.64 8
200m N/A 44.57 8
Kelly Cartwright T42 100m N/A 18.36 6
Christie Dawes T54 800m 2:00.21 11 Did not advance
1500m 3:35.80 10 Did not advance
5000m N/A 12:31.66 6
Madison de Rozario T54 100m 17.44 8 Q N/A 17.21 8
400m 59.78 10 Did not advance
Courtney Harbeck T13 100m 13.03 9 Did not advance
200m 27.73 10 Did not advance
Lisa McIntosh T37 100m 14.27 1 Q N/A 14.14 1st, gold medalist(s)
200m 29.18 1 Q N/A 29.28 1st, gold medalist(s)
Kirrilee McPherson T38 100m 15.29 9 Did not advance
200m 31.97 10 Did not advance
Jemima Moore T54 200m 32.99 11 Did not advance
Katy Parrish T38 100m 14.31 4 Q N/A DNS
200m 30.46 5 Q N/A 30.46 5
Tahlia Rotumah T37 100m 15.22 10 Did not advance
200m 31.79 9 Did not advance
Julie Smith T46 100m 12.65 3 Q N/A 12.74 4
200m 26.37 2 Q N/A 26.03 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Christine Wolf T42 100m N/A 17.49 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Angela Ballard
Christie Dawes
Madison de Rozario
Jemima Moore
T53-54 4 × 100 m relay N/A 1:01.91 2nd, silver medalist(s)

Women's field[edit]

Athlete Class Event Final
Result Points Rank
Jennifer Bryce F54-56 Javelin throw 17.88 898 11
Shot put 7.85 SB 954 8
Louise Ellery F32-34/52-53 Shot put 5.07 997 6
Amanda Fraser F37-38 Discus throw 29.73 SB 1012 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Shot put 10.52 SB 1026 4
Madeleine Hogan F42-46 Javelin throw 38.89 SB 1062 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Brydee Moore F32-34/51-53 Discus throw 16.02 1061 5
F32-34/52-53 Shot put 6.38 1005 5
F33-34/52-53 Javelin throw 11.60 856 13
Kath Proudfoot F35-36 Discus throw 23.91 1111 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Shot put 8.35 938 4
Charlotte Saville F35-38 Javelin throw 22.78 959 10
Noni Thompson F35-36 Discus throw 15.21 707 10
Shot put 6.07 682 11
Jodi Willis-Roberts F12-13 Shot put 11.21 898 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Christine Wolf F42 Long jump 3.73 WR - 1st, gold medalist(s)

CoachesScott Goodman (Head Coach), Alison O'Riordan, Andrew Dawes, Brett Jones, Louise Sauvage, Iryna Dvoskina, John Minns, John Eden, Alan Makin, Cathy Raha-Lambert

Officials – Gary Lees (Section Manager), Louise Mogg (Section Manager),Andrew Carter, Rowena Toppenberg, Sian Pugh, Mick Jordan, Phil Power, Steve Butler, Stephanie Martin, Jessica Gallagher

Cycling[edit]

Included on the Australian team was Michael Milton, a four-time gold medalist as a skier in the Winter Paralympics.[6] Mark le Flohic, gold medalist at the 2000 and 2004 Summer Paralympics, was to take part in the Beijing Games but had to pull out due to injury. Le Flohic broke his collar bone during training one week before the Games were to begin.[7]

Men's road[edit]

Athlete Event Time Rank
Michael Gallagher Men's road time trial LC1 35:29.74 5
Men's road race LC1/LC2/CP4 1:46:03 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Michael Milton Men's road race LC1/LC2/CP4 1:49:29 21
Christopher Scott Men's road time trial CP4 35:55.99 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Men's road race LC1/LC2/CP4 1:46:18 14
Bryce Lindores
Steven George (pilot)
Men's road race B&VU 1-3 DNF
Kieran Modra
Tyson Lawrence (pilot)
Men's road time trial B&VI 1-3 33:03.24 5
Men's road race B&VI 1-3 2:24:55 11

Men's track[edit]

Athlete Event Qualification Quarterfinals Semifinals Final
Time Rank Time Rank Time Rank Opposition
Time
Rank
Greg Ball Men's 1km time trial LC3-4 N/A 1:17.681 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Michael Gallagher Men's 1km time trial LC1 N/A 1:11.01 4
Men's individual pursuit LC1 4:40.65 PR 1 Q N/A  Sacher (GER)
W 4:43.28
1st, gold medalist(s)
Michael Milton Men's 1km time trial LC3-4 N/A 1:21.578 9
Men's individual pursuit LC3 4:10.44 8 Did not advance
Christopher Scott Men's 1km time trial CP4 N/A 1:12.23 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's individual pursuit CP4 3:38.205 2 Q N/A  Ishi (JPN)
W 3:40.144
1st, gold medalist(s)
Ben Demery
Shaun Hopkins (pilot)
Men's 1km time trial B&VI 1-3 N/A 1:03.718 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Men's sprint 10.629 2 Q  Arciniegas (COL)
 Carreno (COL)
W 11.053
W 11.405
Q  Kilpatrick (RSA)
 Thomson (RSA)
W 11.553
Q  Kappes (GBR)
 Storey (GBR)
L
2nd, silver medalist(s)
Bryce Lindores
Steven George (pilot)
Men's 1km time trial B&VI 1-3 N/A 1:04.792 6
Men's individual pursuit B&VI 1-3 4:27.578 4 q N/A  Chalifour (CAN)
 Cloutier (CAN)
W 4:26.626
3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Kieran Modra
Tyson Lawrence (pilot)
Men's 1km time trial B&VI 1-3 N/A 1:04.053 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Men's individual pursuit B&VI 1-3 4:18.961 WR 1 Q N/A  Venge (ESP)
 Llaurado (ESP)
W 4:18.166 WR
1st, gold medalist(s)
Greg Ball
Michael Gallagher
Christopher Scott
Men's team sprint 54.585 4 q N/A  Czech Republic (CZE)
L 54.239
4

