Australian Army Aviation

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Australian Army Aviation
Australian Army Aviation (badge).gif
Active 1960 – Present
Country Australia
Allegiance Australian Army
Branch Australian Regular Army
Type Field Army
Role

Aerial warfare and

Military supply chain management
Insignia
Badge AAAvnColour.jpg
Roundel Roundel of the Australian Army Aviation.svg

Australian Army Aviation (AAAvn) is a corps of the Australian Army, and was formed on 1 July 1968 with a strength of 106 officer pilots,[1] although it has a history dating back to 1911, when the Minister of Defence at the time, Senator George Pearce, decided there should be a flying school in the Defence Department.[2] The motto of the Australian Army Aviation corps is Vigilance.

The Aviation Corps utilises soldiers from various other Army corps. The Royal Australian Corps of Transport trains and provides air dispatchers, while the Royal Australian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers trains aircraft structural fitters, who maintain aircraft life support equipment, and avionics technicians. Members of the Aviation Corps are entitled to wear a sky blue beret.

Colours[edit]

AAAvn Colours

The design of the colour patch of the Australian Army Aviation Corps is based on the patch of the original Australian Army Flying Corps, from which the Aviation Corps was born. The three Aviation regiments have individual colour patches utilising the Corps patch. 1st Aviation Regiment's patch features a black rectangle in the centre of the Corps patch, 5th Aviation Regiment's patch features a black diamond in the centre, and 6th Aviation Regiment's patch includes a black oval.[3][4]

Equipment[edit]

Since November 2009 the Army's air assets are composed exclusively of rotary-wing aircraft (helicopters), the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) operating Australian Defence Force's fixed-wing fleet. A limited number of fixed-wing aircraft were used by Aviation Corps, mostly in a surveillance role. A ceremony was held at RAAF Base Townsville on 20 November 2009 to transfer the last three fixed-wing aircraft from the Army to the RAAF.[5]

Rotary-wing aircraft[edit]

An NHI example MRH-90 at the 2005 Australian Airshow
An Australian Army Tiger helicopter

The MRH 90 (Multi Role Helicopter 90, an Australian variant of the NHI NH90) will replace the 5th Aviation Regiment's Black Hawk fleet. The aircraft are designed for use in a troop-lift role.[6] The first test flight of an MRH-90 was conducted at Eurocopter’s flight test centre in Marignane, France on 28 March 2007. The first 13 of the total of 46 helicopters have been delivered but the remaining aircraft have been suspended until issues have been resolved.[7] The first four being built in the main plant in France, the remainder built in Brisbane by Australian Aerospace. The MRH-90 was chosen ahead of the UH-60M Black Hawk.[8]

The Tiger ARH (Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter) was designed to provide significant reconnaissance and fire support in a combined arms team and is equipped with Hellfire missiles, 70 mm rockets and cannons.[9] 22 Tigers will be delivered to the Army under the AIR 87 Project, built at the Australian Aerospace Brisbane facility. [10]

The S70A-9 Black Hawk is operated by B Sqn in 5 Avn Regt, 171 Avn Sqn in 6 Avn Regt, and the Army Aviation Training Centre (AAvnTC). Its tasks include tactical transport of infantry soldiers, search and rescue, medical evacuation, disaster relief and external carriage of heavy equipment including artillery howitzers and light vehicles. The Army's Black Hawks were manufactured in Australia by Hawker de Havilland, under licence from Sikorsky.

The CH-47D Chinook is operated by C Squadron, 5 Aviation Regiment. C Squadron was raised on the Army order of battle in June 1995, on the return of the Chinooks to Australia after re-manufacture by Boeing USA. The Chinooks' primary role is logistic and battlefield support. They can also be used in the troop-lift role. The current fleet of seven CH-47Ds is currently being replaced by 7 new CH-47Fs, the first of which was delivered in May 2015.[11]

The UH-1H Iroquois (Huey) was used for the transport of soldiers and equipment, search and rescue, civilian disaster relief and minor logistics. The Iroquois are operated by A Squadron, 5 Aviation Regiment and the School of Army Aviation. After 39 years of service with the ADF, the last Iroquois was retired on 21 September 2007.[12]

The Bell 206B-1 Kiowa has been in service with the Army since 1972; its main roles being observation and rotary flying training.[13] It was also utilised for the command and control of tactical aircraft, such as the F/A-18 and F-111. They often worked closely with artillery and armoured cavalry units. The Kiowa fleet is located in Oakey for use in training at the Army Aviation Training Centre. A portion of the Kiowa fleet are receiving an avionics upgrade and refurbishment (including electronic LCD displays and twin navigation and voice GPS units) during 2010–11. Upgrades to the seating under the Kiowa Energy Attenuating Seat Improvement Program (KEASIP) are ongoing to improve crash worthiness and pilot ergonomics.

