Australian non-residential architectural styles
Australian non-residential architectural styles are a set of Australian architectural styles that apply to buildings used for purposes other than residence and have been around only since the first colonial government buildings of early European settlement of Australia in 1788.
The following classifications are derived from Apperley, Irving and Reynolds (1989):
- 1 Old Colonial Period (1788–c. 1840)
- 2 Victorian period (ca. 1840–c. 1890)
- 2.1 Victorian Georgian
- 2.2 Victorian Regency
- 2.3 Victorian Egyptian
- 2.4 Victorian Academic Classical
- 2.5 Victorian Free Classical
- 2.6 Victorian Filigree
- 2.7 Victorian Mannerist
- 2.8 Victorian Second Empire
- 2.9 Victorian Italianate
- 2.10 Victorian Romanesque
- 2.11 Victorian Renaissance Revival
- 2.12 Victorian Byzantine
- 2.13 Victorian Academic Gothic
- 2.14 Victorian Free Gothic
- 2.15 Victorian Tudor (Jacobethan)
- 2.16 Victorian Rustic Gothic
- 2.17 Victorian Carpenter Gothic
- 3 Edwardian period (ca. 1890s–1910)
- 4 Federation period (ca. 1890–ca. 1915)
- 4.1 Federation Academic Classical
- 4.2 Federation Free Classical
- 4.3 Federation Second Empire
- 4.4 Federation Filigree
- 4.5 Federation Anglo-Dutch
- 4.6 Federation Romanesque
- 4.7 Federation Gothic
- 4.8 Federation Warehouse
- 4.9 Federation Queen Anne
- 4.10 Federation Free Style
- 4.11 Federation Arts and Crafts
- 4.12 Federation Bungalow
- 5 Inter-War period (ca. 1915–ca. 1940)
- 5.1 Inter-war Georgian Revival
- 5.2 Inter-war Beaux Arts
- 5.3 Inter-war Stripped Classical
- 5.4 Inter-war Commercial Palazzo
- 5.5 Inter-war Mediterranean
- 5.6 Inter-war Art Deco
- 5.7 Federation Skyscraper Gothic
- 5.8 Inter-war Chicagoesque
- 5.9 Inter-war Functionalist & Moderne
- 5.10 Interwar Gothic
- 5.11 Inter-war Old English (20th Century Tudorbethan)
- 5.12 Federation Functionalist & Moderne
- 6 Post-War Period (c. 1940–1960)
- 7 Late Twentieth-Century Period 1960–2000
- 8 21st-century architecture
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Old Colonial Period (1788–c. 1840)
- Old Colonial Georgian; Old Colonial Regency; Old Colonial Grecian; Old Colonial Gothic Picturesque
Hyde Park Barracks, Sydney. Old Colonial Georgian. Completed in 1819
The Old Windmill, Brisbane; Completed 1824. (Brisbane's oldest building)
The Grange, Campbell Town, Tasmania, 1847.
Sydney Mint. Sydney. Completed 1816. The oldest public building in Australia.
The former Berrima court house, completed in 1838, in the Colonial Greek Revival style
The former government stables, now the Sydney Conservatorium of Music, completed in 1821, and a castellated example of the style.
Victorian period (ca. 1840–c. 1890)
15 styles all prefaced by "Victorian":
- Georgian, Regency, Egyptian, Academic Classical, Free Classical, Filigree, Mannerist, Second Empire, Italianate, Romanesque, Byzantine, Academic Gothic, Free Gothic, Tudor, Rustic Gothic, Carpenter Gothic
Victorian Academic Classical
Victorian Free Classical
National Hotel, Western Australia; built in the late 1800s.,
North Adelaide Congregational Church; completed in 1872.
Railway station. Ballarat, Victoria; completed in 1888.
Town Hall in Fremantle, Western Australia.
Sydney Trades Hall; completed 1888.
Victoria Hotel in Albert Park, Victoria; completed 1888.
Reid's Coffee Palace. Ballarat, Victoria. Completed 1886.
