Australian diaspora

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Australian diaspora
Flag of Australia.svg
Regions with significant populations
Australian diaspora 310 854[1]
 United Kingdom 135,000[2]
 United States 93,000[3]
 European Union
(Greece, Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Ireland, France, Portugal, Spain, Poland)
 Greece 100,000 (Greek Australians)[5][6]
 China 100,000[7]
 New Zealand 70,000[8]
 Canada 35,000[9]
 Italy 30,000 (20,000 Italian Australians)[9][10]
 Lebanon 20,000–25,000 (Lebanese Australians)[11][12]
 Vietnam 22,000[13]
 Singapore 20,000[14][15]
 Thailand 20,000[16]
 United Arab Emirates 16,000[17]
 China 15,000[18]
 Germany 15,000[9]
 Netherlands 15,000[19]
 Papua New Guinea 15,000[20]
 Turkey 12,000[9]
 Indonesia 12,000[9]
 Japan 11,000[21]
 Ireland 10,000[22]
 South Africa 8,000[9]
 Israel 7,000[9]
 South Korea 7,000[23]
 Taiwan 7,000[24]
 Philippines 6,000[9]
 France 5,500[25]
 Saudi Arabia 5,000[26]
  Switzerland 5,000[27]
 Qatar 4,500[28]
 Cambodia 3,000–5,000[29]
 Malaysia 4,700[9]
 India 3,000–4,000[30]

The term Australian diaspora refers to the approximately 310,000 Australian citizens (approximately 1.3% of the population) who today live outside Australia.[31] The largest percentage of Australian expats (48%) are based in Europe, and the next largest percentage (24%) are in Asia.[32] The Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement enables Australians and New Zealanders to migrate between Australia and New Zealand.

Australian diaspora may also be used to refer to the population of Indigenous Australians who have been displaced within Australia – from their traditional homelands by colonisation, or from their families by child removal policies.[33][34][35][36][37][38]

History of Australians abroad[edit]

A survey in 2002 of Australians who were emigrating found that most were leaving for employment reasons.[39]

For the period 1999–2003, it was estimated that there were 346,000 Australian-born people living in other OECD countries: of these 96,900 lived in the United Kingdom, 65,200 lived in the United States and 42,000 lived in New Zealand.[39]

Origin of the term[edit]

The term Australian diaspora was used in reference to Australian citizens living abroad in a 2003 Committee for Economic Development of Australia (CEDA) research report, "Australia's Diaspora: Its Size, Nature and Policy Implications".[40] This report both identified the phenomenon and argued for an Australian government policy of maintaining active contact with the diaspora. The term has been picked up by others.[41]

In 2005, Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee (a standing committee) reported into the issue of Expatriate Australians and made recommendations that the "Australian Government needs to make greater efforts to connect with and engage our expatriate community".[42]

"Brain drain"[edit]

The diaspora has been the focus of policy concerns over a so-called "brain drain" from Australia. However, the 2003 CEDA report argued the phenomenon was essentially positive: rather than experiencing a "brain drain", Australia was in fact seeing both "brain circulation" as Australians added to their skills and expertise, and a "brain gain", as these skilled expatriates tended to return to Australia and new skilled immigrants were arriving.[40] Between 1999 and 2003, there were seven highly educated migrants to Australia for every one highly educated Australian who was living elsewhere in countries within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).[39] Levels of skilled immigration to Australia reflect Government policies to "practise a selective immigration policy based on human capital criteria".[43]

United Kingdom[edit]

During 1999–2003, 96,900 (or one third of all Australian expatriates), lived in the United Kingdom.[39] The 2011 UK Census recorded 113,592 residents born in Australia in England, 2,695 in Wales,[44] 8,279 in Scotland,[45] and 1,750 in Northern Ireland.[46] The Office for National Statistics estimates that 113,000 people born in Australia were resident in the UK in 2013.[47]


In Beijing, China there are 5,000 Australians.[48] In southern China there are 10,000 Australians.[49]

United States[edit]

In December 2001, the Department of Foreign Affairs estimated that there were 106,000 Australian citizens resident in the United States of America. The major places of residence were: 25,000 living in Los Angeles; 17,000 in San Francisco; 17,000 in Washington DC; and 15,000 in New York.[50] For the period 1999–2003, it was estimated that 22% of Australian expatriates, 65,200, were living in the United States.[39] According to a 2010 estimate, 40,000 Australians were in Los Angeles.[51]

Australian migration to the United States is greater than Americans going to Australia. At the 2006 census, 71,718 Australian residents declared that they were American-born,[52] a smaller population than the population estimate of Australians living in the United States.