Fixed-wing aircraft[edit]

One of three Beechcraft King Air 350s to serve with Army Aviation
A S-70 Blackhawk (left) and CH-47 Chinook (right)

Army Aviation operated fixed-wing aircraft for a period of almost 50 years, from taking delivery of Cessna 180s in 1961 until November 2009. 173 Surveillance Squadron, based at Oakey, was the last operator of fixed-wing aircraft, using three Beechcraft B300 King Air 350s in Command and Control, Surveillance, and Transport roles. Other aircraft types operated were the Pilatus Porter, the GAF Nomad and the de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter.[5][14]

Training[edit]

Army pilot[edit]

Pilots are very carefully selected and undergo an intense and rigorous training program to produce the best quality officers and pilots for the Australian Army Aviation (AAAvn) Corps.

Selection
Before training can begin, potential pilots must pass a battery of tests to determine their suitability to fly in the realm of military aviation. This includes aptitude testing, a multitude of hand-eye co-ordination tests, psychological evaluation, and numerous medical examinations (including ophthalmological and dental examinations) to maximise the quality and service longevity of selected potential future pilots. Throughout the selection process candidates are continually assessed for their character and suitability as future officers. Afterall, pilots are also officers and must display attributes of responsibility, integrity, professionalism, initiative, leadership, discipline, decisiveness, courage, morality, and loyalty at all times, to both their peers and to the men and women they lead.

Suitable applicants are further scrutinized, and only those elite candidates that display the requisite potential are progressed to the next phase of selection, called the Flight Screening Program (FSP), to deem if they are suitable to fly in the Army as officers. The FSP involves a two-week flying course at the Australian Defence Force's expense and discretion to assess the suitability of the candidate as a potential officer and pilot, in the air environment under conditions of intense flying and instructing. The candidates are also assessed for their officer qualities in addition to their ability to handle their platform in airspace.

Initial Officer Training
Once the candidate has passed the FSP the new recruit is enlisted as an Officer Cadet (rank OCDT) and begins their initial officers' training at the Australian Defence Force Academy before graduating to Royal Military College, Duntroon in Canberra for 12 months of intensive leadership training. Alternatively, a direct entry candidate will begin their training at Royal Military College, Duntroon (RMC-D). At RMC-D the cadet studies subjects such as Army tactics, military customs and ethics, drills, first aid, communication, weapons training, service discipline law, and leadership and management training, to name a few.

This course encompasses:
(i) approximately 6 weeks of training if undertaking the Specialist Service Officer (SSO) pilot scheme,
(ii) approximately 18 months of training if undertaking the General Service Officer (GSO) course as a direct entry cadet, or

(iii) 12 months of training after graduating from the Australian Defence Force Academy, undertaking the General Service Officer (GSO) course

Basic Flight Training
Upon graduating from RMC-D the pilot trainee begins their basic flight training course at the Basic Flying Training School (BFTS) in Tamworth for fixed-wing flight training of approximately 6 months duration on the CT-4B trainer aircraft (PAC CT/4 "parrot"). The BFTS course encompasses both an extensive ground training program (such as airmanship, aerodynamics, aircraft systems, aviation medicine, air power, air traffic control, radio, meteorology, navigation, morse code, instrumentation, and cockpit systems, etc.) as well as an intensive flight training course (including general flying, instrument flying, night flying, navigation, aerobatics, formation flying, and emergency handling). As part of the Basic Flying Training Course, Army pilot trainees complete the Intermediate Pilots Course (IPC) where navigational techniques are taught for Army graduates.

Basic Helicopter Training
Upon graduating from BFTS, students begin Helicopter Qualification Course (HQC) at the Oakey Army Aviation Centre in Oakey, Queensland, of approximately 6 months duration, flying the Bell 206B-1 Kiowa. Upon completion of HQC, pilot recruits are awarded their provisional Army flying badge ("flying wings") and promoted to the rank of Second Lieutenant if under the SSO scheme. (GSO candidates are promoted to Lieutenant upon graduation from RMC-D).

Operational Helicopter Training
After being awarded their flying wings, pilot trainees move on to their specific type of aircraft for Operational Helicopter Training. Although the type of operational aircraft flown is somewhat influenced by the trainee's preference for a particular aircraft, this decision is primarily at the discretion of the Qualified Flying Instructors (QFI's) that have closely observed the student's temperament, abilities, aptitudes and strong points in airmanship. This decision is also influenced by the needs of the Army, and ultimately the Army's need(s) to fulfil a particular role takes precedence over personal preference or interests.