Women's road[edit]

Athlete Event Time Rank
Jane Armstrong Women's LC3/LC4/CP3 50:51.82 10
Melissa Leckie Women's road time trial HC A/HC B/HC C 30:32.61 6
Women's road race HC A/B/C 1:31:14 8
Jayme Paris Women's road time trial LC3/LC4/CP3 52:51.82 8
Lindy Hou
Toireasa Gallagher
Women's road time trial B&VI 1-3 39:01:62 4
Women's road race B&VI 1-3 2:01:17 4

Women's track[edit]

Athlete Event Qualification 1st round Final
Time Rank Time Rank Opposition
Time
Rank
Jane Armstrong Women's individual pursuit LC3-4/CP3 4:35.768 7 Did not advance
Women's 1km time trial LC3-4/CP3 N/A 45.402 4
Jayme Paris Women's individual pursuit LC3-4/CP3 4:24.666 4 q N/A  Tesoriero (NZL)
L 4:26.587
4
Women's 1km time trial LC3-4/CP3 N/A 44.490 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Lindy Hou
Katie Parker (pilot - time trial)
Toireasa Gallagher (pilot - ind. pursuit)
Women's individual pursuit B&VI 1-3 3:38.085 1 Q N/A  McGlynn (GBR)
 Hunter (GBR)
L 3:41.494
2nd, silver medalist(s)
Women's 1km time trial B&VI 1-3 N/A 1:12.463 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Felicity Johnson
Katie Parker (pilot)
Women's 1km time trial B&VI 1-3 N/A 1:10.465 2nd, silver medalist(s)

Coaches – James Victor (Head Coach), Tom Skulander, Paul Martens Officials – Mark Fulcher (Section Manager), Brett Hidson, Anouska Edwards, Alan Downes, Mark Bullen, Stuart Smith, Murray Lydeamore.[1][5]

Equestrian[edit]

Individual events[edit]

Athlete Horse Event Total
Score Rank
Grace Bowman Yv Mt Batton Mixed individual championship test grade Ib 56.286 15
Mixed individual freestyle test grade Ib 61.611 12
Georgia Bruce V Salute Mixed individual championship test grade IV 68.258 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Mixed individual freestyle test grade IV 74.319 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Sharon Jarvis Odorado Mixed individual championship test grade III 69.200 4
Mixed individual freestyle test grade III 69.446 7
Nicole Kullen Nomination Mixed individual championship test grade Ib 59.905 11
Mixed individual freestyle test grade Ib 66.110 4
Jan Pike Griffin Mixed individual championship test grade Ia 60.000 9
Mixed individual freestyle test grade Ia 65.555 7

Team[edit]

Athlete Horse Event Individual score Total
TT CT Total Score Rank
Grace Bowman See above Team 58.235 56.286 114.521 388.092 6
Nicole Kullen 60.235 59.905 120.140*
Sharon Jarvis 62.923 69.200 132.123*
Georgia Bruce 67.571 68.258 135.829*

* Indicated the three best individual scores that count towards the team total.

Coaches – Mary Longden (Head Coach),David Bowman, Sally Francis Officials – Ken Dagley (Section Manager), Doug Denby, Nicola Reynoldson, Michelle Goodrick, Judy Fyfe, Margaret Keyes, Emma Bardot, Ebony Tucker, Terrina Fairbrother, Liz Wright-Smith, Chris Elliott, Carolyn Lieutenant.[1][5]

Judo[edit]

Men[edit]

Athlete Event First Round Quarterfinals Semifinals Repechage
round 1
Repechage
round 2
Final/
Bronze medal contest
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Anthony Clarke Men's 90kg N/A  Kretsul (RUS)
L 0000–1000
N/A  Vazquez (ESP)
L 0000-0121
Did not advance

Powerlifting[edit]

Men[edit]

Athlete Event Result Rank
Abebe Fekadu 56kg 155.0 10
Darren Gardiner +100kg 230.0 2nd, silver medalist(s)

Women[edit]

Athlete Event Result Rank
Deahnne McIntyre +82.5kg 127.5 4

CoachesRay Epstein (Head Coach), Bill Nancarrow[1][5]

Rowing[edit]

Rowing made its debut at the Beijing Games. There were four boat classes which all competed over a distance of 1000m.[8] Australia competed in two of the four rowing events. Australian athletes Kathryn Ross and John Maclean competed in the trunk and arms mixed double skulls.[9] They won the silver medal, however only missed out on the gold by 0.08 seconds.[9] The gold was won by a crew from China.