Comparison with the expatriate populations of other countries[edit]

The ratio of expatriate Australians in 2005 was 2.8 Australian-born people aged 15 years or over per 100 Australian born people aged 15 years and over within Australia. This ratio is much lower than many other countries in the OECD – the highest ratios in 2005 were for Ireland (29 Irish-born people aged 15 years and over in other OECD countries for every 100 in Ireland) and for New Zealand (19 per 100). The Australian ratio was higher than that of the United States (less than one person in other OECD countries per 100 USA-born within the USA).[39]

Education levels of Australian expatriates were high: 44% of Australian expatriates in other OECD countries had a high level of education.[53] Japanese expatriates had the highest proportion, with 50% having a high level of education. 49% of expatriates from the USA had a high education as did 45% of expatriates from New Zealand.[39]

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ "UN Migration Profiles Australia (2013)". 
  2. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^
  5. ^ "Greeks Seeking Economic Opportunity Migrate to Australia". 27 December 2011. 
  6. ^ "ERT online, Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation". Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. 
  7. ^ "13102011speech – Australian Embassy, China". 13 October 2011. 
  8. ^ Sam Worthington. "Anzac Day AFL match the start of big things". 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Estimates of Australian citizens living overseas" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2008. 
  10. ^ "Australians in Italy: The long view". Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. 
  11. ^ "Diplomatic appointment – Ambassador to Lebanon, 8 September 2010, Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade". 8 September 2010. 
  12. ^ Simon Santow (6 February 2013). "Australia helps track down Bulgarian bombers". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 
  13. ^ "AsiaLIFE HCMC February 2013: Australians in Vietnam". 1 February 2013. 
  14. ^ "Lee Hsien Loong: Singapore in an Ever-More Connected World | Australia". Asia Society. 12 October 2012. 
  15. ^ "WA making most of Singapore love affair – The West Australian". Yahoo! News. 28 May 2012. 
  16. ^ "Speech to the Australian-Thai Chamber of Commerce, Bangkok – The Hon Stephen Smith MP, Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs". 3 July 2008. 
  17. ^ "Ambassador\'s Welcome – Australian Embassy". 
  18. ^ "13102011speech – Australian Embassy, China". 13 October 2011. 
  19. ^ "The Netherlands country brief – Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". 
  20. ^ "High alert in Papua New Guinea as defence chief Brigadier General Francis Agwi held". The Courier-Mail. 27 January 2012. 
  21. ^ "Third explosion hits Fukushima". 15 March 2011. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. 
  22. ^ ADvance, Dublin and London: Queensland – Work Live Play Networking Receptions
  23. ^ Evacuation plans for 7000 Australians living in South Korea as North prepares for nuclear strike against US
  24. ^ "ROC, Aussie ties 'dynamic,' says rep". China Post. 
  25. ^
  26. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2013. 
  27. ^ "Consular Services for Foreign Residents of Switzerland – AngloINFO Geneva, in the Geneva region (Switzerland)". 
  28. ^ "Qatar's population by nationality". bq magazine. 
  29. ^ "Party tomorrow at Navy Sports Grounds". 
  30. ^ Sruthijith KK. "Australians in India edgy over backlash". The Economic Times. 
  31. ^ "UN Migration Profiles Australia (2013)". 
  32. ^ Belinda Merhab (31 October 2013). "Aussie expats ditch Europe, head for Asia". Sydney Morning Herald. 
  33. ^ 'Archaeology, diaspora and decolonization' by Ian Lilley in Journal of Social Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 28–47 Published by Sage (2006)
  34. ^ Indigenous Experience Today by Marisol de la Cadena, Orin Starn, Published by Berg Publishers, 2007 ISBN 1-84520-518-9, ISBN 978-1-84520-518-8
  35. ^ The Pain of Unbelonging: Alienation and Identity in Australasian Literature By Sheila Collingwood-Whittick, Germaine Greer Published by Rodopi, 2007 ISBN 90-420-2187-X, 9789042021877 2003