Notable examples in Australia include: Culwulla Chambers (Sydney); Former Rocks Police Station (Sydney); Block Arcade (Melbourne); Stalbridge Chambers (Melbourne), National Bank Pall Mall (Bendigo); RESI Chambers (Melbourne); Lygon Buildings, Medley Hall (Carlton, Victoria); Former Money Order Post Office and Savings Bank (Melbourne); Mutual Store (Melbourne);
Victorian Second Empire
Notable examples include: Sydney Town Hall (Sydney); Hotel Windsor (Melbourne); Princess Theatre (Melbourne); Former Records Office (Melbourne); Melbourne General Post Office (Melbourne); Melbourne Town Hall (Melbourne); East Melbourne Synagogue (East Melbourne, Victoria); Royal Exhibition Building (Carlton, Victoria); Collingwood Town Hall (Collingwood, Victoria); South Melbourne Town Hall (South Melbourne, Victoria); Malvern Town Hall (Malvern, Victoria); Former Rechabite Hall (Prahran, Victoria); Brunswick Town Hall (Brunswick, Victoria); Camberwell Town Hall (Camberwell, Victoria); Bendigo Town Hall (Bendigo, Victoria); Shamrock Hotel (Bendigo Victoria); Bendigo Courthouse (Bendigo, Victoria); Bendigo Post Office (Bendigo, Victoria); Institute of Technology (Bendigo, Victoria); Queensland Parliament House (Brisbane)
Sydney Town Hall built 1869-89; Victorian Second Empire style
East Melbourne Synagogue. East Melbourne, Victoria. Completed 1877
Royal Exhibition Building, Melbourne, completed 1880.
Former Rechabite Hall. Prahran, Victoria. Completed 1888.
Bendigo Post Office. Bendigo, Victoria. Completed 1892
Bendigo Court House. Bendigo, Victoria. Completed 1892
Grand Hotel. Healesville, Victoria
Railway station, Albury, New South Wales, built 1881;
Royal Hotel, Queenscliff, Victoria
Grand Hotel, Yarra Glen, Victoria
Chief Secretary's building. Sydney. Completed 1886.
Burns Philp Building. Sydney. Completed 1901.
Victorian Renaissance Revival
Jubilee Building, Perth, opened 1899
Victorian Academic Gothic
Victorian Free Gothic
Perth Town Hall. Completed 1870
ANZ Bank, Collins Street Melbourne. Completed 1883
Government House, Sydney. Completed 1847.
Victorian Tudor (Jacobethan)
Old Arts Building, University of Melbourne. Completed 1857.
Main Quadrangle, University of Sydney. Completed 1862.
Victorian Rustic Gothic
Victorian Carpenter Gothic
Christ the King church. Graceville, Queensland
Edwardian period (ca. 1890s–1910)
Notable examples include the Lands Administration Building in Brisbane, the Queen Victoria Hospital, Melbourne (main pavilion, now Queen Victoria Women's Centre), the Commonwealth Offices, Treasury Place, Melbourne, the Department of Education building in Sydney (1912) and the General Post Office in Hobart.
Department of Education building, Sydney.
Federation period (ca. 1890–ca. 1915)
12 styles, each style name prefaced by "Federation":
- Academic Classical, Free Classical, Filigree, Anglo-Dutch, Romanesque, Gothic, Carpenter Gothic, Warehouse, Queen Anne, Free Style, Arts and Crafts, Bungalow
Federation Academic Classical
The Art Gallery of New South Wales, completed 1906
Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales, completed 1910
Newcastle Post Office, completed 1903
Federation Free Classical
Notable examples include: Sydney Hospital (Sydney), Taronga Zoo Pavilion (Sydney), the main terminus building of the Central railway station in Sydney, Flinders Street station (Melbourne), Sacred Heart Church (St Kilda, Victoria), Read's Emporium (Prahran, Victoria), Old Royal Hotel (Williamstown, Victoria), the former Queensland Lands Administration Building (Brisbane).
Flinders Street station, Melbourne, completed 1910
Former Read's Emporium, Prahran, completed 1914
Old Royal Hotel, Williamstown, with arts and crafts influences
Sydney Central Station, completed 1906
Sacred Heart Church, St Kilda, completed 1891
Sydney Hospital, completed 1894
Bankstown Reservoir, completed 1920
Perth Institute of Contemporary Arts Building, completed 1896
Federation Second Empire
Salvation Army Building, Brisbane, Queensland
The ASN Co building, a very early and rare pre-Federation version of the style, completed in 1885.