Training to fly an operational helicopter requires that a student pilot undergo the Operational Type Transition Course (OTTC – of 3 to 4 months duration) and the Regimental Officers' Basic Course (ROBC – of 3 to 6 months duration depending on aircraft type) to effectively transition or convert the new pilot to their new role in the appointed aircraft type. The OTTC consists of up to 50 flying hours of transition training to acquaint the newly appointed pilot to their designated aircraft type. The ROBC consists of 30 to 40 hours of tactical flying (depending on helicopter type) to effectively teach the new pilot to opearte the aircraft in support of Army and ADF units. Upon completion of the ROBC, graduating trainees are promoted to the rank of Lieutenant and are posted to an operational aviation unit.

Aviation Corps trades[edit]

There are two specialisations available to soldiers in the Aviation Corps, Groundcrewman Aircraft Support and Groundcrewman Mission Support. Training for both is in addition to 80 days of basic training, undertaken at the Army Recruit Training Centre, Kapooka.

Groundcrewman aircraft support[edit]

Basic groundcrewman aircraft support training consists of three individual courses, totalling approximately 19 weeks. The first course conducted is a basic drivers course where soldiers gain qualifications in operating the Army Landrover 110 and Unimog truck. This lasts for 38 days and is held at Puckapunyal in Victoria. The next course to be completed is the two week bulk fuel tanker course held at the Army Logistic Training Centre at Bandiana in Victoria. This course involves instruction in operating bulk and portable refuelling equipment and fuel quality control. The final course, and longest in duration at 9 to 12 weeks is the forward arming and refuelling course, held at the Oakey Army Aviation Centre in Queensland. Here soldiers are taught aircraft refuelling and arming operation both in the barracks and field environment.[15]

After two years as a Groundcrewman, a soldier can request to be transferred to become helicopter aircrew as a "Loadmaster, Crew Chief". Throughout their career, Groundcrewman Aircraft Support also attend the following courses as part of their career development and trade proficiency:

  • Fuel Quality Control,
  • Explosive Ordnance Supervisor,
  • Air Portability Team Leader,
  • Destruction of Malfunctioned Explosive Ordnance,
  • Workplace Assessor.

Groundcrewman mission support[edit]

Training for groundcrewman mission support also consists of three courses, and runs for approximately 15 weeks. The first course, as with groundcrewman aircraft support, is the basic drivers course. The second course is a specialist combat communications course of four weeks duration, held at Oakey Army Aviation Centre. Here soldiers learn to use and maintain service radios, antenna theory and configuration. The second course is the six week command post operator course, also held at the Army Aviation Training Centre.

As with Groundcrewman aircraft support, soldiers employed as groundcrewman mission support may also attend further courses throughout their career. These include a comsec custodian course; an information systems course; an advanced combat communicators course; and a workplace assessor course.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "History of Australian Army Aviation". Fourays – Australian Army Aviation Association. Retrieved 2007-04-13. [dead link]
  2. ^ "History of Australian Army Aviation". Digger History. Archived from the original on 4 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  3. ^ "AFC Imperial Force Army Badge". Australian Flying Corps. Archived from the original on 2007-07-11. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  4. ^ "6th Aviation Regiment". Australian Army. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Hamilton, Eamon. "Fixed Wings Freed" Army, the soldiers' newspaper, No. 1227, 10 December 2009, p 6. Australian Department of Defence. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
  6. ^ Sgt Foxcroft, Sybelle (9 September 2004). "Army looks to Europe for troop-lift carrier". Army – The Soldiers' Newspaper. p. Page 1. 
  7. ^ "NH90 TTH operational configuration approved". Australian Aviation Magazine. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  8. ^ "First Australian NH90 Multi role helicopter (MRH90) successfully performed its maiden flight at Eurocopter in Marignane". GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on 14 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  9. ^ "Media Release: Army's Tiger armed reconnaissance helicopters arrive". Australian Department of Defence. Retrieved 2007-04-18. [dead link]
  10. ^ "DSTO and Eurocopter sign "Tiger" MOU". Australian Department of Defence. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  11. ^ "Acceptance of two CH-47D Chinook Helicopters". Ministerial press release. Department of Defence. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  12. ^ McSweeney, Cpl Mike (20 September 2007). "End for Hueys". Army: The Soldier's Newspaper (Australian Department of Defence). Retrieved 2007-10-06. 
  13. ^ Australian military aviation OrBat
  14. ^ ADF-serials List of Army aircraft retrieved 26 December 2009.
  15. ^ "Careers Explorer: Groundcrewman Aircraft Support". Defence Force Recruitment. Retrieved 2007-04-13. [dead link]
  16. ^ "Careers Explorer: Groundcrewman Mission Support". Defence Force Recruitment. Retrieved 2007-04-13. [dead link]
Preceded by
Royal Australian Infantry Corps
Australian Army Order of Precedence Succeeded by
Australian Army Band Corps