Athlete Event Heats Repechage Final
Time Rank Time Rank Time Rank
Dominic Monypenny Men's singles sculls 5:38.29 5 R 6:02.45 4 FA 5:59.92 6
John MacLean
Kathryn Ross
Mixed double sculls 4:18.66 3 R 4:31.24 1 FA 4:21.58 2nd, silver medalist(s)

Sailing[edit]

Athlete Event Race Total points Net points
Total
Rank
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Aaron Hill 1 person keelboat 2.4mR (12) 10 10 8 10 (13) 6 8 10 11 N/A 98 73 12
Daniel Fitzgibbon
Rachel Cox
2 person keelboat SKUD 18 (4) 2 2 2 2 4 (9) 3 1 2 Race
Cancelled
31 18 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Colin Harrison
Jonathan Harris
Graeme Martin
3 person keelboat sonar 8 4 2 3 3 3 1 (10) (15)
OCS
5 7 61 36 3rd, bronze medalist(s)

Coaches – Greg Omay (Head Coach), Adrian Finglas Officials – Sarina Macpherson (Section Manager), Linnea Korssell, Sue Crafer, Geoff Milligan, Timothy Lowe[1][5]

Shooting[edit]

Men[edit]

Athlete Event Qualification Final
Score Rank Score Total Rank
Ashley Adams Men's 10m air rifle standing SH1 593 2 Q 100.0 693.0 4
Men's 50m rifle 3 positions 1137 9 Did not advance
Mixed 10m air rifle prone SH1 599 11 Did not advance
Mixed 50m rifle prone SH1 590 2 Q 98.5 688.5 4
Sebastian Hume Men's 10m air pistol SH1 553 22 Did not advance
Jason Maroney Mixed 10m air rifle prone SH2 599 8 Q 104.9 703.9 6
Mixed 10m air rifle standing SH2 597 5 Q 103.6 700.6 5

Women[edit]

Athlete Event Qualification Final
Score Rank Score Total Rank
Libby Kosmala Women's 10m air rifle standing SH1 390 2 Q 99.1 489.1 4
Women's 50m rifle 3 positions SH1 556 9 Did not advance
Mixed 10m air rifle prone SH1 597 19 Did not advance
Mixed 50m rifle prone SH1 577 33 Did not advance

Coaches – Miroslav Sipek (Head Coach), Michelle Fletcher Officials – Nick Sullivan (Section Manager), Anne Bugden[1][5]

Swimming[edit]

Australian swimmers Ellie Cole and Annabelle Williams at the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games

There were eight men and eleven women making their Paralympic debut. Australia won 9 gold, 11 silver and 9 bronze medals placing it sixth on the swimming medal tally. It was Australia's most successful sport at the Games. Matthew Cowdrey (5 gold and 3 silver) and Peter Leek (3 gold, 4 silver and 1 bronze) were the standout swimmers.

Men[edit]

Athlete Class Event Heats Final
Result Rank Result Rank
Michael Anderson S10 100m backstroke 1:01.70 PR 2 Q 1:01.47 2nd, silver medalist(s)
50m freestyle 25.13 6 Q 25.04 6
100m freestyle 56.08 11 Did not advance
Ben Austin S8 100m butterfly 1:04.83 5 Q 1:03.50 5
50m freestyle 28.09 5 Q 27.82 5
100m freestyle 59.62 PR 2 Q 59.78 4
Daniel Bell S10 100m butterfly 1:00.24 6 Q 59.85 5
SB9 100m breaststroke 1:14.33 9 Did not advance
SM10 200m individual medley 2:22.96 10 Did not advance
Sam Bramham S9 100m butterfly 1:02.33 4 Q 1:02.58 7
100m freestyle 58.97 11 Did not advance
400m freestyle 4:25.67 3 Q 4:21.35 4
Blake Cochrane S8 100m backstroke 1:17.72 12 Did not advance
SB7 100m breaststroke 1:23.69 2 Q 1:23.36 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Matthew Cowdrey S9 100m backstroke 1:05.60 2 Q 1:03.34 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
100m butterfly 1:01.05 3 Q 59.46 2nd, silver medalist(s)
50m freestyle 26.09 4 Q 25.34 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
100m freestyle 56.53 2 Q 55.30 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
400m freestyle 4:27.26 5 Q 4:17.28 2nd, silver medalist(s)
SM9 200m individual medley 2:20.62 2 Q 2:13.60 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Jay Dohnt S7 100m backstroke 1:24.88 12 Did not advance
100m freestyle 1:11.33 11 Did not advance
400m freestyle 5:06.65 4 Q 4:59.47 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
SM7 200m individual medley 3:03.73 10 Did not advance
Alex Hadley S7 50m butterfly 37.10 10 Did not advance
50m freestyle 30.76 4 Q 30.75 4
100m freestyle 1:08.67 7 Q 1:07.90 6
400m freestyle 5:18.23 7 Q 5:20.79 7
Brenden Hall S9 400m freestyle 4:23.35 PR 1 Q 4:22.19 5
Peter Leek S8 100m backstroke 1:07.54 PR 2 Q 1:07.28 2nd, silver medalist(s)
100m butterfly 1:01.01 1 Q 1:00.95 1st, gold medalist(s)
50m freestyle 27.69 2 Q 26.89 2nd, silver medalist(s)
100m freestyle 59.00 PR 1 Q 59.14 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
400m freestyle 4:35.87 PR 2 Q 4:31.16 2nd, silver medalist(s)
SM8 200m individual medley 2:25.72 PR 1 Q 2:20.92 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Matt Levy S8 50m freestyle 28.55 6 Q 29.68 8
400m freestyle 4:50.78 6 Q 4:51.77 7
SM8 200m individual medley 2:39.40 6 Q 2:38.35 7
Jeremy McClure S12 100m backstroke 1:05.95 7 Q 1:06.32 7
50m freestyle 27.58 14 Did not advance
SB12 100m breaststroke 1:19.56 10 Did not advance
Ricardo Moffatti S8 100m backstroke 1:13.56 6 Q 1:12.58 5
100m freestyle 1:00.67 5 Q 59.93 5
Stephen Osborne S9 100m butterfly 1:06.33 13 Did not advance
50m freestyle 27.20 14 Did not advance
100m freestyle 59.70 18 Did not advance
Andrew Pasterfield S10 100m backstroke 1:04.26 4 Q 1:04.24 7
50m freestyle 25.34 9 Did not advance
100m freestyle 56.03 10 Did not advance
Rick Pendleton S10 100m butterfly 1:00.96 7 Q 59.87 6
SB9 100m breaststroke 1:12.34 4 Q 1:10.88 4
SM10 200m individual medley 2:18.76 1 Q 2:12.78 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
Jeremy Tidy S10 100m backstroke 1:05.37 8 Q 1:05.26 8
100m butterfly 1:01.73 11 Did not advance
50m freestyle 25.83 12 Did not advance
100m freestyle 55.72 9 Did not advance
SB9 100m breaststroke 1:16.04 11 Did not advance
SM10 200m individual medley 2:19.44 2 Q 2:19.76 6
Ben Austin
Sam Bramham
Matthew Cowdrey
Peter Leek
- Men's 4 × 100 m freestyle relay N/A 3:53.59 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Daniel Bell
Sam Bramham
Matt Levy
Ricardo Moffatti
- Men's 4 × 100 m medley relay 4:33.02 4 Q 4:11.90 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)