St Nicholas Hospital buildings, Carlton.
Eastern Hill Fire Station, East Melbourne, completed in 1893.
Winfield Building, Collins Street, Melbourne, also demonstrates Queen Anne traits, completed in 1891.
Perseverance Hotel, Fitzroy.
Queen Victoria Building, Sydney, completed in 1898.
Bairnsdale Court House, Bairnsdale, completed in 1893.
Perth Mint, , completed in 1899.
St Mary's Roman Catholic Church, Bairnsdale, completed in 1913.
Camperdown Memorial Clock Tower in Camperdown, Victoria, completed in 1897.
Sacred Heart Cathedral in Bendigo, Victoria, completed in 1896.
Federation Carpenter Gothic
The Uniting Church at Narooma, New South Wales, completed in 1914.
The Big Store. Prahran, Victoria. Completed 1902, an early and exuberant example of the style.
Federation Queen Anne
The Austral Buildings, Collins Street, Melbourne; completed in 1891.
Federation Free Style
Former Mechanics Institute. Prahran, Victoria.
Provincial Hotel. Ballarat, Victoria., Completed 1909. A fanciful freestyle composition with art nouveau elements.
Dimmey's. Cremorne, Victoria.
York Post Office. York, Western Australia.
Federation Arts and Crafts
Victorian Artists Society, Albert Street, East Melbourne, Victoria
Fire Station, Glebe, Sydney (designed by Walter Liberty Vernon)
Former Post & Telegraph Offices. Windsor, Victoria.
The Jenolan Caves House (designed by Vernon).
Inter-War period (ca. 1915–ca. 1940)
16 styles, each style name prefaced by "Inter-War":
- Georgian Revival, Academic Classical, Free Classical, Beaux-Arts, Stripped Classical, Commercial Palazzo, Mediterranean, Spanish Mission, Chicagoesque, Functionalist & Modern, Art-Deco, Skyscraper Gothic, Romanesque, Interwar Gothic, Old English, California Bungalow
Deepwater's Eclipse Theatre, NSW, 2009.
Inter-war Georgian Revival
Albert Hall, Canberra, opened 1928.
Inter-war Academic Classical
Inter-war Free Classical
CML Building, Geelong; completed in 1923.
Inter-war Beaux Arts
National Theatre. St Kilda, Victoria. Completed 1920.
Herald and Weekly Times Building. Flinders Street, Melbourne
Argus Building. LaTrobe Street, Melbourne. Completed 1927. Features large giant order columns with Egyptian decorative motifs
GPO building, Forrest Place, Perth. Completed 1923.
Inter-war Stripped Classical
Town Hall in Petersham, New South Wales, designed by Rudder & Grout in 1938;
Inter-war Commercial Palazzo
MacArthur Central. cnr Queen and Edward Streets, Brisbane. Completed 1934.
Sydney and Melbourne buildings, City Centre, Australian Capital Territory; commenced building 1920s
St Kilda Sea Baths. St Kilda, Victoria
Markets. West End, Queensland.
Inter-war Art Deco
Australian War Memorial; building completed 1941; Byzantine architecture style with strong styling elements of art deco throughout
Palais Theatre, Melbourne; completed 1927; Strong Byzantine influences
Forgan Smith Buildings and Great Court. University of Queensland. Completed 1927.
Federation Skyscraper Gothic
Former Masonic Club. Flinders Street, Melbourne
Love and Lewis building. Prahran, Victoria. Completed 1928.
Dovers Building, by Hugh Ralston Crawford completed 1908.
WD and HO Wills Building, Perth. Completed 1927.
Inter-war Functionalist & Moderne
Inter-war Old English (20th Century Tudorbethan)
Federation Functionalist & Moderne
The functionist and moderne style often used combinations of blonde and brown bricks in linear vertical or horizontal patterns. Notable examples include: Museum of Contemporary Art (Sydney); Captain's Flat Hotel (NSW); Russell Street Police Headquarters (Melbourne); Astor Theatre (St Kilda, Victoria); Ballarat Law Courts (Ballarat);
Post-War Period (c. 1940–1960)
5 styles, each style name prefaced by "Post-War":
- Ecclesiastical, International, Modern
Late Twentieth-Century Period 1960–2000
14 styles, each style name prefaced by "Late Twentieth Century":
- Stripped Classical, Ecclesiastical, International, Organic, Brutalist, Structuralist, Late Modern, Post Modern, Immigrants' Nostalgic
Australia Square, Sydney. Completed 1967. An iconic office building.