  36. ^ The archaeology of ‘lost places’: ruin, memory and the heritage of the Aboriginal diaspora in Australia. By Rodney Harrison Historic Environment 17(1): 18–23
  37. ^ David Day (April 2008). "Disappeared". The Monthly: 70–72.
  38. ^ "Bringing them home: The 'Stolen Children' report". Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. 2005. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. Retrieved 8 January 2008. 
  39. ^ a b c d e f g "Australian expatriates in OECD countries". 4102.0 – Australian Social Trends, 2006. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 20 July 2006. Retrieved 29 October 2008. 
  40. ^ a b Hugo, Graeme; Dianne Rudd; Kevin Harris (2003). "CEDA Information Paper 80: Australia's Diaspora: Its Size, Nature and Policy Implications". CEDA (Committee for Economic Development of Australia). Archived from the original on 20 August 2006. Retrieved 22 August 2006. 
  41. ^ For example:
    Julianne Schultz, ed. (2004). Griffith Review : our global face: inside the Australian diaspora. Meadowbrook, Qld.: Griffith University. 
    Democratic Audit of Australia, Australian National University (2004). "New voting rights for the Australian diaspora". 
    "The Australian Diaspora in Britain since 1901: An Exploration (workshop agenda)". Monash Institute for the Study of Global Movements. 2005. Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. 
  42. ^ The Senate: Legal and Constitutional References Committee (2005). "They still call Australia home: Inquiry into Australian expatriates" (PDF). Department of the Senate,Parliament House, Canberra. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 January 2006. Retrieved 8 January 2006. 
  43. ^ Dumont, Jean-Christophe Dumont; Georges Lemaître (2005). "Counting immigrants and expatriates in OECD countries: a new perspective" (pdf (34 pages)). Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA. Retrieved 29 October 2008. 
  44. ^ "2011 Census: Country of birth (expanded), regions in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  45. ^ "Country of birth (detailed)" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  46. ^ "Country of Birth – Full Detail: QS206NI". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  47. ^ "Table 1.3: Overseas-born population in the United Kingdom, excluding some residents in communal establishments, by sex, by country of birth, January 2013 to December 2013". Office for National Statistics. 2 July 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.  Figure given is the central estimate. See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals.
  48. ^ "China on the cheap: Jetstar offers $149 one way to Beijing". The Australian. 14 July 2011. 
  49. ^
  50. ^ "Estimates of Australian Citizens Living Overseas as at December 2001" (PDF). Southern Cross Group (DFAT data). 14 February 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2008. 
  51. ^ Olivier, Ellen (12 September 2010). "Scene & Heard: Opening of Christian Dior boutique in South Coast Plaza". Los Angeles Times. 
  52. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics – Ethnic Media Kit
  53. ^ Notes on education levels from the ABS: (c) High level includes ISCED5A: Academic tertiary, ISCED5B: Vocational tertiary, ISCED 6: Advanced research. (d) Overall, 3% of OECD expatriates in the OECD had no information on educational attainment. These have been excluded from the total in calculating the proportion. (e) The migrant to expatriate ratio for people with a high level of education for a particular country is: the ratio of the number of migrants from other OECD countries with a high level of education living in that country, to the number of that country's expatriates with a high level of education.

Further reading[edit]

  • Graeme Hugo (13 February 2006). "An Australian Diaspora?". International Migration. International Organization for Migration. 44 (1): 105–133. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2435.2006.00357.x. 
  • Graeme Hugo (2006). "Australian experience in skilled migration". In Christiane Kuptsch; Pang Eng Fong; Eng Fong Pang. Competing for Global Talent. International Labour Organization. pp. 143–145. ISBN 9789290147763. 

External links[edit]