Women[edit]

Athlete Class Event Heats Final
Result Rank Result Rank
Sarah Bowen S6 100m backstroke 1:43.98 9 Did not advance
SB6 100m breaststroke 1:44.44 2 Q 1:42.39 2nd, silver medalist(s)
SM6 200m individual medley 3:40.89 10 Did not advance
Ellie Cole S9 100m backstroke 1:13.12 3 Q 1:11.87 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
100m butterfly 1:10.70 2 Q 1:10.92 2nd, silver medalist(s)
100m freestyle 1:05.11 5 Q 1:04.24 4
400m freestyle 4:45.17 2 Q 4:44.60 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
SM9 200m individual medley 2:42.26 5 Q DNS
Amanda Drennan S9 100m backstroke 1:17.06 9 Did not advance
100m freestyle 1:06.81 12 Did not advance
400m freestyle 5:04.62 8 Q 5:07.24 8
Jacqueline Freney S8 50m freestyle 32.49 4 Q 32.37 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
100m freestyle 1:09.92 2 Q 1:08.56 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
400m freestyle 5:02.32 3 Q 4:57.21 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Samantha Gandolfo S10 50m freestyle 31.15 11 Did not advance
100m freestyle 1:05.12 8 Q 1:05.74 8
400m freestyle 4:48.90 3 Q 4:48.02 5
SM10 200m individual medley 2:49.45 9 Did not advance
Marayke Jonkers SM4 150m individual medley N/A 3:28.88 2nd, silver medalist(s)
Katrina Lewis S10 50m freestyle 28.91 1 Q 29.13 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
Sian Lucas S10 100m backstroke 1:14.64 5 Q 1:14.66 5
100m freestyle 1:07.05 11 Did not advance
400m freestyle 4:52.14 6 Q 4:49.98 8
Hannah MacDougall S10 100m backstroke 1:17.87 9 Did not advance
SM10 200m individual medley 2:53.34 10 Did not advance
Tarryn McGaw S10 100m backstroke 1:16.58 7 Q 1:15.66 7
50m freestyle 30.56 10 Did not advance
100m freestyle 1:05.03 7 Q 1:04.83 7
400m freestyle 5:03.42 8 Q 4:49.79 7
SM10 200m individual medley 2:45.89 7 Q 2:46.57 7
Rhiannon Oliver S8 100m backstroke 1:34.92 9 Did not advance
50m freestyle 35.25 12 Did not advance
100m freestyle 1:15.57 11 Did not advance
SB7 100m breaststroke N/A 1:45.49 5
Esther Overton S3 50m backstroke 1:12.49 4 Q 1:13.33 5
50m freestyle 1:11.99 6 Q 1:12.26 6
Katrina Porter S7 100m backstroke 1:24.44 WR 1 Q 1:24.30 WR 1st, gold medalist(s)
50m butterfly DSQ Did not advance
400m freestyle 5:43.88 5 Q 5:44.93 5
SB6 100m breaststroke 1:55.26 7 Q 1:55.08 7
SM7 200m individual medley DSQ Did not advance
Shelley Rogers S7 100m backstroke 1:31.49 6 Q 1:30.26 5
50m butterfly 41.35 6 Q 40.02 6
SM7 200m individual medley 3:17.34 3 Q 3:12.68 4
Sarah Rose S6 50m freestyle 40.90 9 Did not advance
50m butterfly 41.37 5 Q 40.95 4
100m freestyle 1:30.31 10 Did not advance
SM6 200m individual medley 3:30.68 7 Q 3:29.54 7
Teigan van Roosmalen S13 100m backstroke 1:16.26 9 Did not advance
100m butterfly 1:10.57 6 Q 1:09.48 7
50m freestyle N/A 30.51 8
100m freestyle 1:07.64 9 Did not advance
400m freestyle 4:58.20 8 Q 5:02.17 8
SM13 200m individual medley N/A 2:39.20 6
Prue Watt S13 100m backstroke 1:15.65 8 Q 1:16.05 8
100m butterfly 1:08.21 4 Q 1:07.48 4
50m freestyle N/A 28.16 5
100m freestyle 1:02.61 6 Q 1:01.59 6
400m freestyle 4:49.80 5 Q 4:46.21 6
SM13 200m individual medley N/A 2:32.87 5
Annabelle Williams S9 100m butterfly 1:11.41 4 Q 1:10.98 3rd, bronze medalist(s)
50m freestyle 29.76 3 Q 29.80 4
100m freestyle 1:05.71 7 Q 1:05.43 7