Optus Centre, Melbourne. Completed 1975.
MLC Centre, Sydney. Completed 1977.
Edmund Barton Building, Canberra. Completed 1974
Perth Council House, opened 1963.
Parliament House, Canberra. A mixture of Organic and contemporary stripped classical elements. Completed 1988.
Notable examples include: Sydney Masonic Centre/Civic Tower (Sydney); AAPT Centre (Sydney); Sydney Law School (Sydney); Cameron Offices (Canberra); High Court of Australia (Canberra); State Library of Queensland (Brisbane); Queensland Performing Arts Centre (Brisbane); Law Courts (Brisbane); Suncorp Metway Plaza (Brisbane); National Gallery of Victoria (Melbourne); Total carpark (Melbourne); World Trade Center (Melbourne); Harold Holt Memorial Swimming Pool (Malvern, Victoria); St Kilda Public Library (St Kilda, Victoria); Plumbing Trades Employees Union of Australia Building (Melbourne); University of Melbourne Faculty of Engineering (Melbourne); Metropolitan Fire Brigade (East Melbourne, Victoria); R.A.W. Woodgate Centre (Kew, Victoria); UTS Tower (University of Technology, Sydney); St Anthony's Church (Marsfield, Sydney). See Category:Brutalist architecture in Australia.
Sydney Opera House is often difficult to classify. Completed 1973.
Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre. Completed 1995. Complex load bearing hyperbolic paraboloid roof design, a precursor to 21st Century structuralism.
A subset of postmodernism is mock-historicism tries to imitate historic styles using modern materials to the point where it is difficult to tell them apart from historic buildings. The most imitated styles are those that are easiest to clone (including the Georgian style).
Chifley Tower (completed 1992). Sydney. Inspired by interwar North American skyscraper
Boundary Street retail buildings (completed 1999). West End, Queensland. A cartoonish take on Victorian Mannerism.
Westin Hotel (completed 2000). Collins Street, Melbourne. Evocative of the Second Empire.
Notable examples include Green Building RMIT; Deakin University main building; Australian Centre for Contemporary Art; Gottlieb House (Melbourne)
Auburn Gallipoli Mosque. Auburn, New South Wales. Completed in 1999
Several new and continued 20th-century styles, all prefaced with "21st-century" - Deconstructivist, Post modern, Structuralist, Sustainable, Modern
Federation Square. Melbourne. Completed 2002.
Advanced structuralism facilitated by Computer Aided Design
Notable examples in Australia include: 60L (Melbourne); CH2 (Melbourne); K2 Apartments (Windsor, Victoria); Dunc Gray Velodrome (Sydney); Forest EcoCentre (Tasmania); Rozak House (Noonamah, Northern Territory).
Brisbane Square. Brisbane; completed 2006.
Queensland Gallery of Modern Art. Brisbane; completed 2008.
Brookfield Place, Perth, completed 2012.
- "Goulburn Court House and Residence". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- "Lands Department Building". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage.
- "Bank of NSW". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00080. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
- "Bricks & Brass: Edwardian Style". Bricksandbrass.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
- "Department of Education Building". NSW State Heritage Register. Office of Environment & Heritage, Government of New South Wales. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- "Central Railway Station and Sydney Terminal Group". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
- "Corn Exchange". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01619. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Apperly, Richard; Robert Irving; Peter Reynolds (1989). A pictorial guide to identifying Australian architecture (Paperback, 1994 ed.). Sydney, Australia: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-207-18562-5.
- Ulrike Laule, Rolf Toman, Achim Bednorz - Architecture of the Middle Ages - Background to the Gothic Revival style.
- George Wilkie - Building Your Own Home - Section on Architectural Styles
- sydneyarchitecture.com Chronology of Styles in Australian Architecture- http://www.sydneyarchitecture.com/STYLES/search-style.htm
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- Photo of St Paul's Cathedral taken from the steps of Flinders Street Station[permanent dead link]
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