Coaches – Brendan Keogh (Head Coach), Graeme Carroll, Jackie Barck, Amanda Isaac, Jo Love, Rob Moon, Mel Tantrum

Officials – Melanie Jenkins (Section Manager), Jon O'Neill-Shaw, Sandra Eccles, Claire Nichols, Brendan Burkett, Sacha Fulton, Penny Will, Vaughan Nicholson[1][5]

Table Tennis[edit]

Athlete Event Preliminaries Round of 16 Quarterfinals Semifinals Final / BM
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Rank Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Rank
Rebecca Julian Women's singles C6-7  van Zon (NED)
L 2–3
 Pitry (POL)
L 0–3
N/A 3 Did not advance
Sarah Lazzaro Women's singles C9  Liu M (CHN)
L 0-3
 Grzelak (POL)
L 0-3
 Komleva (RUS)
L 0-3
4 Did not advance
Rebecca Julian
Sarah Lazzaro
Women's team C6-10 No preliminaries  Ukraine (UKR)
L 0-3
Did not advance

Coach – Brian Berry (Head Coach) Official – Barbara Talbot (Section Manager). Catherine Morrow was selected but withdrew from the team.[1][5]

Brad Ness in the Australian Paralympic Men's Basketball Team making a free throw when playing against Great Britain.

Wheelchair Basketball[edit]

Men's tournament[edit]

Australian men's team known as the 'Rollers' won the gold medal defeating Canada 72–60 in the final

Team roster

Dylan Alcott, Brendan Dowler, Justin Eveson, Michael Hartnett, Adrian King, Tristan Knowles, Grant Mizens, Brad Ness, Shaun Norris, Troy Sachs, Tige Simmons, Brett Stibners
CoachesBen Ettridge (Head Coach), Craig Friday Officials – Kelvin Browner (section Manager), Ian Lowther

Group B Matches

7 September 2008
16:15
Australia  73–72  Brazil


8 September 2008
20:45
Great Britain  48–67  Australia

9 September 2008
11:30
Australia  79–44  China

10 September 2008
15:30
Australia  66–59  Israel

11 September 2008
20:45
United States  68–61  Australia
Scoring by quarter: 24-20, 18-16, 9-21, 17-4
National Indoor Stadium, Beijing
Attendance: 9780
Referees: Juan Manuel Urunuela (ESP)

Group B Standings


Team
Pts Pld W L PF PA PD
 Australia 9 5 4 1 346 291 55
 United States 9 5 4 1 378 247 131
 Great Britain 9 5 4 1 334 271 63
 Israel 7 5 2 3 332 325 7
 Brazil 6 5 1 4 291 348 -57
 China 5 5 0 5 203 402 -199

Quarter finals


13 September 2008
13:30
Australia  72–52  Japan
Scoring by quarter: 21-15, 17-15, 19-13, 15-9
Pts: Brad Ness 18
Rebs: Brad Ness 14
Asts: Shaun Norris 4
Pts: Kazuyuki Kyoya, Tetsuya Miyajima 9
Rebs: Akimasa Suzuki, Shingo Fujii 6
Asts: Hiroaki Kozai 3
National Indoor Stadium, Beijing
Attendance: 12000
Referees: Edwin Frank Wallaart (NED)

Semi finals


14 September 2008
19:00
 Great Britain 54–67 Australia 
Scoring by quarter: 6-19, 14-17, 13-18, 21-13
Pts: Jon Pollock 18
Rebs: Simon Munn 11
Asts: Jon Pollock 3
Pts: Justin Eveson 22
Rebs: Brad Ness 11
Asts: Justin Eveson 2
National Indoor Stadium, Beijing
Attendance: 12000
Referees: Juan Manuel Urunuela (ESP)

Gold medal game


16 September 2008
19:30
Canada  60–72  Australia
Scoring by quarter: 17-16, 15-12, 15-26, 13-18
Pts: Patrick Anderson 22
Rebs: Patrick Anderson, Joey Johnson 12
Asts: Patrick Anderson 6
Pts: Troy Sachs 19
Rebs: Troy Sachs, Justin Eveson 7
Asts: Brad Ness 8
National Indoor Stadium, Beijing
Attendance: 12000
Referees: Edwin Frank Wallaart (NED)

Women's tournament[edit]

The Gliders lining up for the national anthem.

The women's team known as the 'Gliders' won the bronze medal defeating Japan in the playoff.[1][5]

Team roster

Clare Burzynski, Shelley Chaplin, Cobi Crispin, Melanie Domaschenz, Kylie Gauci, Melanie Hall, Katie Hill, Bridie Kean, Tina McKenzie, Kathleen O'Kelly-Kennedy, Sarah Stewart, Liesl Tesch

CoachesGerry Hewson (Head Coach), Mark Hewish

Officials – Sonia Healy (Section Manager), Emma Whiteside.[1][5]

Group A Standings'


7 September 2008
10:00
Australia  59–30  Great Britain
Scoring by quarter: 24-2, 6-11, 18-4, 11-13
Pts: Cobi Crispin 16
Rebs: Cobi Crispin 8
Asts: Liesl Tesch 4
Pts: Sally Wager, Clare Strange 5
Rebs: Helen Freeman 7
Asts: Helen Freeman, Clare Strange 3
USTB Gymnasium, Beijing
Attendance: 2140
Referees: Bill Kuerzi (USA)

8 September 2008
13:30
Brazil  30–66  Australia

9 September 2008
15:30
Australia  42–61  United States

10 September 2008
18:30
Germany  64–56  Australia

Group A Table

Rank Team Pld W L PF:PA Pts
1  United States 4 4 0 227:149 8
2  Germany 4 3 1 214:174 7
3  Australia 4 2 2 223:185 6
4  Great Britain 4 1 3 166:194 5
5  Brazil 4 0 4 129:257 4

Quarter-finals


12 September 2008
21:15
Canada  49–53  Australia
Scoring by quarter: 10-14, 17-14, 10-12, 12-13
National Indoor Stadium, Beijing
Attendance: 12215
Referees: Juan Manuel Urunuela (ESP)

Semi-finals

13 September 2008
19:00
United States  60–47  Australia
Scoring by quarter: 12-15, 12-7, 14-18, 22-7
National Indoor Stadium, Beijing
Attendance: 12000
Referees: Andre Bosveld (NED)

Bronze medal game


15 September 2008
19:00
Australia  53–47  Japan
Scoring by quarter: 17-10, 14-13, 12-13, 10-11
National Indoor Stadium, Beijing
Attendance: 12000
Referees: Rui David Marques (BRA)

Wheelchair Rugby[edit]

Representing Australia in wheelchair rugby:
MenBryce Alman, Ryley Batt, Grant Boxall, Shane Brand, Cameron Carr, Nazim Erdem, George Hucks, Steve Porter, Ryan Scott, Greg Smith, Scott Vitale CoachBrad Dubberley (Head Coach) Officials – Kim Ellwood (Section Manager), Rob Doidge, Noni Shelton, Angela Mansell[1][5]

Three of the team made their Paralympic debut and Steve Porter attended his fourth Games. The Australian team known as the 'Steelers' won the silver medal losing to the United States 53–44 in the final.

Group B Standing and Results

Group B
Rank Team Pld W L PF:PA Pts   AUS GBR NZL GER
1  Australia (AUS) 3 3 0 129:111 6 x 43:37 39:38 47:36
2  Great Britain (GBR) 3 2 1 115:116 5 37:43 x 39:38 39:35
3  New Zealand (NZL) 3 1 2 116:109 4 38:39 38:39 x 40:31
4  Germany (GER) 3 0 3 102:126 3 36:47 35:39 31:40 x
     Qualified for quarterfinals
     Eliminated

Source: Paralympic.org[10]

Medal round[edit]

 
SemifinalsGold medal match
 
      
 
15 September 2008 - 18:00
 
 
 United States 35
 
16 September 2008 - 20:00
 
 Great Britain 32
 
 United States 53
 
15 September 2008 - 20:00
 
 Australia 44
 
 Australia 41
 
 
 Canada 40
 
Bronze medal match
 
 
16 September 2008 - 18:00
 
 
 Great Britain 41
 
 
 Canada 47

Source: Paralympic.org[10]

Wheelchair Tennis[edit]

Men[edit]

Athlete Class Event Round of 64 Round of 32 Round of 16 Quarterfinals Semifinals Finals
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Michael Dobbie Open Men's singles  Schmaeh (SUI)
W 6-3, 6-4
 Wikstrom (SWE)
L 1-6, 3-6
Did not advance
Ben Weekes  Fujimoto (JPN)
L 5–7, 4–6
Did not advance
Michael Dobbie
Ben Weekes
Men's doubles N/A  Legner (AUT)
 Mossier (AUT)
L 4-6, 1-6
Did not advance

Women[edit]

Athlete Class Event Round of 32 Round of 16 Quarterfinals Semifinals Finals
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Daniela di Toro Open Women's singles  Vergeer (NED)
L 2–6, 0–6
Did not advance

CoachGreg Crump (Head Coach) Officials – Geoff Quinlan (Section Manager)[1][5]

Venues[edit]

Beijing National Stadium "Birds Nest"

There were 19 venues for the Paralympics in Beijing. From this, 18 were used at the Olympics and also in the Paralympic games.[11] Venues where spread throughout three regions in China.[12] “In the construction of the Olympic venues and related facilities, we will give full consideration to the special needs of the athletes and spectators with physical disabilities, to materialize the goal of "equality, participation and sharing"”.[11] When constructing venues for both the Olympic and Paralympic, impediment free designs had to be used to enable access by able and disabled bodies.[13]

Facilities where Australian’s in competed include the Beijing National Stadium (Birds Nest), Beijing National Aquatics Centre (Water Cube), Beijing National Indoor Stadium (Fan) as well as many more.

Venues Designed by Australian Companies[edit]

The Beijing National Stadium (Birds Nest and the Beijing National Aquatics Centre (The Water Cube),

Many of the venues where designed by Australian companies. One of the iconic venues ‘The Water Cube’, was designed by Australian companies PTW Architects, ARUP Aust., Anti Wave International CSCEC.[14] Other facilities used by for the Paralympics included the Archery, Hockey and Tennis venues which were all designed by Bligh Voller Nield.[14] Many other Australian companies also contributed to the design and building of facilities.

Administration[edit]

Athletes and coaches were supported by administrative and sports medicine and science staff. Administrative staffDarren Peters (Chef de Mission), Nick Dean (Deputy Chef de Mission), Paul Bird (Chef de Mission), Alison Keys, Jason Hellwig (General Manager), Steve Loader, Michael Hartung, Natalie Jenkins, Caroline Walker, Chris Nunn (Performance Consultant), Jenni Cole, Tony Naar (Chief Information Manager), Graham Cassidy (Media Manager), Margie McDonald, Jordan Baker, Karen Michelmore
Sports medicine and science staff – Larissa Trease, Alison Campbell (Medical Coordinator), Geoff Thompson, Ruben Branson, Sally Heads, John Camens, David Spurrier, Lily Chiu, Richard Bennett, Gary Slater, Jo Vaile[1][5]

Sponsorship[edit]

“Australia's Paralympic team is funded by the Federal Government but also relies heavily on donations and corporate sponsorship”.[15] The growth of Paralympic sports has grown phenomenally in the past decade however there was concern this didn't translate into increased corporate sponsorship, especially before the 2008 games.[15] Despite this, the Australian Paralympic Committee outlined in their Annual Report for 2007/08 that their corporate sponsorship revenue increased. The revenue for corporate sponsorship was $1.47 million for the year, resulting in a 17.7 per cent increase from the previous year.[16]

Telstra is a sponsor of the Australian Paralympic Team.

Major Sponsors[edit]

Telstra was one of many major sponsors at the Beijing Games. Throughout the games the Australia Paralympic Committee and Telstra created the Telstra HeroMessage program.[16] The program generated 7,000 messages of support that were sent to athletes at the games.[16] The program also ran Chat to a Champ. It allowed students from the Telstra Paralympic Education Program to talk to their Paralympic heroes at the games via the internet.[16]

Toyota was another sponsor for the Paralympic team in Beijing. Toyota has been supporting the APC for over 12 years (at the time) and through this has been building awareness of the Paralympic movement.[16][17] They ran multiple promotions in the lead up to the 2008 games. This included developing a media campaign with News Limited and also adding information on Paralympic Games/Athletes to their website.[16]

Beijing Sponsors and Supporters Program (BSSP)[edit]

Representatives from the 25 key sponsors and supporters were sent to Beijing as a part of the BSSP Program. This experience enabled them to see 7 days of the games and witness sports such as swimming cycling, basketball, wheelchair tennis, wheelchair basketball and many more.[16] They also had the chance to tour the Paralympic village, meet the athletes and staff and have an official greeting at the Australian Embassy.[16] “The BSSP enables sponsors and key supporters to experience the Games firsthand and to see the impact of their support on Australia’s Paralympic athletes”.[16]

Toyota Paralympic Talent Search Program[edit]

The Australian Paralympic Committee (APC) runs the Toyota Paralympic Talent Search Program. "Its main goal is to identify people with physical disabilities, vision impairments or intellectual disabilities who display the athletic potential to one day make it to Paralympic level competition".[18] There were 53 athletes from the program who became a part of the Paralympic Preparation Program leading up to the games.[16] From this pool of athletes, 27 where chosen to represent Australia in the 2008 Beijing Paralympic Team.[16] By the end of the games, 15 of those who were selected to be in the team from the Talent Program won medals at their first Paralympic games.[16]

Fundraising[edit]

Since 1990 the Australian Paralympic Committee has been responsible for preparing the Summer and Winter Teams for the Paralympic Games.[19] They also assist athletes to prepare by, "…providing funding for coaching, equipment and travel in the lead up to the…Paralympic Games".[19] Fundraising is an essential avenue for the APC to provide funding for the team. Through various fundraising activities in the lead up to the 2008 games, a $3.11 million gross revenue was made from the 1 October 2007 to the 30 September 2008.[16] This figure beat the target that was set. Revenue of $2.26 million was earned through activities such as raffles, lottery draws and promotional sales.[16] Allsports Direct Australia is a contracted raffle trader and contributed to helping the APC earn the amount fundraised.The APC acknowledges the support from their individual and corporate donors. Almost $850,000 (from the 2007-2008 financial year) from individual and corporate donors went directly to the Beijing Paralympic Team.[16]

Media coverage[edit]

Australian Broadcasting Corporation logo

Because Australia was sending their largest Paralympic team to the 2008 games, they wanted to make sure that their efforts would be broadcast to Australians. This included putting in place many initiatives to publish, broadcast and promote the games and Paralympic achievements. In order to distribute content they worked with the Australian Associated Press (AAP), “to maximise distribution of key stories, developing relationships with editors and key journalists, developing a program of events and activities and providing quality background information and stories”.[16] Media Monitors, established there was a total of 31,986 Australian media stories distributed throughout the 2008 Paralympic Games.[16] Online traffic on the APC’s website throughout the Beijing Games increased more than 500 percent over Athens and media coverage.[16] The Australian Paralympic Committee reported that there was a 65 per cent increase in Australian media coverage of the Games compared to the 2004 Games in Athens.[1] Independent research has also indicated that 64 percent of Australians followed the Beijing Paralympics, which indicates that APC's goal to broadcast the games to Australians over multiple platforms was achieve .[20]

The 2008 Paralympic Games also had television coverage by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). The ABC produced the largest, “coverage by an Australian broadcaster in the Paralympic Games history”.[21] There was 40 crew that traveled to Beijing so that the ABC was able to produce more there 120 hours of coverage, including 100 hours which were broadcast live.[21] It also included daily segments which showed highlights from the games and Australian athlete.[22] The highlights shown at 6pm where, "...pulling in an average audience of over 400,000 viewers".[23] The coverage of the games was shown over six platforms including television, online and radio. The ABC were, “…awarded Paralympic broadcaster of the year for the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games”.[24] Australian athlete Gerrard Gosens commented on the television coverage "When I look back to 1996 and the coverage that was there, it was very minimal. Today when you're looking at over 100 hours of ABC television coverage, that really has brought inspiration not only to many Australians, but in particular people who do have a physical disability and looking at the opportunities, not necessarily the obstacles of sport.

Female Media Coverage[edit]

Inconsistent media coverage between males and females has always been an issue in sport, even in coverage at the Paralympic Games.“In 2007, the Australian government made a pre-election commitment to provide A$1 million to the APC towards the coverage of the 2008 summer and 2010 winter Paralympic Games for the purpose of promoting female participation and role models”.[25] A study conducted for the APC found that the 2008 Beijing Paralympic Games, “…coverage of women at the Games in Australian media was broadly in line with their proportion of the Australian Team (45%) and their total medal success at the Games (37%)”.[25] Women’s sport coverage exceeded the media’s normal 2 percent allocation of females sport coverage.[25]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Australian Paralympic Committee Annual Report" (PDF). Australian Paralympic Committee. 2007–2008. Retrieved 13 June 2012.[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ Murdoch, Alex (5 September 2008). "Beijing Paralympics lose friendly tone in gold hunt". The Courier-Mail. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2008.
  3. ^ Australian Paralympic Committee. (2008). Australian Paralympic Committee Media Guide Beijing 2008 . Sydney: Australian Paralympic Committee
  4. ^ "Missing chair provides Paralympic scare". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2 September 2008. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Media Guide Beijing 2008 (PDF). Sydney: Australian Paralympic Committee. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  6. ^ Fitzgerald, Peter (2 September 2008). "Security's not peachy keen, but cycling hope Milton is". The Canberra Times. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
  7. ^ "Dual gold medallist withdraws from Paralympics". ABC News. 3 September 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
  8. ^ Hutson, M., & Speed, C. (2011). Sports Injuries . United States: Oxford University Press.
  9. ^ a b Rowing Australia . (2017). Paralympic Games. Retrieved October 15, 2017, from Rowing Australia : https://www.rowingaustralia.com.au/international/paralympic-games/
  10. ^ a b "Beijing 2008 Paralympic Game, Wheelchair rugby". Official Website of the Paralympic Movement. 2008. Retrieved 2012-10-26.
  11. ^ a b Beijing Foreign Affairs Office . (2008, February 19). Development of Olympic Venues and Related Facilities. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from Beijing International : http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Government/Mayor_office/Mayor_bulletin/t929892.htm
  12. ^ Brittain, Ian. From Stoke-Mandeville to Stratford: A History of the Summer and Winter Paralympic Games. Illinois: Common Ground, 2014
  13. ^ 2008 Beijing Olympic Games Action Plan: Construction of Olympic Games Competition Venues and Related Facilities. (2008). Chinese Law & Government, 41(4), 15-19.
  14. ^ a b Cashman, R., Harris, R., & Olympic Games. (2012). The Australian olympic caravan from 2000 to 2012 : A unique olympic events industry. Petersham, N.S.W.: Walla Walla Press.
  15. ^ a b Edwards, M. (2008, September 1). Paralympic struggling to attract sponsorship . Retrieved October 10, 2017, from The world today: http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2008/s2351836.htm
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Australian Paralympic Committee. (2008). Annual Report 2007/08. Sydney : Australian Paralympic Committee.
  17. ^ Toyota. (n.d). Toyota and the APC. Retrieved October 6, 2017, from Toyota: http://www.toyota.com.au/partnerships/australian-paralympic-committee
  18. ^ Australian Paralympic Committee. (N.D). Paralympic Talent Search Program Fact Sheet. Retrieved October 15, 2017, from http://websites.sportstg.com/get_file.cgi?id=1162927
  19. ^ a b Australian Paralympic Committee. (2017). About Us. Retrieved October 5, 2017, from Australian Paralympic Committee: https://www.paralympic.org.au/about-us/
  20. ^ Australian Paralympic Committee. (2010). Media Guide Vancouver 2010. Sydney : Australian Paralympic Committee.
  21. ^ a b International Paralympic Committee (IPC). (n.d). Paralympic Media Awards. Retrieved October 5, 2017, from Official Website of the Paralympic Movement : https://www.paralympic.org/the-ipc/awards/paralympic-media
  22. ^ Australian Paralympic Committee. (2008). Media Guide Beijing 2008. Sydney : Australian Paralympic Committee.
  23. ^ International Paralympic Committee. (2008, September 15). TV Coverage of Beijing 2008 Paralympics Exceeds Expectations. Retrieved October 15, 2017, from Official Website of the Paralympic Movement: https://www.paralympic.org/press-release/tv-coverage-beijing-2008-paralympics-exceeds-expectations
  24. ^ Legg, David and Keith Gilbert (eds). Paralympic Legacies. Champaign, IL: Common Ground, 2011
  25. ^ a b c Narr, T. (2016, September 15). Into the spotlight: media coverage of the Paralympic Games has come a long way. Retrieved October 7, 2017, from The Conversation : https://theconversation.com/into-the-spotlight-media-coverage-of-the-paralympic-games-has-come-a-long-way-65228